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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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A Bouche Fermee
Bouche Fermee, A, Musical Term Signifying Singing Without Words With Closed, Or Nearly Closed, Mouth, The Result Being An Inarticulate Humming Or Buzzing. Formerly Resorted To Mainly For The Purpose Of Amusing Effects In Humorous Pieces, The Device Has More Recently Been Employed With Increasing Fre Quency In Quite Serious ...

A T T I
Bandiera, A T T I L I O (1811-1844) And Emilio Italian Patriots. The Brothers Bandiera, Sons Of Baron Bandiera, An Admiral In The Aus Trian Navy, Were Themselves Members Of That Service, But They Were Won Over To The Ideas Of Italian Freedom And Unity, And Corresponded With Giuseppe ...

Aaron Bernstein
Bernstein, Aaron (1812-1884), Jewish Scientist, Author And Reformer, A Native Of Dantzig. Bernstein Took An Ac Tive Share In The Movement For Synagogue Reform In Germany. He Was The Author Of Two Delightful Ghetto Stories, V Ogele Der Maggid And Mendel Gibbor, Being One Of The Originators Of This Genre ...

Abraham Bloemaert
Bloemaert, Abraham Dutch Painter And Engraver, Born At Gorinchem, The Son Of An Architect, Was First A Pupil Of Gerrit Splinter (pupil Of Frans Floris) And Of Joos De Beer, At Utrecht. He Then Spent Three Years In Paris, Studying, And On His Return To His Native Country Received Further ...

Achille Francois Bazaine
Bazaine, Achille Francois Mar Shal Of France, Was Born At Versailles On Feb. 13, 1811. He Entered The Army As A Private Soldier In 1831, With A View To Service In Algeria, And Received A Commission In 1833. He Served With Great Distinction In Algeria, In The Crimean War, In ...

Adam Black
Black, Adam (1784-1874), Scottish Publisher, Founder Of The Firm Of A. And C. Black, The Son Of A Builder, Was Born In Edinburgh On Feb. 20, 1784, And Died There On Jan. 24, 1874. He Began Business For Himself In Edinburgh In 1808. By 1826 He Was Recognized As One ...

Adolf Bastian
Bastian, Adolf (1826-1905), German Ethnologist. Educated As A Physician, He Early Devoted Himself To Travel. From 1861 He Travelled In The Far East For Five Years. Upon His Return He Commenced The Publication Of His Great Work On The Peoples Of Eastern Asia, An Immense Storehouse Of Facts Owing Little ...

Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier
Bandelier, Adolph Francis Alphonse (184o-1914), American Archaeologist, Was Born In Bern, Switzer Land, On Aug. 6, 1840. When A Youth He Emigrated To The United States. After 188o He Devoted Himself To Archaeological And Ethnological Work Among The Indians Of The South-western United States, Mexico And South America. He Studied ...

Adolphe William Bouguereau
Bouguereau, Adolphe William French Painter, Was Born At La Rochelle On Nov. 3o 1825, And Died There On Aug. 18 1905. From 1843 Till 1850 He Studied At The Ecole Des Beaux-arts, And In 1850 Divided The Grand Prix De Rome Scholarship With Baudry, The Subject Set Being "zenobia On ...

Adriano Banchieri
Banchieri, Adriano (c. Bolognese Com Poser For Church And Stage, Organist, Writer On Music And Poet. He Founded The Accademia Florida Of Bologna. Like Orazio Vecchi He Was Interested In Converting The Madrigal To Dramatic Purposes. He Disapproved Of The Monodists With Their Revolution Ary Harmonic Tendencies, About Which He ...

Agenor Bardoux
Bardoux, Agenor (1829-1897), French Statesman, Was A Native Of Bourges. In 1871 He Was Elected Deputy Of The National Assembly, And Re-elected In 1876 And In 1877. In The Chamber He Was President Of The Group Of The Left Centre, Standing Strongly For The Republic But Against Anti-clericalism. After The ...

Agnes Bernauer
Bernauer, Agnes (d. 1435), Daughter Of An Augsburg Baker, Was Secretly Married About 1432 To Albert (1401-60), Son Of Ernest, Duke Of Bavaria-munich. Ignorant Of The Marriage, Er Nest Urged His Son To Marry And Reproached Him With His Connection With Agnes. Albert Then Declared She Was His Lawful Wife ...

