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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 6, Part 2: Colebrooke to Damascius

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Crawford Notch
Crawford Notch, A Deep Defile Through The White Mountains, Dividing The Great New Hampshire Group Near Its Centre. The Notch Proper, About 3m. In Length, Is Formed By Mts. Willard And Willey On The West And Mts. Webster And Jackson On The East. The Pass At Its Highest Point Attains ...

Crawfordsville
Crawfordsville, A City Of Indiana, U.s.a., 40m. N.w. Of Indianapolis, On Sugar Creek; The County Seat Of Montgomery County. It Is Served By The Monon Route, The Big Four, And The Pennsylvania Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 10,139; It Was 10,355. It Is The Trading And Distributing Centre For ...

Crayfish
Crayfish, The Name Of Freshwater Crustacea, Closely Allied To And Resembling The Lobsters, And, Like Them, Belonging To The Order Decapoda. They Are Divided Into Two Families ; The Asta Cidae And Parastacidae, Inhabit Ing Respectively The Northern And The Southern Hemispheres. The Crayfishes Of England And Ireland (astacus Pallipes) ...

Crayon
Crayon, A Black Or Coloured Material For Drawing, Gener Ally In The Form Of Pencils, But Sometimes In Powdered Form. Ob Tainable, To Some Extent, From Native Earthy And Other Compact And Friable Mineral Substances, Crayons Are, For The Most Part, Artificially Prepared Mixtures Of A Base Of Pipe Or ...

Creameries
Creameries. The Earliest Creameries In Europe Were The Result Of Political Movements. Largely In Consequence Of The Loss Of Schleswig-holstein And The Closing Of The German Market, The Farmers Of Denmark Were The First To Alter Their Methods To Suit The New And Radical Change In European Agriculture, Due To ...

Creationism And Traducianism
Creationism And Traducianism. Traducian Ism Is The Doctrine About The Origin Of The Soul Which Was Taught By Tertullian In His De Anima—that Souls Are Generated From Souls In The Same Way And At The Same Time As Bodies From Bodies: Creationism Is The Doctrine That God Creates A Soul ...

Creative Evolution
Creative Evolution Is An Expression Introduced By H. Bergson (q.v.), And Intimately Connected With His Philosophy (creative Evolution, Eng. Trans., 1922). It Is Intended To Draw Attention To The Moment Of Spontaneous Originality In Nature, And Especially In Certain Activities And Experiences Of Mankind. The Work Of A Great Poet ...

Crecy
Crecy (cressy), A Town Of Northern France, In The Depart Ment Of Somme, On The Maye, I 2m. N. By E. Of Abbeville By Road. It Is Famous In History For The Great Victory Gained Here On Aug. 26, 1346, By The English Under Edward Iii. Over The French Of ...

Credence Or Credence Table
Credence Or Credence Table, Originally A Small Side-table Placed Near The High Table, In Royal Or Noble Houses, For The Tasting Of Food And Drink For Poisons By An Official Of The Household Called The Praegustator Or Credentiarius. The Name (from Med. Lat. Credentia, Ital. Credenza, Fr. Credence), Survived After ...

Credentials
Credentials (lettres De Creance), A Document, Which Ambassadors, Ministers Plenipotentiary, And Charges D'affaires Hand To The Government To Which They Are Accredited, For The Purpose, Chiefly, Of Communicating To The Latter The Envoy's Diplo Matic Rank. It Also Contains A Request That Full Credence Be Accorded To His Official Statements. ...

Credit Foncier
Credit Foncier. A French Joint-stock Bank, Whose Head Office Is In Paris. It Was Established To Advance Money On The Mortgage Of Real Securities, But It Also Grants Communal Loans, Receives Money On Deposit, And Discounts Bills Of Exchange. It Is Of Special Interest Because Of Its Function In Creating ...

Credit Manager
Credit Manager, A Title Used In Business Organization Especially In The U.s.a. To Denote The Individual Charged With Re Sponsibility For Determining When And Where Credit Will Be Ex Tended And With Supervision Over The Collection Of Outstanding Accounts And Notes Receivable. He Is Usually Responsible To The Chief Financial ...

