Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-3-baltimore-braila >> Blarney to Boat

Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

Loading


Blarney
Blarney, A Castle And Town In County Cork, Ireland, 5m. North-west Of The City Of Cork On The Great Southern Railway. Pop. (1926) 699. It Manufactures Tweed. The Castle, Built, C. 1446, By Cormac Mccarthy, Has Walls As Much As I8ft. Thick. The "blarney Stone" In The Castle Is Reputed ...

Blasphemy
Blasphemy, Literally, Defamation Or Evil Speaking, But More Peculiarly Restricted To An Indignity Offered To The Deity By Words Or Writing. By The Mosaic Law Death By Stoning Was The Punishment For Blasphemy (lev. Xxiv. 16) . The 77th Novel Of Justinian Assigned Death As The Penalty, As Did Also ...

Blast Furnace
Blast Furnace. The Discovery That Metallic Iron Can Be Reduced From The Natural Iron Mineral With The Aid Of Carbon And Heat Is Lost In The Mists Of Antiquity. In The Middle Ages Iron Was Made In Furnaces Of Relatively Small Size, In Which Pure Ore Was Reduced To A ...

Blasting
Blasting, The Process Of Rending Or Breaking Apart A Solid Body, Such As Rock, By Exploding Within It Or In Contact With It Some Explosive Substance. The Explosion Is Accompanied By The Sudden Development Of Gas At A High Temperature And Under A Tension Sufficiently Great To Overcome The Resistance ...

Blastocoele
Blastocoele, The Name Applied To The "segmentation Cavity" Formed In The Fertilized Ovum By Its Division Into Numer Ous Cells. In The Blastula (q.v.) The Blastocoele Is Often Large, Par Ticularly In Eggs Without Much Yolk; In Heavily-yolked Eggs There May Be No Blastocoele Visible. On The Formation Of The ...

Blastomere
Blastomere, The Term Used To Denote Any Of The Cells Resulting From The Segmentation Of The Fertilized Egg (zygote, Q.v.). See Embryology. ...

Blastula
Blastula, The Stage In The Development Of The Fertilized Egg Before Invagination (in-pushing Of One End) Or Epiboly (over Growth Of One Pole By The Cells From The Other) Have Produced A Gastrula (q.v.). The Blastula Of Lightly-yolked Eggs Contains A Large Segmentation Cavity, The Blastocoele (q.v.). See Embry ...

Blaydon
Blaydon, Urban District, And Manufacturing Town, Dur Ham, England, On The Tyne, 4m. W. Of Newcastle By The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1881) 10,687; (1931) 32,259. Its Situation Very Frequently Involved It In Border Warfare. Near By Is The Beautiful Old Mansion Of Stella, And Below It Stellaheugh, To Which The ...

Blaze
Blaze, A Fire Or Bright Flame (a.s. Blaese, A Torch). The Use Of The Word For The White Mark On The Face Of A Horse Or Cow, And The American Use For A Mark Made On A Tree By Cutting Off A Piece Of The Bark Is Akin To The ...

Blazing Star
Blazing Star, The Name Given In North America To Va Rious Plants With Conspicuous Flowers, Especially To The Button Snakeroot, Colic-root And Devil's-bit. ...

Blazon
Blazon, A Heraldic Shield, A Coat Of Arms Properly "de Scribed" According To The Rules Of Heraldry, Hence The Proper Heraldic Description Of Such A Coat. The O.fr. Blazon Seems Originally To Have Meant A Shield For Self Defence, But This Is Difficult To Reconcile With The Generally Accepted Derivation ...

Bleachers
Bleachers, An American Term Given To The Uncovered Benches Surrounding The Outfield Of A Baseball Diamond. The Name Probably Originated In The Fact That The Seats Are Not Protected From The Sun, With The Result That Their Occupants Literally Go Through A Bleaching Process While Watching A Baseball Game. Despite ...

Bleaching Of Cotton
Bleaching Of Cotton Cotton Is Bleached In The Raw State (loose Cotton) As Yarn (cops, Hanks, Or Warps) And In The Piece. The Aim Of The Bleacher Is To Remove As Far As Possible All The Impurities Present In The Cotton Without Injuring The Fibre, And Thus Obtaining Pure Cellu ...