Agostino Bertani
Bertani, Agostino Italian Revolutionist, Took Part In The Insurrection Of 1848 And, As Medical Officer, Organized The Ambulance Service For The Roman Republic Of 1849. He Joined As Surgeon The Garibaldian Corps In The War Of Upon The Arrival Of Garibaldi At Naples, Bertani Was Appointed Secretary-general Of The Dictator, ...

Albert Bierstadt
Bierstadt, Albert (183o-1902), American Landscape Painter, Was Born In Solingen, Westphalia, Germany, On Jan. 7, 1830, And Was Taken To The United States When About A Year Old. In 1853-1856 He Studied Painting At Dusseldorf. His Pictures Of The Western Part Of The United States, And Particularly The Rocky Mountains, ...

Albert Christian Theodor Billroth
Billroth, Albert Christian Theodor (182g-1894), Viennese Surgeon, Was Born On April 26, 1829, At Bergen, On The Island Of Rugen, His Family Being Of Swedish Origin. He Studied At The Universities Of Greifswald, Gottingen And Berlin, And, After Taking His Doctor's Degree At The Last In 1852, Started On A ...

Albert De Berzeviczy
Berzeviczy, Albert De Hungarian Politician And Writer. After Studying Law And Politics At Budapest University, He Travelled Extensively In Europe. He Was Professor Of Law At The Academy Of Eperjes And In 1881 Was Returned To The Hungarian Parliament By The Same Town. He Became Minister Of Education In 1903; ...

Albert F Bellows
Bellows, Albert F. (1829-1883), American Landscape Painter, Was Born At Milford (mass.), Nov. 20, 1829. He First Studied Architecture, Then Turned To Painting, And Worked In Paris And In The Royal Academy At Antwerp. He Painted Much In England ; Was A Member Of The National Academy Of Design, And ...

Albrecht Bitzius
Bitzius, Albrecht (1797-1854), Best Known By His Pen Name Of "jeremias Gotthelf," Swiss Novelist, Was Born On Oct. 4, At Morat, Where His Father Was Pastor. He Studied Theol Ogy At Bern, Took Orders In 182o, And From 1832 Till His Death On Oct. 24, 1854, Was Pastor Of The ...

Alessandro Galli Bibiena
Alessandro Galli Bibiena (1687—1769), Eldest Son Of Fer Dinando, Was Born At Parma. In 1719 He Became Architect And Painter At The Court Of The Elector Of The Palatinate. Among His Works We May Mention The Right Wing Of The Schloss And The Jesuit Church At Mannheim. ...

Alexander Barclay
Barclay, Alexander (c. 1476-1552), British Poet, Author Of The S/zip Of Fools. His Nationality Is A Matter Of Dispute, But William Bulleyn, Who Was A Native Of Ely, And Probably Knew Him When He Was In The Monastery There, Asserts That He Was Born "beyonde The Cold River Of Twede." ...

Alexander Benckendorff
Benckendorff, Alexander, Count (1849 Iq17), Russian Diplomat, Began His Career As An Attache In Flor Ence, Proceeding Thence To Rome. In 1897 He Was Appointed Minister In Copenhagen, And Remained There Until 1903, When He Was Promoted To The Court Of St. James. The Atmosphere, At The Time, Was Unfavourable ...

Alexander Blok
Blok, Alexander (188o-1921), Russian Poet, Was Born In St. Petersburg (leningrad). His Father Was Professor Of Mathematics At Warsaw. In 1903 He Married The Daughter Of The Russian Scientist Mendeleyev. His First Book Of Poems, Songs To The Belle Dame (1904), Shows The Influence Of The Mystic Poet And Philosopher ...

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb (1714— 1762), German Philosopher, Was Born In Berlin. He Studied At Halle, And Became Professor Of Philosophy At Halle And At Frank Furt. He Was A Disciple Of Leibnitz And Wolff, And Was Distin Guished For Separating Aesthetics From The Other Philosophic Disciplines, And In Marking Out ...

Alexander Graham Bell
Bell, Alexander Graham Ameri Can Inventor And Physicist, Inventor Of The Telephone; Son Of Alexander Melville Bell, Was Born In Edinburgh, Scotland, On March 3, 1847. He Was Educated At The University Of Edinburgh And The University Of London, And, Because Of Failing Health, Re Moved With His Father To ...

Alexander Ivanovich Baryatinsky
Baryatinsky, Alexander Ivanovich, Prince (1814-1879), Russian Soldier And Governor Of The Cau Casus, Entered The Army In 1833. In 1835 He Served With Great Gallantry In The Caucasus, And On His Return To St. Petersburg Was Rewarded With A Gold Sword "for Valour." In 1845 He Was Again Ordered To ...