Credit Mobilier Of America
Credit Mobilier Of America, A Construction Company Whose Operations In Connection With The Building Of The Union Pacific Railroad Gave Rise To One Of The Most Serious Po Litical Scandals In The History Of The United States Congress. The Company Was Originally Chartered As The Pennsylvania Fiscal Agency In 1859. ...

Credit Note
Credit Note. In Commerce, An Invoice Acknowledging That A Sum Of Money Is Due From The Issuing Person Or Firm As Debtor To The Receiver As Creditor. It Is Usual To Issue A Credit Note In Respect Of Such Matters As Overcharges, Breakages, Goods Accepted Returnable, Allowances For Faulty Work, ...

Credit
Credit. In Commerce, The Sale Of Goods Or The Transfer Of Property Upon Promise Of Deferred Payment. Generally, Belief Or Trust (lat. Credere, To Believe). The Term Is Also Commonly Used To Express The Reputation Of An Individual Or Institution, As In "a Man Of Credit." In Book-keeping, The Side ...

Crediton
Crediton, Market Town Of Devonshire, England, 71 M. N.w. Of Exeter By The S.r. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 3,49o. It Is Situated In The Narrow Vale Of The River Creedy Near Its Junction With The Exe, Between Two Steep Hills, And Is Divided Into Two Parts, The East Or ...

Cree
Cree, An Algonkin Indian Tribe, Or Loose Aggregation Of Bands, Holding A Large Territory South Of Churchill River And From Hudson Bay West Inie Manitoba And Assiniboia. The Name Is An Abbreviation From Cristineaux Or Kinisteneaux. Essentially A Forest People, As Shown By The Resemblance Of Their Dialect To Ojibwa ...

Creeds
Creeds. From The Times Of The Early Church Till The Present Day Definitely Formulated Confessions Of Faith Have Played A Large Part Both In The Liturgy And In The Theology Of All Christian De Nominations. We Find Them In The Early Church Predominantly As Baptismal Confessions, I.e., As Formulae Which ...

Creek
Creek. This, The Most Important Native People Of Muskogi (q.v.) Lineage, Was Resident In Georgia And Alabama. Comprising A Series Of Local Tribal Leagues In The Days Of De Soto And Other Spanish 16th Century Explorers, They Had Formed Themselves By The T 8th Century Into A Confederacy Of About ...

Creek_2
Creek, A Small Inlet On A Low Coast Or In The Lower Reaches Of A River At The Mouth Of A Small Tributary, Also Applied To A Shallow Narrow Harbour For Small Vessels. In America And Australia Especially There Are Many Long Shallow Streams Inter Mittent In Flow And Navigable ...

Creeping Barrage
Creeping Barrage. A Military Term Denoting The System (introduced In 1916) Whereby Infantry Advance And The Ar Tillery Fire Are Regulated By A Time-table, The Barrage, Or Curtain Of Shells, Moving Forward A Stated Number Of Yards Every Minute And The Infantry Following Behind It. The Limitation Of The Standing ...

Creetown
Creetown, A Seaport Of Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. It Is Situated Near The Head Of Wigtown Bay, 18m. W. Of Castle Douglas, And Is Served By Railway To Stranraer And Dumfries. Pop. 757. The Village Dates From 1785, And It Became A Burgh Of Barony In 1792. There Are Important Granite Quarries ...

Crefeld Or Krefeld
Crefeld Or Krefeld, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Rhine Province, On The Left Side Of And 3 M. Distant From The Rhine, 32 M. N.w. From Cologne, And 15 M. N.w. From Dusseldorf. Pop. (1933) 165,271. The Town Is One Of The Finest In The Rhine Provinces, Being ...

Creil
Creil, A Town Of Northern France, In The Department Of Oise, 32 M. N. Of Paris On The Northern Railway, On Which It Is An Important Junction. Pop. (1931) 1o,469. The Church (12th To 15th Centuries) Is In The Gothic Style. There Are Some Traces Of A Castle In Which ...

Crema
Crema, A Town And Episcopal See Of Lombardy, Italy, Province Of Cremona, 26m. N.e. By Rail From The Town Of Cre Mona. Pop. (1931) 13,228 (town) ; 23,772 (commune). It Is On The Right Bank Of The Serio, 24oft. Above Sea-level, In The Centre Of A Rich Agricultural District. The ...