Bleaching Of Linen
Bleaching Of Linen The Bleaching Of Linen Is A Much More Complicated And Tedious Process Than The Bleaching Of Cotton. This Is Due In Part To The Fact That In Linen The Impurities Amount To 2o% Or More Of The Weight Of The Fibre, Whereas In Cotton They Do Not ...

Bleaching Of Other Vegetable
Bleaching Of Other Vegetable Fibres China Grass Is Bleached Like Cotton, And Hemp Like Linen, But The Latter Fibre Is Seldom Bleached. In The Case Of Jute Severe Treatment With Alkali Is Avoided, And The Goods Are Subjected To Chemicking With Sodium Hypochlorite And Souring Only. Straw Is Bleached By ...

Bleaching Of Silk And
Bleaching Of Silk And Other Fabrics Raw Silk Has A Comparatively Dull Appearance, Which Is Due To The Coating Of Sericine Or Silk Gum, Which Is Present To The Extent Of About 19-25%. This Is Removed By Treating The Silk With 3o% Of Its Weight Of Soap Dissolved In Water ...

Bleaching Of Wool
Bleaching Of Wool In The Case Of Woollen Goods It Is Not Possible To Obtain The Degree Of Whiteness Which Is Characteristic Of Well Bleached Cot Ton Or Linen, But Considerable Improvement In The Appearance Is Effected Either By Treating The Wool With Sulphurous Acid Or By Means Of Hydrogen ...

Bleaching Powder
Bleaching Powder. It Has Long Been Known That Chlorine And Certain Chlorine Compounds Possess The Property Of Bleaching. A Solution Of Chlorine In Water Was Prepared For This Purpose In 1785; A Solution Made By Passing Chlorine Into So Dium Or Potassium Carbonate, And Known As `'eau De Javelle," Was ...

Bleaching
Bleaching. This Term Implies The Whitening Of Objects Or Depriving Them Of Colour. In Its Industrial Application, How Ever, The Term Signifies Not Only The Removal Of The Natural Colour But Other Impurities From Cotton, Linen, Wool, Silk And Other Fibres, Paper-pulp, Bees' Wax, And Some Oils. The Removal Of ...

Bleak
Bleak (alburnus Lucidus), A Small, Slender, Silvery Fish Of The Cyprinid Family, Found In The Rivers Of Europe. The Scales Are Used In The Manufacture Of Artificial Pearls, Especially In France. ...

Blende Or Sphalerite
Blende Or Sphalerite, A Naturally Occurring Zinc Sulphide, Zns, And An Important Ore Of Zinc. The Name Blende Was Used By G. Agricola In 1546, And Is From The 'german, Blenden, To Blind, Or Deceive, Because The Mineral Resembles Lead-ore In Ap Pearance But Contains No Lead, And Was Consequently ...

Blenheim
Blenheim (ger. Blindheim), A Village Of Bavaria, Ger Many, In The District Of Swabia, On The Left Bank Of The Danube, 3om. N.e. From Ulm By Rail, A Few Miles Below Hochstadt. Pop. 700. It Was The Scene Of The Defeat Of The French And Bavarians Under Marshals Tallard And ...

Blenny
Blenny, A Name Generally Given To Any Fish Of The Blen Nioid Group, In Which The Pelvic Fins Are Jugular In Position And Have The Rays Reduced In Number. The Wolf-fish, Like The Viviparous Blenny (zoarces) And The Kelp-fishes (clinidae), Is A Blennioid. The Family Blenniidae Contains Numerous Small Species ...

Blera
Blera (mod. Bieda), Ancient Etruscan Town On The Via Clodia, About 32m. N.n.w. Of Rome. It Is On A Long, Narrow Tongue Of Rock At The Junction Of Two Deep Glens. Two Ancient Bridges Both Belong To The Via Clodia; Many Rock-hewn Tombs Imitate Houses, With Beams And Rafters Represented ...

Blesbok
Blesbok, An African Antelope (alcephalus Albifrons) Allied To The Hartebeest (q.v.). See Antelope. ...