Alexander Melville Bell
Bell, Alexander Melville Ameri Can Educationalist, Was Born At Edinburgh, Scotland, On March 1, 1819. He Studied Under And Became The Principal Assistant Of His Father, Alexander Bell, An Authority On Phonetics And Defective Speech. From 1843 To 1865 He Lectured On Elocution At The Uni Versity Of Edinburgh, And ...

Alexander Porfyrievich Borodin
Borodin, Alexander Porfyrievich (1$34 1887), Russian Musical Composer, Natural Son Of A Russian Prince, Was Born In St. Petersburg On Nov. 12, 1834. He Was Brought Up To The Medical Profession, And In 1862 Was Appointed Assistant Professor Of Chemistry At The St. Petersburg Academy Of Medicine. He Wrote Several ...

Alexandre Beljame
Beljame, Alexandre (1842-1906), French Writer, Was Born At Villiers-le-bel, Seine-et-oise. He Spent Part Of His Childhood In England And Was A Frequent Visitor In London. His Lectures On English Literature At The Sorbonne, Where A Chair Was Created Expressly For Him, Did Much To Promote The Study Of English In ...

Alexis Boyer
Boyer, Alexis (1757-1833), French Surgeon, Was Born March 1, 1757, At Uzerches (correze) . The Son Of A Tailor, He Obtained His First Medical Knowledge In The Shop Of A Barber Surgeon, And Became Professor Of Surgery At The Ecole De Sante. In 1805 Napoleon Nominated Him Imperial Family Surgeon, ...

Alfred Beit
Beit, Alfred (1853-1906), British South African Finan Cier, Was The Son Of A Well-to-do Merchant Of Hamburg, Germany, And In 1875 Was Sent Out To Kimberley, South Africa. In Con Junction With Mr. (afterwards Sir) Julius Wernher (b. 1850) He Rapidly Acquired A Leading Position On The Diamond Fields, And ...

Alfred Binet
Binet, Alfred (1857-1911), French Experimental Psy Chologist, Was Born In Nice, On July 8, 1857. At An Early Age He Went To Paris And Entered The Lycee Saint-louis From Which He Graduated In 1878. In 1890 He Took A Degree In Natural Science At The Sorbonne And Received His D. ...

Alism Bibliography H M
Alism). Bibliography.-h. M. Dexter, The Congregationalism Of The Last Bibliography.-h. M. Dexter, The Congregationalism Of The Last Three Hundred Years; F. J. Powicke, Henry Barrowe And The Exiled Church. See Also B. Brook, Lives Of The Puritans; And Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigienses Vol. Ii. (1861). ...

Alphonse Bertillon
Alphonse Bertillon (1853—i 914), Brother Of Jacques, French Anthropologist, Invented The System Of Identification Of Criminals, Known As Bertillonage, By Means Of Anthropometry (q.v.), Which He Described In His Pliotographie Judiciaire (1890). He Was Officially Appointed In 1894 To Report On The Handwriting Of The Bordereau In The Dreyfus Case, ...

Alphonse De Beauchamp
Beauchamp, Alphonse De French Historian And Writer, Was Born At Monaco In 1767, And Died At Paris On June 3, 183 2. In 1784 He Entered A Sardinian Regiment Of Ma Rines, But On The Outbreak Of War With The French Republic He Refused To Fight In What He Considered ...

Alphonse Marie Berenger
Berenger, Alphonse Marie (1 7 85-1 866), Known As Berenger De La Drome, French Lawyer And Politician, Was Born At Valence And Entered The Magistracy. In 1818 He Published La Justice Criminelle En France, Attacking The Special Courts Which Were The Main Instruments Of The Reaction And Demanding A Return ...

Alphonso Della Cueva Bedmar
Bedmar, Alphonso Della Cueva, Marquis Of (1572-1655), Spanish Diplomatist, Became Ambassador To The Re Public Of Venice In 1607. When Bedmar Took Up This Appointment, Venice Had Just Concluded An Alliance With France, Switzerland And The Netherlands, To Counterbalance The Power Of Spain. As Sisted By The Duke Of Ossuna, ...

Amand Bazard
Bazard, Amand (179 R-183 2 ), French Socialist, Was The Founder, About 182o, Of A Secret Society In France Correspond Ing To The Carbonari (q.v.), Called Amis De La Verite. Bazard Him Self Was At The Head Of The Central Body, And, While Taking A Gen Eral Lead, Contributed Extensively ...