Cremation Certificate
Cremation Certificate, In The United States, A Certificate, Signed By Duly Authorized Persons, Such As Trustee, Committee, Etc., Stating That They Have Witnessed The Total Destruc Tion By Fire Of The Papers Or Securities Therein Named. It Is Custom Ary To Burn Retired Securities And To Retain A Cremation Certificate ...

Cremation
Cremation, The Burning Of Human Corpses. This Method Of Disposal Of The Dead Was The General Practice Of The Ancient World, With The Important Exceptions Of Egypt, Where Bodies Were Embalmed, Judaea, Where They Were Buried In Sepulchres, And China, Where They Were Buried In The Earth. Cremation Is Still ...

Creme De Menthe
Creme De Menthe, A Peppermint Liqueur, Usually Of A Beautiful Dark Green Colour. By A Series Of Distillations The Es Sence Of The Mint, The Scent Of It, Is Separated From Oils And Im Purities. That Essence Is Used In The Making Of Creme De Menthe. In Former Days The ...

Cremera
Cremera, A Small Stream In Etruria (mod. Fosso Della Valchetta), Which Falls Into The Tiber About 6m. N. Of Rome. The Identification With The Fosso Della Valchetta Is Assured By Livy's Statement That The Saxa Rubra Were Not Far Off, And This We Know To Be The Roman Name Of ...

Cremona
Cremona, A City And Episcopal See Of Lombardy, Italy, The Capital Of The Province Of Cremona, Situated On The North Bank Of The Po, 155ft. Above Sea-level, 6om. By Rail S.e. Of Milan. Pop. (town) ; 64,002 (commune). It Is Oval In S"l Pe, And Retains Its Mediaeval Fortifications. The ...

Cremorne Gardens
Cremorne Gardens, Formerly A Popular Resort By The Thames In Chelsea, London, England. The Earl Of Huntingdon (c. 1750), Built A Mansion Here, Which Passed Into The Hands Of Thomas Dawson, Baron Dartrey And Viscount Cremorne (1725— 1813), Who Greatly Beautified It. It Was Sold And Converted Into A Place ...

Crenelle
Crenelle, A Term Specifically Designating An Embrasure Of A Battlement, But Also Commonly Applied To The Whole System Of Defence By Battlements. In Mediaeval Times No One Could "crenellate" A Building Without Special Licence From His Supreme Lord. ...

Creodonta
Creodonta. An Order Or Sub-order Of Primitive Car Nivora Characteristic Of The Older Tertiary. The Creodonts Were The Flesh-eating Animals Of The Northern Continents During The Eocene, And Included A Number Of Families Of Diverse Or Partly Parallel Specialization, From One Of Which, The Miacidae, Were Descended The Various Families ...

Creole
Creole, A Word Used Originally (16th Century) To Denote Persons Born In The West Indies Of Spanish Parents, As Distin Guished From Immigrants Direct From Spain, Aboriginals, Negroes Or Mulattos (from The Fr. Form Of Criollo, A West-indian Corrup Tion Of Span. Criadillo, Cognate With Lat. Create, To Create). It ...

Creon I
Creon (i) Son Of Lycaethus, King Of Corinth And Father Of Glauce Or Creiisa, The Second Wife Of Jason (q.v.). (2) See Oedipus. ...

Creophylus
Creophylus Of Samos, One Of The Earliest Greek Epic Poets. According To An Epigram Of Callimachus (quoted In Strabo Xiv. P. 638) He Was The Author Of A Poem Called The Capture Of Oechalia. He Was Said To Have Been A Friend Of Homer, Who, According To Another Tradition, Was ...

Creosote Bush
Creosote-bush (larrea Tridentata Or Covillea Glandu Losa), A North American Shrub Of The Caltrop Family (zygophyl Laceae), Called Also Greasewood, Native To Hot Arid Regions In The Southwestern United States And Adjacent Mexico. It Is An Evergreen, Rank-smelling, Diffusely-branched Shrub, 2 Ft. To 5 Ft. High, With Brittle Stems And ...

Creosote Or Creosote
Creosote Or 'creosote. In 1832 Reichenbach Applied The Term "kreosote" To A Substance Possessing Powerful Antisep Tic Properties And Derived From Wood Tar. Shortly Afterwards, Runge Discovered Carbolic Acid In Coal Tar And Showed That It Possessed Many Of The Characteristics Of "kreosote." The Isola Tion Of Similar Products From ...

