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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 6, Part 2: Colebrooke to Damascius

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Abraham Cowley
Cowley, Abraham (1618-1667), English Poet, Was Born In The City Of London, The Son Of A Stationer. While He Was Still At Westminster School, His Poetical Blossoms, Containing Some Remarkable Work, Appeared. He Went Up To Trinity College, Cam Bridge, And In His First Year There Produced A Latin Comedy. ...

Adam George Czartoryski
Czartoryski, Adam George, Prince (1770 1861), Polish Statesman, Was The Son Of Prince Adam Casimir Czartoryski And Isabella Fleming. After A Careful Education At Home Under Tutors, One Of Whom Was Dupont De Nemours, He First Went Abroad In 1786. At Gotha He Heard Goethe Read His I Phi Genie ...

Adam Philippe Custine
Custine, Adam Philippe, Comte De (i ) French General, Was Born In Metz On Feb. 4, 174o, And Began His Military Career In The Seven Years' War. He Next Served Against The English In The War Of American Independence. In 1789 He Was Elected To The States General By The ...

Albert Baird Cummins
Cummins, Albert Baird American Politician, Was Born At Carmichaels, Pa., On Feb. 15, 185o. He Was Educated At Waynesburg (pa.) College, Studied Surveying, And Was At First Engaged In Railway Work. He Then Took Up Law, Was Admitted To The Bar Of Illinois In 1875, And For Three Years Practised ...

Albert Cuyp
Albert Cuyp (1620-1691), The Son Of Jacob Gerritsz By Grietche Dierichsdochter (dierich's Daughter), Was Born At Dord Recht In Oct. 162o, And Married In 1658 Cornelia Bosman. By Right Of His Possessions At Dordwyck, Cuyp Was Privileged To Sit In The High Court Of The Province. As A Citizen He ...

Albin Csaky
Csaky, Albin, Count (1841-1912) , Hungarian States Man, Was Born On April 18, 1841, At Krompach, In The County Of Szepes, And Studied Law In Kassa (daschau) And Budapest. In 1888 He Was Minister Of Education In The Cabinet Of Koloman Tisza. Together With Szilagyi, The Minister Of Justice, Csaky ...

Alexander Cruden
Cruden, Alexander (1 701--17 Io), Author Of The Well Known Biblical Concordance (q.v.), Was Born At Aberdeen On May 31, 1701, And Educated At Marischal College. After A Term Of Con Finement For Insanity He Removed To London, Where He Became A Tutor, And Afterwards Opened A Bookseller's Shop In ...

Alexander Csoma De Koros
Csoma De Koros, Alexander (1784-1842), Or, As The Name Is Written In Hungarian, Korosl Csoma Sandor, Hungarian Traveller And Philologist, Born Apr. 4, 1784, At Koros In Transylvania, Belonged To A Noble Family Which Had Sunk Into Poverty. He Was Educated At Nagy-enyed And At Gottingen. In 1820, Having Received ...

Alexander Cunningham
Cunningham, Alexander (c. Scottish Classical Scholar And Critic, Was Born In Ayrshire. It Is Probable That He Completed His Education At Leyden Or Utrecht. He Was Tutor To The Son Of The First Duke Of Queensberry, Through Whose Influence He Was Appointed Professor Of Civil Law In The University Of ...

Alexander Dalrymple
Dalrymple, Alexander (173 , British Hydrographer, Was Born On July 24, 1737, At New Hanes, Near Edinburgh. In 1752 He Sailed For Madras In The Service Of The East India Company. After A Voyage Of Observation To The Eastern Islands In I 759 He Attempted Unsuccessfully To Open Up Trade ...

Alexander James Dallas
Dallas, Alexander James An American Lawyer, Financier, And Statesman Who As Secretary Of The United States Treasury During The Difficult Years 1814-16 Rendered Great Service In The Restoration Of A National Bank And A National Currency And In The Formulation Of The Tariff Of 1816, Was The Son Of A ...

Alexander John Cuza Or
Cuza Or Couza, Alexander John (alexandru Joan) (1820-1873), First Prince Of Rumania, Was Born On March 20, 182o, At Galatz In Moldavia, Of An Ancient Boiar Or Noble Family. He Was Educated At Jassy, Pavia, Bologna, Athens And Paris. In 1845 He Married Elena Rosetti. Cuza Was Expelled From Moldavia ...