Ambrogio Borgognone
Borgognone, Ambrogio (1l. , Italian Painter Of The Milanese School, Whose Real Name Was Ambrogio Stefani Da Fossano, Was Approximately Contemporary With Leo Nardo Da Vinci, But Represented, At Least During A Great Part Of His Career, The Tendencies Of Lombard Art Anterior To The Arrival Of That Master—tendencies From ...

Amelia Edith Huddleston Barr
Barr, Amelia Edith (huddleston) Anglo-american Novelist, Was Born In Ulverston, England, On March 29, 1831. In 185o She Married Robert Barr And Four Years Later Went With Him To The United States, Where They Settled In Austin, Tex., Removing In 1867 To Galveston. There Her Husband And Three Sons Died ...

Amelia Jenks Bloomer
Bloomer, Amelia Jenks American Dress-reformer And Women's Rights Advocate, Was Born At Homer (n.y.), On May 27, 1818. In 1849 She Took Up The Idea—pre Viously Originated By Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Miller—of A Reform In Woman's Dress, And The Wearing Of A Short Skirt, With Loose Trousers, Gathered Round The ...

American Billiards
American Billiards The Game Of American Billiards Is Played On A Table Without Pockets. It Is Called A Carom Table And Is Of Two Sizes, One 42 By 9 Ft. And The Other, 5 By 1 O Feet. For The Carom Game Three Balls Are Used, One Red, One Plain ...

Ami Boue
Boue, Ami (1794-1881), Austrianeolo Ist Was Born At G G Hamburg On March 16, 1794, And Received His Early Education There And In Geneva And Paris. In 1841 He Settled In Vienna. He Died On Nov. 21, 1881. To The Imperial Academy Of Sciences At Vienna He Communicated Important Papers ...

Andre Charles Boulle
Boulle, Andre Charles French Cabi Net-maker, Who Gave His Name To A Fashion Of Inlaying Known As Boulle Or Buhl Work. He Was Born In Paris Nov. Ii 1642, And Died There Feb. 29 173 2. The Son Of Jean Boulle, A Member Of A Family Of Cabinet-makers Who Had ...

Andreas Peter Bernstorff
Bernstorff, Andreas Peter, Count Von (1735 1797), Danish Statesman, Was Born In Hanover On Aug. 28 His Career Was Determined By His Uncle, Johann Hartwig Ernst Bernstorff, Who Sent His Nephew To Study In The German And Swiss Universities And Travel For Some Years In Italy, France, England, And Holland, ...

Andres Bello
Bello, Andres (1781-1865), South American Poet And Scholar, Was Born At Caracas, Venezuela, On Nov. 29, After Having Been Associated With The Revolutionary Movement Against Spain, In 1810 He Was Sent On A Political Mission To London, Where He Resided For 19 Years, Acting As Secretary To The Legations Of ...

Andrew Baxter
Baxter, Andrew Scottish Metaphysician, Born In Aberdeen And Educated At King's College. From 1741-47 He Lived As A Tutor With Lord Blantyre And Mr. Hay At Utrecht, And Made Excursions In Flanders, France And Germany. Return Ing To Scotland, He Lived At Whittingehame, Near Edinburgh, Till His Death In 1750. ...

Andrew Bell
Bell, Andrew (1753-1832), British Divine And Educa Tionist, Was Born At St. Andrews, Scotland. He Graduated There, Was A Tutor In Virginia, U.s.a., And From 1789 Superintendent Of An Orphan Asylum At Madras. There Scarcity Of Teachers Led Him To Introduce The System Of Mutual Tuition By The Pupils. In ...

Andrew Kennedy Hutchison Boyd
Boyd, Andrew Kennedy Hutchison 1899), Scottish Author And Divine, Was Born In Auchinleck Manse, Ayrshire, On Nov. 3, 1825, And Died At Bournemouth On March 1, 1899. He Studied At King's College, London, And At The Middle Temple, But Returning To Scotland Entered Glasgow University And There Qualified For The ...

Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus (c. A.d. 480-524), Philosopher And Statesman, Has Been Described As The Last Of The Romans And The First Of The Scholastics. On The Death Of His Father, Who Had Been Consul In 487, The Young Boethius Passed Into The Charge Of The Senator Q. Aur. Memmius ...

Anna Letitia Barbauld
Barbauld, Anna Letitia 2 5 ), English Poet And Miscellaneous Writer, Was Born At Kibworth-harcourt, In Leicestershire, On June 20 1743, And Married Rochemont Barbauld, A Presbyterian Minister. The Barbaulds Set Up A Board Ing-school At Palgrave, Suffolk, And Mrs. Barbauld's Famous Hymns In Prose For Children (1781), An Excellent ...