Crepe De Chine
Crepe De Chine. A Very Light And Fine Plain Woven Dress Fabric, Produced Either With A Fine Warp And Weft Of All-silk, Or Else With A Silk Warp And Hard-spun Worsted Weft. As The Name Implies, A Crepe De Chine Texture Has A Slightly Crepe Character, A Feature Which Is ...

Crepuscular
Crepuscular, Of Or Belonging To The Twilight, Hence Indistinct Or Glimmering; In Zoology The Word Is Used Of Animals That Appear During The Half Light, Morning Or Evening. ...

Crescendo
Crescendo (it.) Means Literally Merely "growing," But As Used In The Familiar Musical Direction—cresc.—implies Always Increasing In Loudness. The Sign — Expresses The Same Meaning. ...

Crescent
Crescent, Originally The Waxing Moon, Hence A Name Ap Plied To The Shape Of The Moon In Its First Quarter. The Crescent Is Employed As A Charge In Heraldry, With Its Horns Vertical; When They Are Turned To The Dexter Side Of The Shield, It Is Called Increscent, When To ...

Cresilas
Cresilas, A Cretan Sculptor Of Cydonia. He Was A Contem Porary Of Pheidias, And The Sculptor Of One Of The Amazons In The Famous Competition At Ephesus (see Greek Art) About 45o B.c. As His Amazon Was Wounded (volnerata; Pliny, Nat. Hist. Xxxiv. 75), We May Perhaps Identify It With ...

Cresols Or Methyl Phenols
Cresols Or Methyl Phenols. The Three Isomeric Cresols Are Found In The Tar Obtained In The Destructive Distilla Tion Of Coal, Beech-wood And Pine. The Crude Cresol Obtained From Tar Boils From 185 To 205° And Constitutes The "cresylic Acid" Of Commerce (see Coal Tar). The Formula Is And The ...

Cress
Cress (lepidium Sativum). An Annual Garden Plant (family Crucif Erae ), Known In The Cultivated State At The Present Day In Europe, North Africa, Western Asia And India, But Of Obscure Origin. It Is Used In Salads, The Plants Being Cut And Eaten While Still In The Seed-leaf, Forming, Along ...

Crest
Crest, A Town Of South-eastern France, In The Department Of Drome, On The Right Bank Of The Drome, Zo M. S.s.e. Of Valence By Rail. Pop. (1931) 3,730. On The Rock Which Commands The Town Stands A Huge Keep, The Sole Survival Of A Castle (12th Century) Which Made Crest ...

Cresting
Cresting, In Architecture, A Decorative Termination For The Top Of A Wall, Or Other Architectural Member, In Which The Decora Tion Lies Primarily In A Vertical Plane, And Achieves Its Effect By Serration Of The Edge With A Band Of Pierced Work Or Rich Carving Below. ...

Crestline
Crestline, An Incorporated Village Of Crawford County, Ohio, U.s.a., 75m. S.w. Of Cleveland, On The Lincoln Highway And Served By The Big Four And Pennsylvania Railroads. Pop. Federal Census 4,425. The Country Produces Chiefly Wheat, Corn And Oats. There Are Railroad Shops In The Village, And Factories Making Steel Ranges, ...

Creston
Creston, A City Of Iowa, U.s.a., 6om. S.w. Of Des Moines, At An Altitude Of 1,31oft., On The Crest Of The Watershed Between The Mississippi And The Missouri Basins; The County Seat Of Union County. It Is On Federal Highway 34, And Is Served By The Burlington Railway. The Population ...

Creswick
Creswick, A Borough Of Talbot County, Victoria, Australia. Pop. Est. (1933) 1,506. Gold Is Found Both In Alluvial And Quartz Formations, The Quartz Being Especially Rich. The Surrounding Country Is Fertile And Well Timbered, And There Is A Government Plantation And Nursery In Connection With The Forests Department. ...

Cretaceous System
Cretaceous System, The Group Of Rocks Which Nor Mally Occupy A Position Above The Jurassic System And Below The Tertiary. In Many Areas, The System (from Lat. Creta, White Chalk, A Characteristic Rock-type Of The Upper Cretaceous In N.w. Europe), Falls Naturally Into Two Divisions; The Lower Is Sometimes Regarded ...