Blickling Homilies
Blickling Homilies, An Anglo-saxon Ms. Of The Time Of Aelfred And Aelfric, Consisting Of Sermons And Legends. The Originals Are At Blickling Hall, Aylsham, Norfolk, England; They Were Edited For The Early English Text Society By Richard Morris. ...

Blida
Blida, A Town Of Algeria, In The Department Of Algiers, 32 M. By Railway S.w. From Algiers, On The Line To Oran. Pop. (i931) 24,119. It Lies Surrounded With Orchards And Gardens, 63o Ft. Above The Sea, At The Base Of The Atlas, On The South Edge Of The Fertile ...

Blind Hookey
Blind Hookey, A Game Of Chance, Played With A Full Pack Of Cards. The Deal, Which Is An Advantage, Is Decided As At Whist, The Cards Being Shuffled And Cut As At Whist. The Dealer Gives A Parcel Of Cards To Each Player Including Himself. Each Player Puts The Amount ...

Blind Pool
Blind Pool, In The United States An Arrangement By Which Several Individuals, Firms Or Corporations Entrust Their Interests Or Their Funds To The Direction And Management Of One Person, Who Is Authorized To Carry Out A Secret Deal Without Instructions Or Interference From The Others. Often The Pool Agreement Provides ...

Blind Spot
Blind Spot, The Place Of Entry Of The Optic Nerve Into The Retina, An Area Insensitive To Light With A Diameter In Man Of About One-twelfth Of An Inch, Lying About 1 5 ° From The Middle Of The Yellow Spot On The Nasal Side. In Binocular Vision The Spot ...

Blindage
Blindage, A Temporary Wooden Screen Faced With Earth For Protection Against The Effect Of Projectiles (from Fr. Blinder, To Blind). ...

Blinding
Blinding, A Form Of Punishment Anciently Common In Many Lands. It Wgs Resorted To By The Roman Emperors In Their Persecution Of The Christians. The Method Of Destroying The Sight Varied. Sometimes A Mixture Of Lime And Vinegar, Or Barely Scald Ing Vinegar Alone, Was Poured Into The Eyes. Sometimes ...

Blindness
Blindness. The World War Gave An Impetus To The Move Ment For The Emancipation Of The Blind That Had Begun In The I8th Century. Every Country Involved In The Holocaust Was Driven To Face The Problem Presented By A Number Of Vigorous Citizens, Normal In Every Way But Deprived Of ...

Blindworm
Blindworm, The Name Applied In Great Britain To The Legless Lizard Angius Fragilis (see Slow Worm) And In America To Several Allied Species, Of Which The Best Known Is The Glass Snake (ophiosaurus Ventralis), Which Ranges From Illinois To Florida And Mexico. All Possess The Power Of Breaking Off The ...

Blink Microscope
Blink Microscope, An Auxiliary Astronomical Instru Ment. Two Photographic Plates Of The Same Star-field Taken At Different Epochs Are Placed In The Machine And Viewed One With One Eye And The Other With The Other Eye, And Adjusted As In A Stereoscope So That A Single Visual Impression Is Given. ...

Blister Steel
Blister Steel, A Special Variety Of Steel Made By The Cementation Process, In Which, Under Great Heat, Iron Is Changed Into Steel By The Penetration Of Carbon Into Its Substance. Bars Of Wrought Iron Are Brought Into Contact With Charcoal In A Closed Furnace For A Week Or Ten Days ...

Blister
Blister, A Small Vesicle Filled With Serous Fluid Raised On The Skin By A Burn, By Rubbing On A Hard Surface, As On The Hand In Rowing, Or By Other Injury ; Also Used Of A Similar Condition Caused Artificially, By The Application Of Mustard, Of Various Kinds Of Fly ...

Blizzard
Blizzard (origin Probably Onomatopoeic, C F . "blast," "bluster") , An Intensely Cold Wind Of Gale Force Filling The Air With Fine Dry Snow, Part Of Which May Have Been Lifted From The Snow Covered Ground. The Phenomenon Is Practically Confined To Polar Lands And Large Land Areas Of The ...

