CREATIONISM AND TRADUCIANISM. Traducian ism is the doctrine about the origin of the soul which was taught by Tertullian in his De anima—that souls are generated from souls in the same way and at the same time as bodies from bodies: creationism is the doctrine that God creates a soul for each body that is generated. The Pelagians taunted the upholders of original sin with holding Tertullian's opinion, and called them Traduciani (from tradux: vid. Du Cange s. vv.), a name which was perhaps suggested by a metaphor in De an. 59, where the soul is described "velut surculus quidam ex matrice Adam in propaginem deducta." Hence we have formed "traducianist," "traducianism," and by analogy "creationist," "creationism." Augustine denied that tra ducianism was necessarily connected with the doctrine of original sin, and to the end of his life was unable to decide for or against it. His letter to Jerome (Epist. Clas. iii. 166) is a most valuable statement of his difficulties. Jerome condemned it, and said that creationism was the opinion of the Church, though he admitted that most of the Western Christians held traducianism. The question has never been authoritatively determined, but crea tionism, which had always prevailed in the East, became the gen eral opinion of the mediaeval th?ologians, and Peter Lombard's creando injundit animas Deus et it fuuaendo treat was an accepted formula. Luther, like Augustine, was undecided, but Lutherans have as a rule been traducianists. Calvin favoured creationism.
Modern biological and psychological studies have modified the conditions of the problem. By insisting upon the close union be tween body and soul, and the continuity in the development of both from the parents, they may seem to lend support to tradu cianism. Yet this need not carry with it any materialistic conse quence; for the soul, or psychical element in man's nature, may be as important as the body, or physical element, in the development which takes place ; and the evolutionary process itself may be creative.
See, for the history, indices to Augustine, vol. xi., and Jerome, vol. xi., in Migne's Patrologia, s.v. "Anima"; A. Harnack, History of Dogma (see Index) .