Crete
Crete, After Sicily, Sardinia And Cyprus The Largest Island In The Mediterranean, Situated Between 34° 5o' And 35° 4o' N. Lat. And Between 23° 3o' And 20' E. Long. Its North-eastern Extremity, Cape Sidero, Is Distant About No M. From Cape Krio In Asia Minor, The Interval Being Partly Filled ...

Cretinism
Cretinism, The Term Given To A Chronic Disease, Either Sporadic Or Endemic, Arising In Early Childhood, And Due To Absence Or Deficiency Of The Normal Secretion Of The Thyroid Gland. It Is Characterized By Imperfect Development Both Of Mind And Body. The Endemic Form Of Cretinism Prevails In The Valleys ...

Cretonne
Cretonne, The Name Of A Class Of Printed Cotton Fabrics Used Chiefly For Furniture Upholstery, Hangings, Window Drapery, Many Other Household Purposes, And Are Also Made Into Smocks, Fancy Overalls, Etc. The Finer And Lighter Textures Of Cretonnes Are Also Made Into Fancy Overalls And Other Garments For Women And ...

Creuse
Creuse, A Department Of Central France, Comprising The Greater Portion Of The Old Province Of Marche, Together With Portions Of Berry, Bourbonnais, Auvergne, Limousin And Poitou. Area, 2,164 Sq.m. Pop. (1931) 207,882. It Is Bounded North By The Departments Of Indre And Cher, East By Allier And Puy-de Dome, South ...

Crevasse
Crevasse (fr.), A Fissure In A Glacier, May Be Transverse Or Longitudinal, Brought About By Tension Due To Unequal Rates Of Movement, The Central Part Generally Moving Faster Than The Margins, And (or) Movement Over An Uneven Surface. Irregular Pinnacles Of Ice Between Crevasses Of Great Magnitude On Steep Slopes ...

Crevillente
Crevillente, A Town Of Eastern Spain, In The Province Of Alicante, And On The Murcia-alicante Railway. Pop. (193o) 11,991. Crevillente Is Picturesquely Situated In The Eastern Foot Hills Of The Sierra De Crevillente, Amid Orange, Palm And Aloe Groves Broken By Great Rocky Masses. Careful Irrigation Has Allowed The District, ...

Crewe Milnes
Crewe-milnes, 1st Marquess Of (1858— ), English Statesman And Writer, Born Jan. 12, 1858, Being The Son Of Lord Houghton (q.v.), And Was Educated At Harrow And Trinity, Cam Bridge. He Inherited His Father's Literary Tastes, And Published Stray Verses In 189o, Besides Other Miscellaneous Literary Work. A Liberal In ...

Crewe
Crewe, A Municipal Borough In Cheshire, England, 158m. N.w. Of London, On The Main Line Of The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931) 46,061. The Town Was Built On An Estate Called Oak Farm In The Parish Of Monk's Coppenhall, And Takes Its Name From The Original Stations Having Been Placed In The ...

Crewkerne
Crewkerne, A Market Town And Urban District Of Somer Setshire, England, On The S.r., 8m. S.w. Of Yeovil. Pop. (1931) It Is Pleasantly Situated In The Upper Valley Of The River Parret. The Fine Church Of St. Bartholomew Is In The Perpendicu Lar Style Characteristic Of The District ; The ...

Cribbage
Cribbage, A Game Of Cards. A Very Similar Game Called "noddy" Was Formerly Played, The Game Being 15 Or 21 Up, Marked With Counters, Occasionally By Means Of A Noddy Board. Cribbage Seems To Be An Improved Form Of Noddy. According To John Aubrey (brief Lives) It Was Invented By ...

Criccieth
Criccieth, A Watering-place And Contributory Parliamen Tary Borough Of Carnarvonshire, Wales, On Cardigan Bay, Served By The G.w.r. Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 1,449. The Ruined Castle, Perched On A Green Hill Projecting Into The Sea, Was Re Paired In The Time Of Edward I. ; Portions Of Two Towers ...

Cricket
Cricket. The Origin Of The Word, As Applied To The Most Important Of British Games, Is Still The Subject Of Much Dispute. The New English Dictionary (vol. V. 1893) Somewhat Hesitatingly Identifies It With The French "criquet," First Met With In A Manu Script Dated 1478 Which Reads—"le Suppliant Arriva ...