Allan Cunningham
Cunningham, Allan (1784-1842), Scottish Poet And Man Of Letters, Was Born At Keir, Dumfriesshire, On Dec. 7, 1784, And Died On Oct. 3o, 1842. He Began Life As ,a Stone Mason's Apprentice. His Father Was A Neighbour Of Burns At Ellisland, And Allan With His Brother James Visited James Hogg, ...

Andre Racier
Racier, Andre (1651-1722), French Classical Scholar, Was Born At Castres In Upper Languedoc. In 1672 He Went To Paris, And Was Appointed One Of The Editors Of The Delphin Series Of The Classics. In 1683 He Married Anne Lef Evre, The Daughter Of His Old Tutor (see Below). As Payment ...

Andrew Gregg Curtin
Curtin, Andrew Gregg (1817-1894), American Political Leader, Was Born At Bellefonte, Centre County (pa.), On April 2 2, 1817. He Graduated From The Law Department Of Dickin Son College In 1837 And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1839. Entering Politics As A Whig, He Was Chairman Of The Whig ...

Anorthic System
Anorthic System (triclinic.) In The Anorthic (from Av, Privative, And Opoos, Right) Or Triclinic System None Of The Three Crystallographic Axes Are At Right Angles, And They Are All Of Unequal Lengths. In Addition To The Parameters A : B : C, It Is Necessary To Know The Angles, A, ...

Anthropometry
Anthropometry.) These Sys Tems Of Measurement, And The Methods Of Dealing With Them On Statistical Principles Have Been Extended To The Study Of Large Numbers Of The Skulls Of Domestic And Feral Animals, Such As White Rats Or The Varieties Of The Horse. In 1927 An International Com Mittee Of ...

Antoine Augustin Cournot
Cournot, Antoine Augustin French Economist And Mathematician, Was Appointed Assistant Professor At The Academy Of Paris In 1831, Professor Of Mathe Matics At Lyons In 1834, Rector Of The Academy Of Grenoble In 1835, Inspector-general Of Studies In 1838, Rector Of The Academy Of Dijon And Honorary Inspector-general In 1854, ...

Antoine Court De Gebelin
Court De Gebelin, Antoine French Scholar, Son Of Antoine Court (q.v.), Was Born At Nimes, And Became, Like His Father, A Pastor Of The Reformed Church. After Long Years Of Research, He Published In 1775 The First Volume Of His Encyclopaedic Work, Le Monde Primitif, Analyse Et Compare Avec Le ...

Antoine Court
Court, Antoine (1696-176o), French Protestant Di Vine, Known As The "restorer Of Protestantism In France," Was Born In Villeneuve-de-berg (ardeche). At The Time Of The Sup Pression Of The Camisard Revolt He Was A Child Of Eight And Was Taken To The Secret Meetings Of The Persecuted Calvinists. When He ...

Anton Csengery
Csengery, Anton (1822-1880), Hungarian Publicist, And A Historical Writer Of Great Influence On His Time, Was Born At Nagyvarad On The End Of June 1822. He Took, At An Early Date, A Very Active Part In The Literary And Political Movements Immedi Ately Preceding The Hungarian Revolution Of 1848. He ...

Antonio Diniz Da Cruz
Cruz E Silva, Antonio Diniz Da Portuguese Heroic-comic Poet, Son Of A Carpenter, Was Born At Lisbon And Educated At The University Of Coimbra, Where He Took His Degree In Law In 1753. He Then Settled In Lisbon And Began To Write. He Founded The Literary Society Known As The ...

Artificial Silk In The
Artificial Silk In The Cotton Industry When, After The World War, The Artificial Silk Industry Devel Oped Very Rapidly, There Were Some Who Wondered Whether The Older Textiles Were Faced By A New And Serious Rival. Many Looms In The Cotton Industry Have Gone Over To The Weaving Of Fabrics ...

Asymmetric Class
Asymmetric Class (hemihedral, Pediad.) Crystals Of This Class Are Devoid Of Any Elements Of Symmetry. All The Forms Are Pedions, Each Consisting Of A Single Plane; They Are Thus Hemihedral With Respect To Crystals Of The Last Class. Although There Is A Total Absence Of Symmetry, Yet The Faces Are ...

August Leopold Crelle
Crelle, August Leopold German Mathematician, Was Born At Eichwerder, Wriezen, On March 17, 1780. Crelle Was A Man Of Many Interests And Great Organizing Ability, And Worked For The Advancement Of The Exact Sciences. By Profession He Was An "oberbaurat," But Was Interested In Educational Matters, And In 1828 He ...