Block And Tackle
Block And Tackle, One Of The Most Useful And Ex Tensively Applied Of Mechanical Devices. The Principle Is Repre Sented At A In The Diagram, Showing The Suspension Of A Load \'v By Two "parts" Or "falls" Of Rope, So That A Weight Of I Lb. Applied At P Will ...

Block Party
Block Party, In The United States, A Party Held On The Side-walks Surrounding Or The Street Between Two City Blocks. During The World War The Custom Of Giving Parties In The Streets For The Benefit Of Wartime Activities Arose In The Cities Of The United States. With The Permission Of ...

Block
Block, A Piece Of Wood. The Word Is Used In Various Senses, E.g., The Block Upon Which People Were Beheaded, The Block Or Mould Upon Which A Hat Is Shaped, A Pulley-block, A Printing-block, Etc. From The Sense Of "obstruction" Comes A "block" In Traffic, A Block In Any Proceedings. ...

Blockade Economic
Blockade : Economic : See Rationing Of Neutrals (blockade) ; Restriction Of Enemy Supplies Committee; Blockade, Ministry Of. ...

Blockade In The World
Blockade In The World War Light Torpedo Craft, Submarines, Mines, And Aircraft Have Made It Impossible To Maintain A Close Blockade As In Old Days, And In The World War Great Britain And Her Allies Were Compelled To Find Means Of Making Their Blockade Effective With The Squadrons At A ...

Blockade
Blockade Has Been Defined As "an Act Of War Carried Out By The Warships Of A Belligerent, Detailed To Prevent Access To Or Departure From A Defined Part Of The Enemy's Coast." It Differs From A "pacific Blockade" (q.v.) Inasmuch As The Latter Is Not Strictly An Operation Of War ...

Blockhouse
Blockhouse, In Fortification, A Small Roofed Work Serv Ing As A Fortified Post For A Small Garrison. The Word, Common Since I Soo, Is Of Uncertain Origin, And Was Applied To What Is Now Called A Fort D'arret, A Detached Fort Blocking The Access To A Land Ing, Channel, Pass, ...

Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein (bloom'fon-tin), Capital Of The Orange Free State, U. Of S. Africa, 29° 7' S., 26° 13' E. 4,558 Feet Above Sea-level. Distance By Rail From Port Elizabeth 450m., From Dur Ban 514, From Cape Town 75c. Pop. (19 26) With Suburbs, 22,587 White, 23,50o Coloured. White Pop. (1931) 28,503. ...

Blois
Blois, Central France, Capital Of The Department Of Loir-et Cher, 35m. S.w. Of Orleans, On The Railway Between That City And Tours. Pop. (1931) 19,679. It Is Situated In A Wooded District On The Right Bank Of The Loire, Stretching Up The Slopes Of The Hills On Either Side. Blois ...

Blondin
Blondin 0824-1897), French Tight-rope Walker And Acro Bat, Was Born At St. Omer, France, On Feb. 28,1824, And Died In London On Feb. 19, 1897. His Real Name Was Jean Francois Gravelet. When Five Years Old He Was Sent To The Ecole De Gym Nase, At Lyons, And, After Six ...

Blood Pigments
Blood Pigments The Red Pigment Of The .corpuscles, Which Is Responsible For Their Capacity To Carry Oxygen, Is Called Haemoglobin. It Consists Of A Compound Of A Protein "globin" With A Crystalline Substance Haematin. ...

Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure, The Hydrostatic Pressure Under Which The Blood Exists In The Arteries And Veins Of Human Beings And Animals. This Pressure Was First Measured By The Rev. Dr. Stephen Hales, In 1733. Hales Connected The Femoral Artery Of A Horse To A Glass Tube 9 Ft. In Length. When ...

Blood Transfusion
Blood Transfusion, The Term Used In Medical Litera Ture For The Process Of Transferring The Blood From The Circulation Of One Living Animal To That Of Another. The First Authentic Record Of It Was Not Made Until The Middle Of The I7th Century. A Floren Tine Physician, Francesco Folli, Claimed ...

