TIAN. ) Royal Rib.—Plain ribbed fabric similar to moreen, with fine ribs or cords running lengthwise or warp-way, but with the warp threads in pairs (instead of single, as in moreen) with 72x14o: 28/32:36xioo. British home and foreign markets.
Sarong.—Plain calico fabric with coloured warp stripes, with coloured cross border stripes or fancy "headings" at each end of a piece of 5 to 7yd. in length. For use as loin-cloths and scarves by natives; with 6o to 66x44 to 5o:4o/3o to 4o. Exported to India, Java and Eastern markets.
Sateen.—Cotton fabric woven on the "satin" weave basis, to develop a smooth and even surface after the manner of a true silk satin. In the cotton trade, a warp-face sateen is described as "satin," to distinguish this from a weft-face "sateen." Made in all qualities and textures, for printed dress fabrics, linings and domestic use. British home and foreign trade.
Sheeting.—A term of general application to heavy plain and twill fabric for bed-sheetings, in all qualities and textures; as 72x68:20/24. Exported to all countries.
Shirting.—A term of general application to light and medium plain fabric of various qualities and textures; as 64 to 72x64 to 72:3o to 4o/30 to 40:34 to 45x3o to 4o. British home and foreign markets.
Silesia.—Twill or sateen fabric of poor quality, with compar atively few ends and picks per inch; calender finished to give a smooth and glossy surface, and sometimes printed with col oured stripes; with 3os to 4os/36 to 44. Used for lining and cheap clothing. Chiefly exported.
Skirting.—Fabric of plain, twill or satin weave, striped and checked in various colours; with 88x7 2 :3 2/3 2. Also 92x5 2 : 34 to 36/16 to 24. Used by artisans, chiefly for skirts. British home and foreign markets.
Sponge Cloth.—A term applied to certain fabrics woven with an open cellular structure somewhat resembling the cells of sponge or honeycomb. Also describes a common and coarse variety of open-work and net-like cloth produced from cotton waste and used for general household work, cleaning machinery and similar purposes; with io to 12x10 to 14:6 to 1ox6 to io.
Swansdown.—Variety of fustian. (See FUSTIAN.) T-Cloth.—Plain calico fabric of low quality, heavily sized ; with 40 to 56 ends and pick, 16 to 26 warp and weft; 27in. to 36in.x 24yd. Exported in grey state to all countries.
Tan jib.—Plain calico fabric pure sized, with two "fancy" stripes or "headings" in the centre; with 48 to 56 ends and picks: 3 2/40 :3o to 5ox38. Exported to India and the East.
Thickset. Variety of fustian (corduroy). (See FUSTIAN.) Ticking.—Coloured striped twill and satin fabric of coarse and strong texture, in various qualities; as 72x6o:14/18 to 20: up to 72in. wide, for bed-ticks • and mattress covering. British and foreign trade.
Toilet Quilting.—A heavy compound fabric structure with raised or embossed figuring of plain calico cloth. Used for coun terpanes and toilet covers.
Twill.—A term describing the twill weave structure which pro duces a series of diagonal "wales" or lines across a fabric embody ing such weave. A twill fabric is one constructed with a twill weave, of which the 3-end 2XI twill is known as the "Jean," "Nankeen," and "Regatta" twill; the 4-end 2X2 twill as the "Harvard," "Cassimere," "Shalloon" and "Sheeting" twill: the 4-end 3x1 twill as the "Florentine" twill. Twill weaves com prise many other varieties of fabric structure.
Velvet Cord.—Variety of fustian. (See FUSTIAN.) Velveteen.—Variety of fustian. (See FUSTIAN, also VELVETEEN.) Venetian.—Fabric woven with the 8-end warp satin weave made in various qualities; as I sox76 :3 2/24 : with warp of Egyptian yarn. For linings and dress goods. Exported to China and the East.
Voile.—Light open texture of the plain calico weave produced from hard-twisted warp and weft, with "reverse" twist for the warp threads, i.e., with one "twist-way," and one "weft-way" (left-hand) warp thread; and sometimes with two threads of "twist-way" and two "weft-way," uniformly, in order to produce the crimped or crinkled effect peculiar to voile, crepe and georgette textures. Usually woven from twofold gassed yarn produced from combed single Egyptian yarn, with 6o ends and picks per inch of 2/ I oos warp and weft, and woven with one end in each dent of the reed. British home and foreign trade and South America.
Wigan.—Calico fabric of medium and heavy texture in various qualities; as 64 to 72x64 to 68:2o to 28/2o to 24:28 to 3ox8o to 9o. British home and export trade.
Zephyr.—Striped and checked fabric in delicate colours, and sometimes with corded and woven figured effects ; with 7o to 1 oox7o to 8o :36 to so/4o to 7o. For light summer shirting and dress fabrics. British home and Colonial markets; also exported to the United States and other countries.
See H. Nisbet, Grammar of Textile Design (1927) ; W. Hough, Cotton Fabrics (1927) ; H. P. Curtis, Glossary of Textile Terms (1921) ; Skinner's Cotton Trade Directory (Annual). (H. N.)