Augustin Daly
Daly, Augustin (1838-1899), American Theatrical Manager And Playwright, Was Born In Plymouth (n.c.), July 20, 1838. He Was Dramatic Critic For Several New York Papers From 1859, And He Adapted Or Wrote A Number Of Plays, Under The Gaslight (1867) Being His First Success. In 1869 He Was The Man ...

Baron
Baron (1832-1918), British Statesman And Man Of Letters, Eldest Son Of J. S. Courtney, A Banker, Was Born At Penzance On July 6, 183 2. He Won A Sizarship At St. John's College, Cambridge, Gradu Ated Second Senior Wrangler, And Became A Fellow Of His College. Called To The Bar ...

Battle Of Cunaxa
Cunaxa, Battle Of, 401 B.c. This Battle Is More Famous In Its Sequel—the "retreat Of The Ten Thousand" Under Xenophon—than In Itself. Cyrus The Younger, Seeking To Seize The Persian Throne From His Brother Artaxerxes, Had Advanced From Sardis And At Cunaxa, Beside The Euphrates, He Met His Brother's Army. ...

Battle Of Cynoscephalae
Cynoscephalae, Battle Of (197 B.e.). Once The Hannibalic War (see Punic Wars) Was Concluded Roman Ex Pansion Began. Expansion Eastwards Soon Brought The Republic Into Contact With The Fragments Of The Alexandrian Empire, And Between The Years 200 And 197 B.c. The Second Macedonian War Took Place Culminating In The ...

Benedetto Croce
Croce, Benedetto (1866— ), Italian Philosopher, Born On Feb. 25, 1866, At Pescasseroli, Aquila, Of An Abruzzese Family, The Seat Of Which Had Been Transferred To Naples By His Grandfather. There Croce Was Educated At A Catholic School. In 1883, Having Lost Both His Parents In An Earthquake, He Went ...

Benjamin Cuyp
Benjamin Cuyp (1612-165 2) Another Painter Of This Family, Was Born Dec. 1612 And Is Supposed To Have Been A Nephew Of Jacob Gerritsz And To Have Resided Principally At Dordrecht. He Painted In The Style Of Rembrandt. He Died In Aug. 1652. ...

Bibliographic
Bibliographic. See Xenophon, Hellenica, Ii. 3. 4. 19 (a Biased Narrative) Memorabilia, I. 2 ; Cornelius Nepos, Thrasybulus, 2 ; R. Lallier, De Critiae Tyranni Vita Ac Scriptis (1875) ; Nestle, Neue Jahrb. F. D. Kl. Atteit. (1903). ...

Bipyramidal Class
Bipyramidal Class (parallel-faced Hemihedral.) The Elements Of Symmetry Are A Tetrad Axis With A Plane Per Pendicular To It, And A Centre Of Symmetry. The Simple Forms Are The Same Here As In The Holosymmetric Class, Except The Prism { Hko}, Which Has Only Four Faces, And The Bipyramid { ...

Bipyramidal Class_2
Bipyramidal Class (parallel-faced Hemihedral.) Here There Is A Plane Of Symmetry Perpendicular To The Hexad Xis ; There Is Also A Centre Of Symmetry. All The Closed Forms Are Lexagonal Bipyramids; The Open Forms Are Hexagonal Prisms Or He Basal Pinacoid. The General Form { Hikl } Is Hemihedral With ...

Bird
Bird, Reproductive Habits.) Courtship Is Modified In Various Ways With Reference To These Facts. In General, The Less The Share Of The Male In The Care Of Eggs And Young, The Greater The Difference Between The Sexes In Plumage, And The More Striking The (exclusively Male) Courtship Behaviour. This Is ...

Bisphenoidal Class
Bisphenoidal Class (bisphenoidal-tetartohedral.) Here There Is Only A Single Dyad Axis Of Symmetry, Which Coin Cides With The Principal Axis. All The Forms, Except The Prisms And Basal Pinacoid, Are Spheroids. The Calcium Aluminium Silicate And Meliphane Are Per Haps Representatives Of This Class. 3. Orthorhombic System (rhombic; Prismatic; Trimetric.) ...

Bisphenoidal Class_2
Bisphenoidal Class (hemihedral.) Here There Are Three Dyad Axes, But No Planes Of Symmetry And No Centre Of Symmetry. The General Form { Hkl} Is A Bisphenoid (fig. 6i ) Bounded By Four Scalene Triangles. The Other Simple Forms Are Geometrically The Same As In The Holosymmetric Class. Examples : ...