Blood
Blood. The General Principle On Which The Chemical Life Of The Body Is Conducted Is That Each Living Cell Carries Out In Its Own Substance All Those Chemical Processes Necessary To Its Ex Istence. Therefore All The Materials Which It Requires Must Be Carried To It And All Those Which ...

Bloodless Surgery
Bloodless Surgery. The Method Originated By Lorenz Is Employed In Orthopaedics And, Strictly Speaking, Is Not Bloodless, For The Bruising That May Result Is Evidence Of Ruptured Blood-vessels ; A Better Term Would Be Woundless Or Subcutaneous Surgery. ...

Bloodstone Or Heliotrope
Bloodstone Or Heliotrope Is A Dark-green Variety Of Crypto-crystalline Silica, Having Bright-red Nodules Distributed Throughout Its Mass. Polished Sections Therefore Show Red Spots On A Dark-green Background And, From The Resemblance Of These To Drops Of Blood, It Derives Its Name. The Word Heliotrope Is De Rived From The Greek ...

Bloody Assizes
Bloody Assizes, The Name Given In History To The Com Mission Conducted By Chief Justice Jeffreys After The Monmouth Rebellion In The West Of England In 1685. Over 30o Persons Were Condemned To Death; Hundreds More Were Transported. Although Modern Research Has Acquitted Jeffreys, In Certain Cases, Of Any Technical ...

Bloom
Bloom, The Blossom Of Flowering Plants (from Ang.-sax. Bloma, A Flower), Or The Powdery Film On The Skin Of Fresh-picked Fruit ; Hence Applied To The Surface Of Newly Minted Coins Or To A Cloudy Appearance On The Varnish Of Painting Due To Moisture. In Metallurgy, A Term Used Of ...

Bloomfield
Bloomfield, A Town Of Essex County (n.j.), U.s.a., About West Of New York, Adjoining Newark. It Is Served By The Erie And The Lackawanna Railways, And Has Easy Access For Motor Trucks To The Port Newark Terminal And By Way Of The Holland Tunnel To The New York Water-front. The ...

Bloomington
Bloomington, A City In The North-central Part Of Illinois, U.s.a., 125m. South-west Of Chicago; The County Seat Of Mclean County. It Is An Important Highway And Railway Centre Of The Illinois Corn-belt ; At The Intersection Of Federal Highways 51 And 66 And Nine State Highways; Is Served By The ...

Bloomington_2
Bloomington, A City Of Indiana, U.s.a., 53m. South West Of Indianapolis; The County Seat Of Monroe County. It Is Served By The Monon Route And The Illinois Central Railway. The Population In 1920 (95% Native White) Was 11,595, And It Was 18,227 In 1930 By Federal Census. There Are Limestone ...

Bloomsburg
Bloomsburg, A Town In East Central Pennsylvania, U.s.a., On Fishing Creek, Near The Susquehanna River, 35m. S.w. Of Wilkes-barre; The County Seat Of Columbia County. It Is On Federal Highway Ii, And Is Served By The Bloomsburg And Sullivan, The Reading, The Lackawanna, And (through East Bloomsburg, Just Across The ...

Blowgun
Blowgun Or, As It Is Usually Called, Blowpipe. This, With Its Poisoned Dart, Is A Lethal Weapon Employed In South America, And In The Malay Peninsula And Archipelago. In Each Case It Is Used By Savages Of High Ethnological Status And Mental De Velopment, Usually Forest Peoples, Its Efficacy Depending ...

Blowing Engines
Blowing Engines. Appliances For The Production Of A Stream Of Air Under Pressure May Be Divided Into Three Groups, Namely Compressors, Blowing Engines And Blowers, The Latter Being Again Sub-divided Into Positive Blowers And Fans. The Distinctions Between These Groups Are Drawn In Several Ways By Different Makers, But The ...

Blowpipe
Blowpipe, In The Arts And Chemistry, A Tube For Directing A Jet Of Air Into A Fire Or Into The Flame Of A Lamp Or Gas Jet, For The Purpose Of Producing A High Temperature By Accelerating The Combustion. The Blowpipe Has Been In Common Use From The Earliest Times ...