Cricket_2
Cricket, A Family (gryllidae, Order Orthoptera) Of Jump Ing Insects Allied To The Long-horned Grasshoppers. The Wings When Folded Form Long Slender Filaments, Which Often Reach Beyond The Extremity Of The Body, And Give The Appearance Of A Bifid Tail, While In The Male They Are Provided With A Stridulating ...

Crickhowell
Crickhowell, Market Town, Breconshire, Wales, In The South-east Of The County On The Left Bank Of The Usk Guarding The Northern Exit Of The Road Into The County Between The Brecon Beacons And The Black Mountains. Pop. Rural Dist. (1931) 7,157. The Town Is Said To Derive Its Name From ...

Cricklade
Cricklade, Market Town Of Wiltshire, England, 9m. N.w. Of Swindon, On The G.w.r. Pop. (1921) 1,425. Cricklade Owed Its Importance In Saxon Times To Its Position At The Passage Of The Thames, And Is Mentioned In The Anglo-saxon Chronicle. It Possessed A Mint In The Time Of Edward The Confessor, ...

Crieff
Crieff, Police Burgh And Parish, Perthshire, Scotland, Capital Of Strathearn, M. W. Of Perth By The L.m.s.r. Pop. (1931) 6,058. It Occupies The Southern Slopes Of A Hill On The Left Bank Of The Earn. Its Climate Is Very Healthy, The Air Being Pure And Dry, And It Has Recently ...

Crime
Crime. Many Attempts Have Been Made To Find An Accurate Definition Of Crime, Such As "an Anti-social Act," "a Failure Or Refusal To Live Up To The Standard Of Conduct Deemed Binding By The Rest Of The Community," And "some Act Or Omission In Respect Of Which Legal Punishment May ...

Crimean War
Crimean War. The Causes Of The Crimean War, In Which Great Britain And France, Allies For The First Time For Two Centuries, Drifted Into War With Russia, Were Involved If Not Ob Scure. Russia, To Whom Popular Opinion Of The Times, In Flat De Fiance Of History, Attributed A Power ...

Criminal Law
Criminal Law. By Criminal, Or Penal, Law Is Now Under Stood The Law As To The Definition, Trial And Punishment Of Crimes, I.e., Of Acts Or Omissions Forbidden By Law Which Affect Injuriously Public Rights, Or Constitute A Breach Of Duties Due To The Whole Community. The Sovereign Is Taken ...

Criminology
Criminology, A Modern Term Invented To Describe The Results Of Recent Inquiries Into The Personal Or Social Factors Which Determine Criminal Misconduct, But Which Has, In The Hands Of Its More Recent Exponents, Come To Include The Whole Prob Lem Of Crime And Its Treatment In Human Society. A Comprehen ...

Crimmitschau Or Krimmitschau
Crimmitschau Or Krimmitschau, Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Saxony, On The Pleisse And The Main Leipzig Hof Railway, 7 M. N. W. From Zwickau. Pop. (1933) 27,85o. The Most Important Industries Are The Spinning Of Carded Yarn And Wool, And The Processes Of Dyeing, Finishing And Wool-spinning Connected ...

Crimp
Crimp, An Agent For The Supplying Of Soldiers And Sailors, By Kidnapping, Drugging, Decoying Or Other Illegal Means. Crimps Were Formerly Regularly Employed In The Days Of Impressment (q.v.). Now The Term Is Used, First Of Any One Who Engages To Supply Merchant Seamen Without A License From The Board ...

Crimson
Crimson, A Strong, Bright Red Colour Tinged To A Greater Or Less Degree With Purple. The Dye Is Produced From The Dried Bodies Of The Cochineal Insect. The Word Is Adapted From The Med. Lat. Cremesinus Or Carmesinus, The Dye Produced From The Insect Kermes. From The Lat. Carminus, A ...

Crinagoras
Crinagoras, Of Mytilene, Greek Epigrammatist, Flour. Ished During The Reign Of Augustus (strabo, Xiii. P. 617) . A Num Ber Of Epigrams Appear Under His Name In The Greek Anthology. From Inscriptions Discovered At Mytilene, He Appears To Have Been One Of The Ambassadors Sent From That City To Rome ...

