BANDIERA, A T T I L I O (1811-1844) and EMILIO Italian patriots. The brothers Bandiera, sons of Baron Bandiera, an admiral in the Aus trian navy, were themselves members of that service, but they were won over to the ideas of Italian freedom and unity, and corresponded with Giuseppe Mazzini and other members of the Giovane Italia (Young Italy). The Bandieras began to make propaganda among the officers and men of the Austrian navy, nearly all Italians, and actually planned to seize a warship and bombard Messina. But having been betrayed they fled to Corfu early in 1844. Rumours reached them there of agitation in the Neapolitan kingdom, where the people were represented as ready to rise en masse at the first appearance of a leader; the Ban dieras consequently determined to make a raid on the Calabrian coast. They got together a band of 19 men ready to sacrifice their lives for an idea, and set sail on their desperate venture on June 12, 1844. Four days later they landed near Cotrone, intend ing to go to Cosenza, liberate the political prisoners and issue their proclamations. But they did not find the insurgent band which they had been told awaited them, and were betrayed by one of their party, the Corsican Boccheciampe, and by some peas ants who believed them to be Turkish pirates. On July 23 the two Bandieras and seven of their companions were executed; they cried Viva l'Italia! as they fell. The moral effect of their execution was enormous throughout Italy, the action of the authorities was universally condemned, and the martyrdom of the Bandieras bore fruit in subsequent revolutions.