Blue Bonnet
Blue Bonnet (lupinus Texensis), A North American Plant Of The Pea Or Pulse Family (leguminosae), Native To The Plains Of Texas. It Grows About A Foot High, Has Silky-haired Leaves Composed Of Five Leaflets, And Bears Handsome Clusters Of Purplish Blue Flowers, Marked In The Centre With White Or Yellow. ...

Blue Book
Blue-book, The General Name Given To The Reports And Other Documents Printed By Order Of The British Parliament, So Called From Their Being Usually Covered With Blue Paper, Though Some Are Bound In Drab And Others Have White Covers. The Print Ing Of Its Proceedings Was First Adopted By The ...

Blue Bottle
Blue-bottle (musca Vanitaria), A Large Fly (see Drp Tera), Common In Europe Generally And In Great Disfavour On Account Of Its Habit Of Laying Its Eggs In Meat. The Body Is Blue (whence The Name) And The Flight Noisy. M. Caesar, The Green Bottle, Is Only Less Common And Is ...

Blue Grass
Blue Grass (poa Pratensis), A Perennial Rough-stalked Meadow Grass Which Owes Its Name To The Tiny, Bright Blue Flowers It Bears. It Is Also Called June Grass, Spear Grass And Meadow Grass. The Seeds Are Brown In Colour. Common To Meadows All Over Temperate Parts Of The United States, Europe ...

Blue Island
Blue Island, A City Of Cook County (illinois), U.s.a., 16m. S. Of The Chicago Loop, On A Ridge Six Miles Long By Two To Three Wide, Which Rises Abruptly Out Of The Prairie To A Height Of 4o-soft. It Is On The Dixie Highway And The Calumet Sag Canal; And ...

Blue Joint Or Blue Stem
Blue-joint Or Blue-stem, A Name Given In North America To Various Tall Coarse Grasses With Smooth Stems Over Cast With A Whitish Bloom, Especially To Certain Species Of Agropy Ron, Andropogon And Calamagostis. ...

Blue Print
Blue Print, A Photo-print On A Paper Sensitized With Ferro-prussiate, According To A Method First Invented By Herschel In 184o. Used In The Early Days For The Printing Of Photographic Negatives, Blue Prints Have Come More Recently To Be Used Chiefly For Making Negative Copies Of Drawings And Documents. The ...

Blue Sky Laws
Blue Sky Laws. This Term Is Popularly Applied In The United States To Statutes Enacted In Almost All The States To Pro Tect Credulous Purchasers Of Stocks And Bonds From Fraud. For Merly, In The Absence Of Definite Laws To Prevent The Practice, Pro Moters Of Fraudulent Schemes And Projects ...

Blue Water Highway
Blue Water Highway, A Thoroughfare Extending From Sarnia To Orillia, In The Province Of Ontario, Canada. It Is About 27om. Long And For The Most Part Improved With Paving. Skirting Lake Huron And Georgian Bay For Most Of The Way, It Provides An Unusual Water-side Route That Passes Through Goderich, ...

Blue
Blue, The Name Of A Colour. From The Fact Of Various Parties Having Adopted The Colour Blue As Their Badge, Various Classes Of People Have Come To Be Known As "blue" Or "blues"; Thus "true Blue" Meant Originally A Staunch Presbyterian, The Covenanters Having Adopted Blue As Their Colour As ...

Bluebeard
Bluebeard, The Monster Of Charles Perrault's Tale Of Barbe Bleue, Who Murdered His Wives And Hid Their Bodies In A Locked Room. Perrault's Tale Was First Printed In His Histoires Et Contes Du Temps Passe (1697). The Essentials Of The Story—blue Beard's Prohibition To His Wife To Open A Certain ...

Bluebell
Bluebell, The Name Applied In England To The Wild Hya Cinth (scilla Festalis) And In Scotland And The United States And Canada To The Harebell (campanula Rotundifolia), In Both Cases On Account Of The Shape Of The Flowers. In The Eastern United States The Greek Valerian (polemonium Reptans) Is Also ...