Botany And Cultivation A
Botany And Cultivation A. The Cotton Plant Cotton Consists Of Unicellular Hairs Which Occur Attached To The Seeds Of Various Species Of Plants Of The Genus Gossypium, Belong Ing To The Mallow Family (malvaceae) . Each Fibre Is Formed By The Outgrowth Of A Single Epidermal Cell Of The Testa ...

Brown Creeper
Creeper, Brown, The Name Given To The North Ameri Can Subspecies Of The Small Brown Forest Bird Known In Great Britain As The Tree-creeper (q.v.) . In The Eastern States The Form Is Certlaia Familiaris Americana; The Mexican Creeper (c. F. Al Bescens) ; The Rocky Mountain Creeper (c. F. ...

Caleb Cushing
Cushing, Caleb (1800-1879), American Statesman And Lawyer, Was Born In Salisbury, Mass., On Jan. 17, 1800. He Gradu Ated At Harvard In 1817, Was Tutor In Mathematics There In 1820 21, Was Admitted To The Massachusetts Bar In Dec. 182i, And Began The Practice Of Law In Newburyport, Mass., In ...

Carl Hermann Credner
Credner, Carl Hermann German Geologist, Born At Gotha On Oct. 1, 1841, Son Of The Geologist, C. F. H. Credner (1809-1876), Was Educated At Breslau And Gottingen. In 1870 He Was Appointed Professor Of Geology In The University Of Leipzig, And In 1872 Director Of The Geological Survey Of Sax ...

Carlo Crivelli
Crivelli, Carlo, Venetian Painter, Was Born Between He Died After 1493. Though Born In Venice, Crivelli Worked Chiefly In The March Of Ancona, And Especially In And Near Ascoli. He Was Probably An Offspring Of The Murano School And Was Influenced By Squarcione's Academy At Padua. He Signed As "carolus ...

Carlo Maria Curci
Curci, Carlo Maria (1810-1891), Italian Theologian, Was Born At Naples. He Joined The Jesuits In 1826, And Became One Of The First Editors Of Their Civilta Cattolica. He Wrote A Preface To Gioberti's Primato But Dissented From His Prolegomena. After The Events Of 187o, Curci, At Florence, De Livered A ...

Cesar Antonovitch Cui
Cui, Cesar Antonovitch Russian Composer, Was Born In Vilna On Jan. 18, 1835, The Son Of A French Officer, Who Had Been Left Behind In The Retreat From Moscow In 1812, And Was Educated At Vilna And At The School Of Military Engineering, St. Petersburg (leningrad). He Became A Distinguished ...

Charles Antoine Coy S
Coy S E V O X, Charles Antoine French Sculptor, Was Born At Lyons On Sept. 29, 164o, And Died At Paris On Oct. 10, 17 2o. He Belonged To A Family Which Had Emigrated From Spain, And He Studied Under Lerambert. He Was Employed By Louis Xiv. In Producing ...

Charles Augustin Coulomb
Coulomb, Charles Augustin (1736-1806), French Physicist, Was Born In Angouleme On June 14, 1736. He Was A Military Engineer, And After Spending Nine Years In The West Indies He Returned To France With His Health Much Impaired. In 1789, On The Outbreak Of The Revolution, He Retired To A Small ...

Charles Cressent
Cressent, Charles (1685–r768), French Furniture Maker, Sculptor And Fondeur-ciseleur, Was Born At Amiens On Dec. 16, 1685, And Died In Paris On Jan. 1o, 1768. As The Second Son Of Francois Cressent, Sculpteur Du Roi, And Grandson Of Charles Cressent, A Furniture-maker And Sculptor Of Amiens, He Inherited The Tastes ...

Charles Curtis
Curtis, Charles (186o-1936), American Politician, Was Born In North Topeka, Kan., On Jan. 25, 186o. He Received A Common School Education, Studied Law, Was Admitted To The Bar In 1881, Began Practice In Topeka, And In 1884-88 Served As County Attorney. Entering Politics, He Was Elected In Republican Representative In ...

Charles Egbert Craddock
Craddock, Charles Egbert 2 ), The Pen-name Of Mary Noailles Murfree, American Author, Who Was Born Near Murfreesboro, Tenn., Jan. 24 185o. She Was Crip Pled In Childhood By Paralysis, But Attended School In Nashville And Philadelphia. During Her Summers In The Mountains Of Eastern Tennessee, She Came To Know ...