Anna Louisa Geer Truida
Bosboom-toussaint, Anna Louisa Geer Truida (1812-1886), Dutch Novelist, Was Born At Alkmaar In North Holland. In 1851 She Married The Dutch Painter, Johannes Bosboom (1817-1891) . Her First Romance, Almagro, Appeared In 1837, Followed By The Graaf Van Devonshire (the Earl Of Devonshire) In 1838; The Engelschen To Rome (the ...

Anne Bracegirdle
Bracegirdle, Anne (c. 1674-1748), English Actress, Is Said To Have Been Placed Under The Care Of Thomas Betterton And His Wife, And To Have First Appeared On The Stage As The Page In The Orphan At Its First Performance At Dorset Garden In 1680. She Was Lucia In Shadwell's Squire ...

Annexation Of Belgium By
Annexation Of Belgium By France The Restored Regime Was Of Short Duration. Jourdan's Victory At Fleurus (june 26, 1794) Resulted In A Fresh Conquest Of The Netherlands By France. The Rule Of The Austrian Sovereigns Was Abolished In Fact, And The Position Received Legal Sanction By The Treaties Of Campo ...

Annie Besant
Besant, Annie (1847-1933), British Theosophist, Was Born In London, Oct. 1, 1847, The Daughter Of William Page Wood. She Married, In 1867, The Rev. Frank Besant (d. 1917), After Wards Vicar Of Sibsey, Lincs., But Obtained A Separation From Her Husband In 1873. She Had Become An Ardent Freethinker, And ...

Antoine Alexandre Barbier
Barbier, Antoine Alexandre French Librarian And Bibliographer, Became Librarian Successively To The Directory, To The Conseil D'etat, And In 1807 To Napoleon, For Whom He Carried Out A Number Of Commissions. He Had A Share In The Foundation Of The Libraries Of The Louvre, Of Fon Tainebleau, Of Compiegne And ...

Antoine Baume
Baume, Antoine (1728-1804), French Chemist, Was Born At Senlis. He Devised Many Improvements In Technical Processes, E.g., For Bleaching Silk, Dyeing, Gilding, Purifying Saltpetre, Etc., But He Is Best Known As The Inventor Of The Hydrometer Associated With His Name (often In This Connection Improperly Spelt Beaume). His Most Important ...

Antoine Cesar Becquerel
Antoine Cesar Becquerel (1788-1878) Was Born At Chatillon Sur Loing On March 8, 1788. After Passing Through The H Cole Polytechnique He Became Ingenieur-oficier In 1808, And Saw Active Service With The Imperial Troops In Spain From 181 O To 1812, And Again In France In 1814. He Then Resigned ...

Antoine Jacques Claude Joseph
Boulay De La Meurthe, Antoine Jacques Claude Joseph, Comte (1761-184o), French Politician And Magistrate, Son Of An Agricultural Labourer, Was Born At Chamousey (vosges) Feb. 19, 1761, And Died In Paris Feb. 4, 184o. Called To The Bar At Nancy In 1783, He Presently Went To Paris, Where He Rapidly ...

Antoine Louis I Barye
Barye, Antoine Louis (i 796-187j), French Sculptor, Was Born In Paris On Sept. 24, 1796. Like Many Of The Sculptors Of The Renaissance He Began Life As A Goldsmith. After Studying Under Bosio, The Sculptor, And Gros, The Painter, He Was In 1818 Admitted To The L?cole Des Beaux Arts. ...

Antoine Pierre Berryer
Berryer, Antoine Pierre French Advocate, Was The Greatest Legitimist Advocate Of His Time. Ad Mitted Advocate In 1811, He Followed Louis Xviii. To Ghent Dur Ing The Hundred Days Of 1815. On His Return He Advocated Mod Eration In The Treatment Of The Bonapartists. He Was Associated With His Father ...

Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie
Barnave, Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie (1761-1793), One Of The Greatest Orators Of The First French Revolution, Was Born At Grenoble In Dauphine, Oct. 22 1761. Dauphine Was One Of The First Of The Provinces To Feel The Excite Ment Of The Coming Revolution ; And Barnave Was Foremost To Give ...

Antoinette Bourignon
Bourignon, Antoinette Flemish Quietist, B. At Lille, Began Life A Catholic, But Took To Self-imposed Retirement, Penance And Mortification. Later She Tried Convent Life And The Management Of An Orphanage ; Both Were Failures On Account Of Her Distrust Of Human Nature And Her Harsh, Auto Cratic Disposition. She Soon ...