Blueberry
Blueberry (vaccinium), The Name Given In North America To Certain Widely Branching Shrubs Of The Heath Or Huckleberry Family, Ericaceae Or V Acciniaceae, Prized For Their Sweet, Edible Fruits. The British Species Of The Genus Are Called Bilberries (q.v.). The Most Important North American Forms Are The High Or Swamp ...

Bluebird
Bluebird (sialia Sialis), An American Bird, Blue In Plum Age, With A Red Breast. A Harbinger Of Spring, This Is One Of The Most Familiar And Best-loved Birds In The United States. The Nest Is Built In Holes In Trees And Similar Situations, But The Bluebird Is All Too Often ...

Bluefield
Bluefield, A Rapidly Growing City Of Mercer County, West Virginia, U.s.a., In The Appalachian Mountains On The Southern Boundary Of The State, Amid Beautiful Scenery, At An Elevation Of 2,600f T. It Is Served By The Norfolk And Western Railway, And By Regular Motor-bus Service As Far As Huntington, Asheville ...

Blues
Blues, A Term Applied To A Particular Type Of "jazz" Or "rag Time" Music Which Has Enjoyed Much Popular Favour In The 2oth Century. Blues, In Their Original Vocal Form, Are Distinguished Chiefly By Their Peculiar Structure—three Lines Of Verse—although They Take Their Name From Their Most Common Motif, That ...

Bluestocking
Bluestocking, A Derisive Name For A Literary Woman. About 175o Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu (q.v.) Made A Determined Effort To Introduce Into Society A More Intellectual Tone By Hold Ing Assemblies At Which Literary Conversation And Discussions Were To Take The Place Of Cards And Gossip. Most Of Those Attending Were ...

Bluethroat
Bluethroat, A Bird, Luscinia Suecica, Allied To The Nightingale, But With A Blue Throat, A Dark Brown And Chestnut Tail And A Beautiful Song. In Habits It Is Shy And Skulking. It Haunts Thickets Of Birch And Willow, Especially When Swampy, And Nests On The Ground. Five To Seven Grey-green ...

Bluets
Bluets (houstonia Caerulea), A Popular North American Wild Flower Of The Madder Family (rubiaceae), Known Also As In Nocence, Eyebright And Quaker-ladies. It Is Native To Grassy Places And Wet Rocks From Nova Scotia To Wisconsin And South To Georgia And Missouri. This Early Spring Favourite, Which Grows Perennially In ...

Bluff
Bluff, An Adjective Used Of A Ship, Meaning Broad And Nearly Vertical In The Bows (possibly Connected With An Obsolete Dutch Word, Blaf, Broad). Similarly, Of A Cliff Or Shore, Present Ing A Bold And Nearly Perpendicular Front; Of A Person, Good Natured And Frank, With A Rough Or Abrupt ...

Bluffton
Bluffton, A City Of Indiana, U.s.a., On The Wabash River And The Nickel Plate Railway, 85m. N.e. O'f Indianapolis; The County Seat Of Wells County. It Has Sawmills And Planing-mills; Manufactures Pianos, Beds, Ironing-boards, Windmills, Iron Pumps, And Wooden Novelties; And Has Limestone Quarries In Its Vicinity. The Population In ...

Bluing
Bluing, Indigo, Aniline Dyes Or Prussian Blue Used In Water To Bring Out The Whiteness Of Clothes After Washing. A Useful Liquid Bluing May Be Made By Dissolving 12 Parts Of Indigo-car Mine In 15 Parts Of Water To Which A Of A Part Gum Arabic Has Been Added. ...

Blumenthal
Blumenthal, A Town In The Prussian Province Of Han Over, On The Weser, I2m. N.w. Of Bremen. Pop. (1933) 13,748. It Is A Shipbuilding District, With Ma Chine-making A N D Woolcombing Indus Tries. ...

Blunder Buss
Blunder Buss (a Corruption Of The Dutch Donder, Thunder, And The Dutch Bus; Cf. Ger. Buchse, A Box Or Tube, Hence A Thunder-box Or Gun); Perverted In Form After Blunder (perhaps With Some Allusion To Its Blind Or Random Firing), An Obsolete Muzzle-loading Firearm With A Bell-shaped Muzzle. Its Calibre ...