Charles Gordon Curtis
Curtis, Charles Gordon ), American Inventor, Was Born At Boston (mass.), April 20, 186o. He Was Educated At Columbia University (c.e., 1881; Ll.b., 1883; M.s., 1907 ), And Practised As A Patent Lawyer For Eight Years. He Organized The C. And C. Electric Motor Co., And Also The Curtis Electric ...

Charles Henry Cramp
Cramp, Charles Henry American Shipbuilder, Was Born In Philadelphia, May 9, 1828, The Eldest Of Eleven Children Of William Cramp (1807-186g), Who In 183o Es Tablished Shipyards On The Delaware River, Near Philadelphia. He Became His Father's Partner In 1849. His Inventive Capacity And Resourcefulness Soon Gave Him High Rank ...

Charles I De Blanchefort
Crequy, Charles I. De Blanchefort, Marquis De, Prince De Poix, Duc De Lesdiguieres (1578-1638), Marshal Of France, Was A Member Of A French Noble House Which Took Its Name Originally From A Small Lordship In The Pas-de-calais. He Saw His First Fighting Before Laon In 1594, And Was Wounded At ...

Charlotte Saunders Cushman
Cushman, Charlotte Saunders American Actress, Was Born In Boston, Mass., On July 23, 1816. Her Father, A West India Merchant, Left His Family In Straitened Circumstances, And Charlotte, Who Had A Fine Contralto Voice, Went On The Operatic Stage. In 1835 She Successfully Appeared At The Tremont Theatre As The ...

Chemical Composition
Chemical Composition That The General And Physical Characters Of A Chemical Substance Are Profoundly Modified By Crystalline Structure Is Strikingly Illustrated By The Two Crystalline Modifications Of The Element Carbon—namely, Diamond And Graphite. The Former Crystallizes In The Cubic System, Possesses Four Directions Of Perfect Cleavage, Is Extremely Hard And ...

Christian August Crusius
Crusius, Christian August (1715-1775), German Philosopher And Theologian, Was Born On Jan. 1o, 1715, At Leuna, Near Merseburg, In Saxony. He Was Educated At Leipzig, And Be Came Professor Of Theology There In 175o, And Principal Of The University In 1773. He Died On Oct. 18, 1775. Crusius Opposed The ...

Church Of Cyprus
Cyprus, Church Of. The Church Of Cyprus Is In Com Munion And In Doctrinal Agreement With The Other Orthodox Churches Of The East (see Orthodox Eastern Church), But 1s Independent And Subject To No Patriarch. This Position It Has Always Claimed. At Any Rate, Its Independence "by Ancient Custom" Was ...

Clinohedral Class
Clinohedral Class (hemihedral ; Domatic.) Crystals Of This Class Are Symmetrical Only With Respect To A Single Plane. The Only Form Which Is Here Geometrically The Same As In The Holosymmetric Class Is The Clino Pinacoid { Oio } . The Forms Perpendicular To The Plane Of Symmetry Are All ...

Commerce In Cotton Manufactures
Commerce In Cotton Manufactures Commerce In Cotton Goods Is A Subject As Wide And Complicated As It Is Interesting And Romantic. Cotton Cloth Is An Article Of Necessity In Almost Every Part Of The World. The Term "cotton Cloth" Embraces A Vast Number Of Fabrics; A Manchester Dic Tionary Of ...

Commerce In Cotton Yarns
Commerce In Cotton Yarns One Of The Strangest Features Of The Buying And Selling Of Cotton Yarns In Great Britain Is That There Is No Fixed Form Of Contract, And This Leads To Many Disputes. Notwithstanding However, The Absence Of A Contract When The Magnitude Of The Trade Done Is ...

Comparative Bibliography C Selection Birds
Selection ; Birds ; Psychology, Comparative.) Bibliography.-c. Darwin, The Descent Of Man (1881) ; F. Chap Man, Camps And Cruises Of An Ornithologist (1909) ; W. P. Pycraft, The Courtship Of Animals (1913) ; E. Howard, The British Warblers (1907-14) ; G. M. Levick, Antarctic Penguins (1914) ; J. Meisen ...

Conic Section
Conic Section.) For Certain Sets Of Values Of The Parameters, The Left-hand Side Of The Equation Falls Into Factors, Each Of Which By Itself Gives A Separate Curve. The Product Vanishes Whenever Any Factor Van Ishes By Itself, And The Equation Is Satisfied By The Co-ordinates Of A Point On ...