Antonio Galli Bibiena I
Antonio Galli Bibiena (i 7oo—i 744), Third Son Of Ferdinando, Was The Architect Of The Academia Virgiliana At Mantua And Of The Teatro Communale At Bologna. He Was Also Employed At The Court Of Vienna. As The Bibienas' Works In Theatrical Scenery Were Not Executed In Durable Material, And As ...

Antonio Giulio Barrili
Barrili, Antonio Giulio Italian Nov Elist, Was Born At Savona, And Was Educated For The Legal Pro Fession, Which He Abandoned For Journalism In Genoa. He Was A Volunteer In The Campaign Of 1859 And Served With Garibaldi In 1866 And 1867. From 1865 (capitan Dodero) Onwards He Pub Lished ...

Antony Bek
Bek, Antony, Bishop Of Durham From 1283 To 1311. Edward I. Employed Him On Diplomatic Errands To Scotland In 1285, And To The German King In 1294. He Took Part In Edward's Campaigns In Scotland, Received The Surrender Of John De Baliol At Brechin In 1296, And Led One Division ...

Aphides Moth
Moth, Aphides, Mantis, Grasshopper, May-fly And As Well As In Articles On The More Important Orders : Lepidoptera, Diptera, Orthoptera, Etc. Ants, Bees And Wasps, In Addition To Treatment Under These Headings And In The Article Hymenoptera, Are Considered At Length, With The Termites, In Their Social Aspects In The ...

Aphra Bern
Bern, Aphra (otherwise Afra, Aphara Or Ayfara) (164o-1689), British Dramatist And Novelist And The First English Woman To Earn Her Living As A Writer, Was Baptized At Wye, Kent, In 1640. Her Father, John Johnson, Was A Barber. While Still A Child She Was Taken Out To Surinam, Then An ...

Apocalypse Of Baruch
Apocalypse Of Baruch The Discovery Of This Long Lost Apocalypse Was Due To Ceriani. This Apocalypse Has Survived Only In The Syriac Version Of Which Ceriani Discovered A 6th Century Ms. In The Milan Library. The Syriac Is Translated From The Greek; For Greek Words Are Occa Sionally Transliterated, And ...

Applications Of Biology
Applications Of Biology It Is Useful, Theoretically At Least, To Distinguish Applied Biology From Applied Zoology And Applied Botany. When Means Are Taken To Check The Spread Of Injurious Insects, Or The Dissemination Of Malaria By Mosquitoes And Of Sleeping Sickness By Tsetse Flies, Or The Damage Done By Parasites ...

Armand De Gontaut Biron
Biron, Armand De Gontaut, Baron De (1524 1592), French Marshal, Belonged To A Family, One Of The Numerous Branches Of The House Of Gontaut, Which Took Its Title From The Territory Of Biron In Perigord. As A Page Of The Queen Of Navarre Biron Attracted The Notice Of The Marshal ...

Arnold Boecklin
Boecklin, Arnold (182 7-1901), Swiss Painter, Was Born At Basle Oct. 16 1827, And Died At San Domenico, Near Florence, Jan. 16 1901. He Studied At Dusseldorf, Antwerp, Brus Sels And Paris, But Found His Real Inspiration In Italy, Where He Re Turned From Time To Time, And Where The ...

Arrigo Boito
Boito, Arrigo, Italian Poet And Composer, Was Born At Padua On Feb. 24, 1842, And Died At Milan On June 1 O, 1918. While Still Very Young He Went To Milan And Entered The Con Servatoire, Where He Studied Under Muzzaccato. Here He Made Friends Also With Franco Faccio, Who ...

Art Of The Book
Art Of The Book Though The Book Throughout Its History Has Tended To Become More And More A Personal Possession, Until It Is Now A Necessary Adjunct To The Ordinary Man's Life Instead Of Being The Semi Magical Weapon Of The Few Who Could Read, It Depends, As A Thing ...

Arthur Bourchier
Bourchier, Arthur (1863-1927), English Actor, Was Born On June 22, 1863, And Educated At Eton And Christ Church, Oxford. At The University He Became Prominent As An Amateur Actor In Connection With The O.u.d.s., Which He Founded, And In 188g He Joined Mrs. Langtry As A Professional. He Also Acted ...

Aubrey Vincent Beardsley
Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent Eng Lish Artist In Black And White, Was Born At Brighton On Aug. 24, 187 2. In 1883 His Family Settled In London, And In The Following Year He Appeared In Public As An "infant Musical Phenomenon." In 1888 He Obtained A Post In An Architect's Office. ...