Blvefields
Blvefields, The Principal Caribbean Port Of Nicaragua, Central America. Pop. 4, 706. It Is Located Near The Mouth Of The Bluefields River, And Is Visited By Steamers From New Orleans And Coasting Schooners, While A River Steamer Plies The Bluefields River And Considerable Trade Is Carried On With The Interior, ...

Blyth
Blyth, Municipal Borough And Seaport Of Northumberland, England, At The Mouth Of The River Blyth, On A Branch Of The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 31,8o8. This Is The Port For A Consid Erable Coal-mining District, And Its Harbour, On The South Side Of The River, Is Provided With Mechanical Appliances ...

Blytheville
Blytheville, A Town In North-eastern Arkansas, U.s.a., Eight M. From The Mississippi River, At An Elevation Of 2 5 2 F T., And Tom. North Of Memphis; The County Seat Of Mississippi County. It Is On The Mississippi River Scenic Highway, And Is Served By The Frisco, The St. Louis ...

Boa
Boa, A Name Formerly Applied To All Large Serpents Which, Devoid Of Poison Fangs, Kill Their Prey By Constriction; But Now Confined To Serpents Of The Boa Family (boidae) Which Have No Teeth In The Premaxillary Bones And Are Without Supraorbital Bones. The Others Are Known As Pythons (q.v.). The ...

Boadicea
Boadicea, Strictly Boudicca, A British Queen In The Time Of The Emperor Nero. Her Husband Prasutagus Ruled The Iceni (in What Is Now Norfolk) As An Autonomous Prince Under Roman Suzerainty. On His Death (a.d. 61) Without Male Heir, His Domin Ions Were Annexed, And The Annexation Was Carried Out ...

Boar
Boar, The Name Given To The Male Of The Domestic Pig (q.v.) And To The Male Of Some Wild Species Of The Family Suidae (see Swine). The European Wild Boar (sus Scrofa) Is Distributed Over Europe, Northern Africa And Central And Northern Asia. Long Extinct In The British Isles, It ...

Board Man
Board Man, In The United States A Member Of An Exchange Who Appears On The Exchange Floor And Buys And Sells. He Gen Erally Transacts Business For His Own Firm But May, By Arrangement, Buy And Sell For Any Other Member Firm. ...

Board Of Trade Unit
Board Of Trade Unit, The Unit Of Energy Adopted By The British Board Of Trade. It Is Equal, In Electrical Units, To One Kilowatt-hour. (see Units, Physical.) ...

Board Of Trade
Board Of Trade, In Great Britain A Department Of Government (see Government Departments), In The United States A Term Practically Synonymous With Chamber Of Commerce, The First Of Which Was Established In New York In 1768. In The United States It Is A Voluntary Organization, Consisting Of The Business And ...

Board Room
Board Room, The Room Where Directors Or Other Officers Of A Corporation Or Company Meet. Also, In The United States, The Room In A Broker's Office Equipped For The Convenience Of Custom Ers, And Especially For The Purpose Of Supplying Them With Current Market Quotations. Tickers Bring In The Quotations ...

Board
Board, A Plank Or Long Narrow Piece Of Timber. The Phrase "to Keep One's Name On The Boards," At Cambridge University, Signifies To Remain A Member Of A College. Board Was Early Used Of A Table, Hence Such Phrases As "bed And Board," "board And Lodging"; Or Of A Gaming-table, ...

Boarding Out System
Boarding-out System, In The English Poor Law, The Boarding-out Of Orphan Or Deserted Children With Suitable Foster-parents. The Practice Was First Authorized In 1868, Though For Many Years Previously It Had Been Carried Out By Some Boards Of Guardians On Their Own Initiative. Boarding-out Is Governed By An Order Of ...

Boat
Boat, A Comparatively Small Open Craft For Conveyance On Water, Usually Propelled By Some Form Of Oar Or Sail. The Origin Of The Word "boat" Is Probably To Be Looked For In The A.s. Bat=a Stem, A Stick, A Piece Of Wood. If This Be So, The Term In Its ...