COTTON YARN OUTPUT The figures of the British cotton yarn output were published officially, in a fairly comprehensive form, in the Report of the Third Census of Production (1924) as follows:— British Production of Cotton Yarn in 1924 Counts up to No. 4o 1,009,1 S4,000 lb. k109,090,000 Counts over No. 4o and up to No. 8o 310,037,000 „ 57,026,00o Counts over No. 8o and up to No. 120 ,, Counts over No. 120 3,623,000 ,, 1,946,000 Totals 1,3 78,647,000 lb . 1185,802,000 The International Federation of Master Cotton Spinners' and Manufacturers' Associations publish half-yearly reports of the world's cotton consumption and spindles. From these reports a good idea is obtained of the amount of the yarn output, in every country of the world, by making an allowance for the wastage which occurs in the treatment necessary to convert the cotton into yarn. The numbers or fineness of the yarn spun are not indicated in these returns.
From a comparison of the figures of the yarn output with the consumption of cotton in Great Britain for the year 1924, it is possible to estimate the approximate wastage. Table II. gives figures for the five-year periods 1908-13 and 1921-26. The prin cipal contributors to the world's figures, are included in the fol lowing table. They represent over 7o% of the world's spinning spindles in 1924.
By comparing the figures given in the Third Census of Pro duction (Table I.) with those of the amount of cotton consumed in bales in Great Britain (Table II.), it may be practicable to abstract a conversion figure for determining the amount of yarn produced relative to the cotton consumed in other years with reasonable accuracy. To do this, an estimate of the weight of cotton comprised in the bales consumed during 1924 is first necessary.
The following is an estimate of that weight. Of the 2,718,00o bales consumed in Great Britain, 469,000 are Egyptian of approx imately 750 lb. each, and the rest may approximate to Soo lb. each. The resultant figure is 1,476,250,00o lb. as against the output of yarn for that year 1,378,647,00o lb. being 6.61% less than the cotton consumed. This very low loss is explained by out put, including the yarn which has been remanufactured (spun) from the waste made in processing that cotton.
It would appear from the difference in the mean of the world's consumption with that of its spindles that the world is working harder than it did in 1908-13 to the extent of 1.5%. The output of the cotton spinning industry comprises two structurally dif ferent groups of yarn. These are single yarns and doubled yarns, the latter being made from the former group. It is therefore nec essary to record the figures of output at the spinning stage only, otherwise errors may arise through account being taken of the same yarn twice. Hence all figures are taken as signifying only single yarn.
To identify the products of these two groups it is noted that single yarn is a simple body of fibres bound together by twist. Doubled or folded yarn is made by twisting two or more single or folded yarns together. The magnitude of the work involved in spinning is usually expressed by units of length or weight of a given count produced per unit of time by each spinning spindle.
Some idea of the relative amount of work involved in spinning yarns of different counts is given by expressing such in their approximate relationship. To do this it is assumed that the spin ning twist can only be applied at a fixed rate of speed alike in each case. The customary measure of twist applied in spinning yarn is relatively as the square root of the count. From this it is seen that the time taken to make a given unit length of yarn is of the order when c is the number of the count ; and that taken to Ic make a given unit weight= —= when c is the count of the yarn in question.
The most important output is that required for the manufac ture of fabrics in Great Britain and for export in the yarn state. According to the figures of the 1924 Census of Production they accounted for 1,246 million lb. for that year. Some idea may be formed of the portion of the yarn output which is made by the process of doubling into thread or sewings, twine and net yarn, hosiery yarn, lace yarn, etc., from the following particulars taken from the third Census of Production Report.
Lace Yarn.—Single or folded yarn. The characteristic is that it is a very compact, uniform thread with a clear surface, still, of good colour and strength, free from knots, faults and blemishes.
Hence the yarns produced under such conditions are not so well placed as are those from units which are operated under closer connected links, wherein the action is that of one team, in accom plishing its work with the most rigid economy.
Instead of cotton importing and merchanting, spinning of the yarn, dyeing and finishing, yarn merchanting and marketing, each being a separate and independent business undertaking, they may be all combined in one business. Examples of such combination are found in the general methods adopted by the most active of Great Britain's competitors. Thus, in 1926 65% of the output of the cotton-spindles of Japan was owned and operated by nine con cerns. These concerns are closely linked, buying the raw cotton, and spinning, manufacturing, dyeing, finishing and marketing.
In Great Britain almost the whole of the yarn output is produced in mills spinning restricted ranges of qualities and counts of yarn. This restriction enables specialization of output to be conducted on a mass scale. The business, in the main, is done to order; mak ing yarn for stock is only done when unavoidable, forward con tracts being the ideal form of business. It is the practice to sell to sample. Almost the whole of the labour is piece-work. By this system, each worker directs his exertions largely to making the work as perfect and as automatic as possible by reducing faults and by anticipating and correcting defects, thereby raising the standard of output.
British cotton spinners have directed their efforts to those productions most profitable and appropriate in the changing eco nomic position created by increasing competition. This has led to the spinning of only the better qualities of coarse number yarn from cotton, the rest of these being made from all waste or with a small admixture of cotton ; the spinning of types of yarn in which the high standard of technique secures a better response in the yarn state and in the subsequent manufacturing, dyeing and finish ing. At the same time, attention has been directed to the produc tion of increasing quantities of combed qualities and fine yarn.