Crinan Canal
Crinan Canal, A Small Ship-canal In Scotland, Extending From Ardrishaig On Loch Gilp To Crinan On Loch Crinan. It Was Made By A Company Incorporated In 1793, And Was Opened For Traffic In 18oi. At Various Times It Received Grants Of Public Money, And Ultimately In Respect Of These It ...

Crinoidea
Crinoidea, Popularly Called Feather-stars (q.v.), The Most Primitive Existing Class Of The Echinoderma (q.v.), Formerly Represented By A Vast Number Of Individuals And Species But Now Much Reduced. The Best Known Species Is Antedon Roseus. ...

Crinoline
Crinoline, A Stiffening Material Made Of Horse-hair And Cotton Or Linen Thread. Substitutes For This, Such As The Straw-like Material Used In Making Hat Shapes, Are Also Known By The Same Name. From The Use Of The Material To Expand Ladies' Skirts The Term Was Applied In The 19th Century ...

Crinum
Crinum, A Genus (family Amaryllidaceae) Of Bulbous Plants With Rather Broad Leaves And A Solid Leafless Stem, Bearing A Cluster Of Handsome White Or Red Funnel-shaped Regular Flowers. There Are 7o Or More Species, Native To Warm And Tropical Regions, Many Of Which Are Well Known In Cultivation. The Swamp ...

Criobolium
Criobolium, The Sacrifice Of A Ram In The Cult Of Attis And The Great Mother (gr. Kptof36xtov). Perhaps It Was A Cere Mony Instituted After The Rise, And On The Analogy Of The Tauro Bolium (q.v.), Which It Probably Resembled, But Was In Honour Of Attis, For When It Was ...

Cripple Creek
Cripple Creek, A City Near The Centre Of Colorado, U.s.a., In A Granite Pocket 9,600ft. Above Sea-level; The County Seat Of Teller County And The Heart Of One Of The Greatest Gold Producing Districts Of The World. It Is Connected With Colorado Springs By The Tortuous Midland Terminal Railway. The ...

Cripples
Cripples. Cripples May Be Divided Into Four Main Cate Gories: (1) Those Suffering From Congenital Defects; (2) Those Who Have Become Deformed After Birth From Lack Of Light, Air, Exercise And Proper Diet ; (3) Those Who Have Become Deformed As A Result Of A Crippling Disease, Of Which The ...

Crisa Or Crissa
Crisa Or Crissa, An Ancient City Of Greece, Is In Phocis, On One Of The Spurs Of Parnassus. In The Iliad And The Homeric Hymns, It Is Described As Powerful, With Rich Fertile Territory, Reaching From The Sea To The Sanctuary Of Pytho. As The Town Of. Delphi Grew Up ...

Crisfield
Crisfield, A Town Of Somerset County, Maryland, U.s.a., On Tangier Sound Of Chesapeake Bay, Opposite The Mouth Of The Potomac River; The Terminus Of A Line Of The Pennsylvania Railway. The Population In 1920 Was 4,116 (28% Negroes), And Was 3,85o In 193o By The Federal Census. Crisfield Is The ...

Crispin
Crispin And Crispinian, The Patron Saints Of Shoe Makers, Whose Feast Falls On Oct. 25, Have A Legendary History, Traceable To The 8th Century. It Is Said That They Were Brothers, Of A Noble Roman Family And That They Travelled To Soissons, Where They Supported Themselves By Shoemaking And Made ...

Cristobal
Cristobal, Panama Canal Zone, The American Port Ad Joining The City Of Colon, At The Northern Terminus Of The Canal. (see Panama Canal And Colon.) ...

Critias
Critias, Athenian Orator And Politician. In His Youth He Was A Pupil Of Gorgias And Socrates. In 415 B.c. He Was Impli Cated In The Mutilation Of The Hermae (q.v.) And Imprisoned. In 411 He Helped To Put Down The Four Hundred, And Was Instru Mental In Procuring The Recall ...

Critical Point
Critical Point, In Physics, The Point Above Or Below Which Certain Physical Changes Will Not Occur. In The Study Of Change Of State (see Heat And Thermodynamics) The Properties Of The Substance At This Point Are Called Its Critical Constants. In Mechanics, The Smallest Angle Which An Inclined Plane Must ...