Contents
Contents. I Arts. 1-5 Universally Recognized Fundamental Truths Of The Christian Religion ; 2 Arts. 6-8 Standards Of Faith ; 3 Arts. 9-18 Sin And Grace ; 4 Arts. 19-36 Church And Sacraments; 5 Arts. 37-9 Civil Order. Owing To The Completeness Of The Thirty-nine Articles The Need For Their ...

Cotton And The Cotton
Cotton And The Cotton Industry. Cotton, The Most Important Of Vegetable Fibres, Has Made Economic His Tory, And Has Had A Potent Effect Upon The Progress And Politics Of The Leading Industrial Nations. In England Its Employment Changed Obscure Places Into Great Towns And Played A Great Part In What ...

Cotton Belt
Cotton Belt, A Name Applied To That Region Of The United States Where Cotton Growing Is The Chief Branch Of Agri Culture. The Area Producing This Plant Is Limited By Its Special Requirements—a Warm Climate, A Long Growing Season, A Fertile Soil And A Moderate Amount Of Summer Rain. The ...

Cotton Cloth Output
Cotton Cloth Output Although Cotton Cloths Find A Ready Market In Nearly Every Country In The World, Their Production Is Mainly Conducted In Less Than A Dozen Countries. This Concentration Of Output Assists Cot Ton Merchants And Manufacturers In The Leading Exporting Centres To Estimate The Quantity And Kind Of ...

Cotton Cultivation
Cotton Cultivation Cotton Is Very Widely Cultivated Throughout The World, Being Grown On A Greater Or Less Scale As A Commercial Crop In Almost Every Country Included In The Broad Belt Between Latitudes N. And 33° S., Or Approximately Between The Isothermal Lines Of 6o° F. It Must, However, Be ...

Cotton Duties Indian
Cotton Duties (indian). The Controversy With Regard To These Duties Dates Back To 1894 When The Government Of India, Finding Itself In Financial Difficulties As The Result Of The Position Of The Exchanges, Wished To Reimpose The Customs Tariff Which Had Been Dropped Since 1882, But Decided To Omit Cotton ...

Cotton Famine
Cotton Famine, Never In The History Of Modern Industry Has Such A Cataclysm Overtaken Any Great Trade As The Cotton Famine Which Devastated The Lancashire Cotton Industry During The Years 1861-65 As The Result Of The American Civil War, When The Supply Of American Cotton, Which Then Formed 85% Of ...

Cotton Finishing Machinery
Cotton-finishing Machinery Only A Relatively Small Quantity Of Woven Cotton-cloth Is Sold To The Actual User In The Condition In Which It Leaves The Weaving Shed ; I.e., In "loom-state." Much Of It Is Bleached, Dyed Or Printed In The Piece, And Subsequently Passes Through A Number Of Finishing Processes. ...

Cotton Ginning Machinery
Cotton-ginning Machinery Ginning Is The Process Of Separating The Cotton Fibres Adhering To The Seed For The Conversion Of The Cotton Into A Continuous Thread. The Methods Employed Vary According To The Locality And Type Of Cotton Cultivated. The Earliest Method, Essentially Manual, Was Discarded In Favour Of The More ...

Cotton Grass Or Cotton Sedge
Cotton-grass Or Cotton-sedge Is The Name Ap Plied To Species Of Eriophorum, A Genus Of The Sedge Family (cyperaceae). There Are 15 Species, Four Being British And Ro North American. They Are Generally Found On Wet And Boggy Moors. The Flowers Are Massed Together Into Heads And Each Has Four ...

Cotton Industry In The
Cotton Industry In The United States The Early History Of Cotton In America Is Obscure, Its Use Pre Dating All Authentic Records. Columbus, On His Voyage Of Discov Ery In 1492, Noted In His Diary That "they [the Natives] Came Swimming Towards Us And Brought Us Parrots, Balls Of Cotton ...

Cotton Machinery
Cotton Machinery This Section Deals With The Machinery Used In The Various De Partments Of The Cotton Industry, Beginning With Cotton Ginning Machines And Passing Successively To Cotton Spinning Machinery, Cotton Weaving Machinery And Cotton Finishing Machinery. Refer Ence Should Also Be Made To The Articles Spinning; Weaving; ...

Cotton Spinners And Manufacturers
Cotton Spinners And Manufacturers' International Federation. The International Federation Of Master Cotton Spinners' And Manufacturers' Asso Ciations Was Established In 1904 To Watch Over And Protect The Common Interests Of The Cotton Industry Of The World, And To Advise The Affiliated Associations Of Actions To Be Taken Against Any Common ...