Aufidius Bassus
Bassus, Aufidius, A Roman Historian (d. Probably A.d. 6o). His Work, Which Began With The Civil Wars Or The Death Of Caesar, Was Continued By The Elder Pliny. The Bellum Ger Manicum Of Bassus May Have Been Either A Separate Work Or A Section Of His General History. Some Fragments ...

August Bebel
Bebel, August For Many Years The Most Popular And Influential Leader Of The German Social Democratic Party, Was Born At Deutz, A Suburb Of Cologne, On Feb. 22, 1840, The Son Of A Non-commissioned Officer In The Prussian Army. He Lost Both His Parents Before He Was 14, When He ...

August Belmont
Belmont, August (1816-189o), American Banker And Financier, Was Born At Alzei, Rhenish Prussia, On Dec. 8, 1816. He Entered The Banking House Of The Rothschilds At Frankfort, Acted As Their Agent For A Time At Naples, And In 1837 Settled In New York As Their American Representative. In 1853-55 He ...

August Immanuel Bekker
Bekker, August Immanuel German Philologist And Critic. He Studied Classics At Halle Under F. A. Wolf. In 181 O He Was Appointed Professor Of Philosophy At Berlin. For Several Years, Between 1810 And 1821, He Travelled In France, Italy, England And Parts Of Germany, Examining Classical Manu Scripts And Gathering ...

Auguste Marseille Barthelemy
Barthelemy, Auguste Marseille (1796 1867), French Satirical Poet, Was Born At Marseille. His Name Can Hardly Be Separated From That Of His Friend And Compatriot, J. P. A. Mery (1798-1866), With Whom He Carried On In Paris So Intimate A Collaboration That It Is Not Possible To Distinguish Their Personalities ...

Augustine Birrell
Birrell, Augustine English Author And Politician, Son Of A Nonconformist Minister, Was Born Near Liver Pool On Jan. R9,185o. He Was Educated At Amersham Hall School And At Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He Went To The Bar, And Gradual Ly Obtained A Good Practice ; In 1893 He Became Q.c., And ...

Bacteriology
Bacteriology) And The More Important Organs (see Stem, Leaf, Root, Flower, Fruit) ; (b) Anatomy, The Study Of Internal Struc Ture, Including Minute Anatomy Or Histology (see Plants: Anatomy) . 2. Cytology (q.v.), The Intimate Structure And Behaviour Of The Cell And Its Contents—protoplasm, Nucleus, Etc. 3. Physiology, The Study ...

Balata Belting
Balata Belting This Belting Employs Balata, A Gum Obtained From The Bullet Tree (mimusops Balata), Which Is A Native Of Guiana And The West Indies. Balata Is Related To Gutta-percha, The Latex Contain Ing A High Proportion Of That Substance. Its Advantages For The Purpose Of Belting Are Non-elasticity, Great ...

Balthasar Bekker
Bekker, Balthasar (1634-1698), Dutch Divine, Was Born At Metslauier, In Friesland, March 3o, 1634. He Was Pastor At Franeker, And From 1679 At Amsterdam. His Best Known Work Was Die Betooverde W Ereld (tool ), Or The World Be Witched (1695) (one Vol. Of An English Trans. From A French ...

Baltimore Pike
Baltimore Pike, A Highway Running From Port Jervis, New York, To Baltimore, Maryland, Is About 2 20m. Long And Paved Or Improved Throughout Its Course. This Road Passes By Delaware Water Gap, Where The Delaware River Has Hollowed Out Of Solid Rock A I,600ft. Gorge, And Goes Through Media, The ...

Baltimore
Baltimore, The Chief Town Of Maryland, U.s.a., Lies At The Head Of Tidewater Upon The Patapsco River, One Of The Many Deep-water Estuaries Of The Chesapeake Bay. The River, Like Most Maryland Rivers, Divides And Re-divides, There Being No Fewer Than Four Broad Stretches Of Water Within The City Limits. ...

Baluchistan Persian
Baluchistan (persian), The Southern And Eastern Por Tion Of The Persian Province Of Kirman (q.v.) Consisting Of The Western Part Of Baluchistan (q.v.), In Its Wider Sense. Persian Baluchistan Covers An Area Of About 6o,000sq.m. And Lying Along The Northern Shore Of The Gulf Of Oman, Is Bounded On The ...