Criticism
Criticism, The Art Of Judging The Qualities And Values Of An Aesthetic Object, Whether In Literature Or The Fine Arts. It In Volves The Formation And Expression Of A Judgment On The Qual Ities Of Anything, And Matthew Arnold Defined It In This General Sense As "a Disinterested Endeavour To ...

Critius And Nesiotes
Critius And Nesiotes, Greek Sculptors Of The Time Of The Persian Wars. When Xerxes Carried Away To Persia The Statues Of Harmodius And Aristogiton Made By Antenor, Critius And Nesiotes Were Commissioned To Replace Them. By The Help Of Coins And Reliefs, Two Statues At Naples, Wrongly Restored As Gladiators, ...

Critolaus
Critolaus, Greek Philosopher, Was Born At Phaselis In The 2nd Century B.c. He Lived To The Age Of 82 And Died Probably Before Iii B.c. He Studied Philosophy Under Aristo Of Ceos And Became One Of The Leaders Of The Peripatetic School. In General He Was An Orthodox Peripatetic (cf. ...

Crocidolite
Crocidolite, A Mineral Described In 1815 By M. H. Klaproth Under The Name Blaueisenstein (blue Ironstone), And In 1831 By J. F. Hausmann, Who Gave It Its Present Name On Account Of Its Nap-like Appearance (gr. Kpokus, Nap Of Cloth). It Is A Blue Fibrous Mineral Belonging To The Amphibole ...

Crocket
Crocket, In Architecture, A Small, Independent, Sharply Projecting Mediaeval Ornament, Usually Occurring In Rows, And Decorated With Foliage. In The Late 12th Century, When It First Appeared, It Had The Form Of A Ball-like Bud, With A Spiral Out Line, Like An Uncurling Fern Frond; But In The Later Gothic ...

Crocodile Bird
Crocodile-bird (pluvianus Aegyptus), A Species Of Plover (q.v.) Which Derives Its Name From Its Frequent Association With The Nile Crocodile (crocodylus Niloticus) From The Teeth And Hide Of Which It Picks And Devours Parasites. It Is Also Of Service To The Crocodile By Uttering Warning Cries On The Approach Of ...

Crocodile
Crocodile, A Name Applicable To Any Member Of The Reptilian Order Loricata (crocodilia) But Often Restricted To Species Of The Genera Crocodylus And Osteolaemus In Contrast With The Alligators (genera Alligator And Caiman). The Order Con Tains Only 21 Living Species But The Geological History Of The Group Can Be ...

Crocoite
Crocoite, A Mineral Consisting Of Lead Chromate (pbcr04), And Crystallizing In The Monoclinic System. It Is Sometimes Used As A Paint, Being Identical In Composition With The Artificial Product Chrome-yellow. It Is Found As Well-developed Crystals Of A Bright Hyacinth-red Colour, Which Are Translucent And Have An Adaman Tine To ...

Crocus
Crocus, A Genus Of Plants Of The Family Iridaceae, Con Taining 6o Species, Natives Of Europe, North Africa, And Tem Perate Asia, And Especially Developed In The Dry Country Of South Eastern Europe And Western And Central Asia. The Plants Are Admirably Adapted For Climates In Which A Season Favourable ...

Croesus
Croesus, Last King Of Lydia, Of The Mermnad Dynasty B.e.), Succeeded His Father Alyattes After A War With His Half-brother. He Completed The Conquest Of Ionia By Cap Turing Ephesus, Miletus And Other Places, But Lack Of Sea-power Forced Him To Give Up His Project Of Subduing The Islands, Whom ...

Croft
Croft (or Crofts) , William , English Composer, Was Born At Nether Ettington In Warwickshire. He Received His Musical Education In The Chapel Royal Under Dr. Blow Whom He Succeeded As Organist There On The Latter's Death In 1708, Becoming At The Same Time Organist Of Westminster Abbey. In 1724 ...

Crofter
Crofter, A Term Used, More Particularly In The Highlands And Islands Of Scotland, To Designate A Tenant Who Rents And Cultivates A Small Holding Of Land Or "croft." This O.e. Word, Meaning Originally An Enclosed Field, Seems To Correspond To The Dutch Kro F T, A Field On High Ground ...