Cotton Spinning And Manufacture
Cotton Spinning And Manufacture During Thousands Of Years The Spinning Of Yarn And The Weav Ing Of Cloth Persisted As A Manual Operation. At The Outset Primi Tive Appliances Were Used Which Through The Centuries Were Developed And Refined Until Highly Productive And Efficient Devices Were Evolved. Their Proper Employment ...

Cotton Spinning Machinery
Cotton-spinning Machinery The Functions Of The Processes In The Mill Are As Follows : (i) To Reduce The Highly Compressed Cotton From The Bales Into The Greatest Possible State Of Division, I.e., To The Ultimate Fibre, And At The Same Time To Remove Sand, Leaf, Broken Seed And Short Fibres; ...

Cotton Waste
Cotton Waste. In Popular Use This Term Covers A Variety Of Different Forms Of Cotton, From The Loose Tufts Which Litter The Streets Of Every Cotton Town In The United States, Or Of Liverpool, To The Bundles Of Odds And Ends Of Yarn With Which An Engineer Wipes His Hands ...

Cotton Weaving Machinery
Cotton Weaving Machinery The Methods Described Under Weaving (q.v.) Are By Far The Most Widely Used For The Preparation Of Cotton Warps, Especially In Lancashire, But Some Modifications Are Used In Other Centres Of The Industry, And More Productive Methods Are Coming Into Use, Particularly For The Preparation Of Warps ...

Cotton Wool
Cotton Wool. This Term, Originally Applied By Analogy To The Raw Cotton Itself, Has Come To Be Confined To Particular Uses Of Cotton In An Open Form, I.e., Without Being Twisted Or Spun Into Yarn Or Woven Or Knitted Into Fabric. It Is Used In Many Different Forms For An ...

Cotton Yarn Output
Cotton Yarn Output The Figures Of The British Cotton Yarn Output Were Published Officially, In A Fairly Comprehensive Form, In The Report Of The Third Census Of Production (1924) As Follows:— British Production Of Cotton Yarn In 1924 Counts Up To No. 4o 1,009,1 S4,000 Lb. K109,090,000 Counts Over No. ...

Cotys
Cotys, King Of Thrace From 383 To 36o B.c., Disputed With The Athenians The Possession Of The Thracian Chersonese. H Was Assisted By The Athenians, Iphicrates And Charidemus, To The Former Of Whom He Had Given His Daughter In Marriage. On The Revolt Of Ariobarzanes From Persia, Cotys Opposed Him ...

Coucy Le Chateau Auffrique
Coucy-le-chateau-auffrique, A Village Of Northern France, In The Department Of Aisne, 18 M. W.s.w. Of Laon On A Branch Of The Northern Railway. Pop. 944. It Had Extensive Remains Of Fortifications Of The 13th Century, The Most Remarkable Feature Of Which Was The Porte De Laon. It Also Had A ...

Coulisse
Coulisse, A Term For A Groove In Which A Gate Of A Sluice, Or The Side-scenes In A Theatre, Slide Up And Down, Hence Applied To The Space On The Stage Between The Wings, And Generally To That Part Of The Theatre "behind The Scenes" And Out Of View Of ...

Coulommiers
Coulommiers, A Town Of Northern France, In The Depart Ment Of Seine-et-marne, 45 M. E. Of Paris By Rail. Pop. (1931), 5,497. It Is Situated In The Fertile District Of Brie, In A Valley Watered By The Grand-morin. The Disused Church Of St. Denis Dates From The 13th And I6th ...

Coumarin
Coumarin, An Odorous Substance Which Occurs In Sweet Woodruff (asperula Odorata), In The Tonka Bean And In Yellow Melilot (melilotus Oficinalis) ; It Can Be Obtained From The Tonka Bean By Extraction With Alcohol. Coumarin, Is Prepared Artificially By The Action Of Acetic Anhydride And Sodium Acetate On Salicyl Aldehyde ...

Coumarones Or Benzofurfuranes
Coumarones Or Benzofurfuranes, A Colourless Liquid Which Boils At 171-172° C, And Is Readily Volatile In Steam, But Is Insoluble In Water And In Potash Solution. It Occurs In The Frac Tion, Boiling Point 16o-200° C, Of Coal Tar And Is Converted By Sulphuric Acid Into Coumarone Resin (see Resins, ...