Baluchistan
Baluchistan (ba-loo-chi-stahn'), A Country Within The Borders Of British India Which Derives Its Name From Its Chief Inhabitants. It Extends From The Gomal River To The Arabian Sea, And From The Borders Of Persia And Afghanistan To Those Of Punjab And Sind. It Is Divided Into Two Main Divisions, British ...

Baluster
Baluster (sometimes Incorrectly Written "banister"), One Of A Series Of Small Posts Supporting The Coping Or Hand-rail Of A Parapet Or Railing. Colonnettes Are Shown As Balusters In Assyr Ian Palaces By Contemporary Bas-reliefs And Are Similarly Used In Many Railings Of The Gothic Period. Although No Greek Or Roman ...

Balustrade
Balustrade, A Parapet Or Railing (often Merely Decora Tive), Consisting Of A Coping Or Rail Supported By Balusters (q.v.). In Renaissance Balustrades The Balusters Are Usually Divided Into Groups By The Interposition Of A Large Square Post Or Pedestal. The Word Is Incorrectly Used For Any Masonry Rail. ...

Bam
Bam, A Town Of Persia In The Province Of Kerman, Situated About I2om. South-east Of Kerman On The Western Edge Of The Great Salt Desert, Dasht-i-lut, At An Elevation Of 3,600f T. Popu Lation C. 8,500. The Modern Town, Which May Be Described As An Agglomeration Of Houses And Extensive ...

Bamberg
Bamberg, A Town And Archiepiscopal See Of Germany, In The Land Of Bavaria. Pop. It Lies On An Open Plain On The River Regnitz, 2m. Above Its Junction With The Main, And 39m. North Of Nurnberg. Bamberg, First Mentioned In 902, Grew Up By The Castle (babenberch) Which Gave Its ...

Bamboo
Bamboo, The Popular Name For Members Of The Bambuseae, A Tribe Of The Grass-family (gramineae) . They Are Large, Often Tree-like, With Woody Stems. The Stems Spring From An Under Ground Root-stock And Are Often Crowded To Form Dense Clumps; The Largest Species Reach 12of T. In Height. The Slender ...

Bamburgh Or Bamborough
Bamburgh Or Bamborough, Coastal Village Of Northumberland, England, 5m. E. Of Belford, With Coastguard And Lifeboat Stations. Pop. Of Parish The Ancient Castle, Now Restored, Occupies A Magnificent Site Near The Sea, On A Rock 'soft. High, Accessible Only On The South-east Side. The Buildings Are Of Various Dates From ...

Bambute
Bambute (sometimes Incorrectly Called Batwa), A Race Of Pygmies Of The Semliki Forest, On The Western Borders Of Uganda Between Albert Nyanza And Albert Edward Nyanza. They Prob Ably Form Merely A Branch Of The Pygmy Race Of Equatorial Africa. Their Complexion Varies From Reddish-yellow To Brownish Black, With Head-hair ...

Bamian
Bamian, A Once Renowned City Of Afghanistan, About 8o M. N.w. Of Kabul, In A Valley Of The Hazara Country, On The Chief Road From Kabul Towards Turkistan, And Immediately At The Northern Foot Of That Prolongation Of The Indian Caucasus Now Called Koh-i-baba. The Passes On The Kabul Side ...

Bampur
Bampur, A Town And An Ancient Capital Of Persian Baluchi Stan, In 27° N., 6o° 24' E., Situated At An Elevation Of About It Stands On The Bampur River Which, Flowing From East To West, Empties Itself Into A Depression Called The Jaz Murian, And Consists Of A Camp Of ...

Ban
Ban, A Word Taken From The Root Of A Verb Common To Many Teutonic Languages And Meaning Originally "to Proclaim" Or "to Announce." The Late Latin Form Of The Word Is Bannum. In The Laws Of The Franks And Kindred Tribes The Word Had Three Main Uses : First In ...

Banana
Banana, A Gigantic Herbaceous Plant Belonging To The Genus Musa (family Musaceae) . It Is Perennial, Sending Up From An Underground Root-stock An Apparent Stem Up To Io Ft. High, Con Sisting Of The Closely-enveloped Leaf-sheaths, The Corresponding Blades, Each Sometimes I O Ft. In Length, Forming A Spreading Crown. ...

Banas Or Bunas
Banas Or Bunas, The Name Of Three Rivers Of India: (i) A River Of Rajputana, Which Rises In The Aravalli Range In Udaipur, Drains The Udaipur Val Ley, And After A Course Of 3oom. Flows Into The Chambal; (2) A River Of The Shahabad District Of Bengal, Which Forms The ...