Council Bluffs
Council Bluffs, A City Of South-western Iowa, U.s.a., Near The Missouri River, Opposite Omaha; The County Seat Of Pottawattamie County. It Is On Federal Highways 3o, 32, 34 And 75; And Is Served By The Union Pacific, The Burlington, The Chi Cago, Milwaukee, St. Paul And Pacific, The Chicago And ...

Council Ultramontanism Infallibility
Council ; Ultramontanism ; Infallibility.) The Earlier Oecumenical Councils Have Well Been Called "the Pitched Battles Of Church History." Summoned To Combat Heresy And Schism, In Spite Of Degrading Pressure From Without And Tumultuous Disorder Within, They Ultimately Brought About A Modicum Of Doctrinal Agreement. On The One Side As ...

Council
Council, The General Word For A Convocation, Meeting, Assembly. The Latin Word Concilium (from Cum, Together And Calare, To Call) Was Frequently Confused With Consilium (from Consulere, To Deliberate, Cf. Consul), Advice, I.e., Counsel, And Thus Specifically An Advisory Assembly. In French The Distinction Be Tween Conseil (from Consilium) , ...

Councils Of Orange
Councils Of Orange. The Most Important Of These Is The Council Of 529, When Fifteen Bishops, Under The Presidency Of Caesarius Of Arles, Assembled Primarily To Dedicate A Church, The Gift Of Liberius, The Lieutenant Of Theodoric, In Gaul, At What Proved To Be One Of The Most Important Councils ...

Counsel And Counsellor
Counsel And Counsellor. The Term "counsel" Is Employed In England As A Synonym For A Barrister (q.v.). Counsellor Or, More Fully, Counsellor-at-law, Is An Obsolete Term In England, But Is Still In Use In Ireland As An Equivalent To Bar Rister. In The United States, A Counsellor-at-law Is, Specifically, An ...

Count
Count, The English Translation Of Foreign Titles Equivalent Generally To The English "earl." In Anglo-french Documents The Word Counte Was At All Times Used As The Equivalent Of Earl, But, Unlike The Feminine Form "countess," It Did Not Find Its Way Into The English Language Until The I6th Century, And ...

Counter I
Counter. (i) A Round Piece Of Metal Or Wood Used Form Erly In Making Calculations (lat. Computare, To Reckon), And Now For Reckoning Points Or As Tokens Representing Actual Coins In Card Games, Gambling Games, Etc. Hence, Figuratively, Some Thing Of No Real Value, A Sham. The Table Or Flat-topped ...

Counterfeiting
Counterfeiting, Making An Imitation Without Author Ity And For The Purpose Of Defrauding, Especially An Imitation Of Money, Whether Paper Or Coin. (see Coinage, Offences ; For Gery.) ...

Counterfort
Counterfort. A Form Of Buttress Used For The Strength Ening Of Walls Of Mediaeval Fortifications. It Was Found That With The Introduction Of Cannon As Siege Weapons In The I 5th Century, The Ordinary Types Of Masonry Walls Backed With Earth, Were Not Sufficiently Strong To Stand Battering By Artillery. ...

Counterpoint
Counterpoint, In Music, The Art Defined By Sir Fred Erick Gore Ouseley As That Of "combining" Melodies (lat. Con Trapunctus, "point Counter Point," "note Against Note"). This Neat Definition Is Not Quite Complete. Classical Counterpoint Is The Conveying Of A Mass Of Harmony By Means Of A Combination Of Melodies. ...

Counterpoise
Counterpoise, In Wireless, A System Of Wires Or Other Conductors In A Radio Circuit, Forming The Lower Capacity Area Of An Antenna Of The Condenser Type (see Antenna). The Counter Poise Conductors Are Elevated Above And Insulated From The Ground And Are Substantially As Extensive As The Aerial. ...

Counterscarp
Counterscarp (="opposite Scarp," Fr. Contrescarpe) A Term Used In Fortification For The Outer Slope Of A Ditch ; See Fortification And Siegecraft. ...

Countersign
Countersign, A Military Term For A Sign, Word Or Signal Previously Arranged And Required To Be Given By Persons Approach Ing A Sentry, Guard Or Other Post As A Means Of Establishing That They Are Not Hostile Or Unauthorized. In Some Armies The "counter Sign" Is Strictly The Reply Of ...

Countervailing Duties
Countervailing Duties. The Underlying Idea Of A Countervailing Duty Is One Which Is Imposed For The Purpose Of Setting Off Or Compensating Some Other Duty. The Form In Which It Was First Used Was That Of A Duty Imposed On Goods Imported Into The Country, Where Similar Goods Produced In ...