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Educational Experiments


EDUCATIONAL EXPERIMENTS Educational experiments in England and Wales are usually suggested by the needs of the moment. (For America see "Edu cational Experiments in the U.S.") Those who conduct them do so to overcome a recognized difficulty or to achieve a better way of teaching. In one department, that of intelligence testing (see EXAMINATIONS), research experiments are tried and it is here that, in the strict sense of the term, experiment takes place. The importance of this subject led to its being referred to the con sultative committee of the Board of Education which issued a report on it in 1924. Their findings were not conclusive, but they recognized the importance of these tests.

Central Schools.

Of experiment in a wider sense there is a great deal. The Board of Education itself has encouraged an experiment on a very large scale in urging local education au thorities and school managers to set up central schools, to which boys and girls in elementary schools are transferred at or about the age of I I for a course of study specially designed to cover the years up to 15 and even 16, selection being either by age alone, or through examination. The establishment of central schools has been proceeding for some years but will henceforward be part of the reorganization of schools recommended by the Consultative Committee of the Board of Education in their report on the Education of the Adolescent (1926). The main position taken in the report is that the primary age ends or should end at II, with a fair equipment in the tools of learning; and that all teaching beyond that age should be post-primary in character.

Where the central or modern schools are of the selective type, provision must be made for the scholars over the age of II who are not transferred to them or to a secondary school. The schools (the report calls them senior schools) that are being established for this purpose offer an interesting and important field for ex periment which has hitherto hardly been touched.

Experiments in Infant Schools.—Apart from organization, one of the most striking waves of experiment has taken place in infants' schools and classes. Where formerly the three R's in a dull form were the staple of instruction, modified by some arti ficial exercises denominated "Kindergarten," the school now tries to cultivate speech besides reading and leading "up to reading," activity instead of immobility, self-help instead of formal instruc tion. This new orientation in fact preceded the spread of Montes sori doctrines, but it was strongly reinforced by them (see MON TESSORI SYSTEM), even where they were not accepted in full. The infants' school and class become now more of a social agency and a centre of education than a centre merely of instruction. (See also NURSERY SCHOOLS.) School Experiments.—Another movement has grown quietly without the support of a great name, but spreading by its own reasonableness. This is the "ruralizing" of many schools, not only in the country but also in many towns. When this goes no further than nature study, it is a recognition that school lessons should be related to the child's surroundings. But gardening is very popular and a school often includes bee-keeping and even poultry-keeping. The Welsh Department of the Board of Educa tion have stimulated the extension of the idea that rural lore, including history, antiquities, architecture, folk-song and speech, should be cultivated in country schools. Connected with this trend is the tendency to localize the geography teaching on the one hand, by studying closely the geography of the town, village or region, and on the other to supplement the local study by school journeys. School journeys are not for all, since their management requires very special organizing and personal care. In small numbers they preceded the Boy Scout movement (see BOY SCOUTS), but the proved practicability of school journeys reinforced the camping idea of the Scouts, and camps grew in popularity. One annual camp under the patronage and the per sonal attention of the Duke of York, combining boys from the public schools and boys brought up in elementary schools, is a noteworthy example of an attempt to create a sympathy between classes brought up very differently. Both secondary and primary schools have organized school journeys and school camps in other countries. The great extension of self-government (see above) in elementary schools and the movement for providing playing fields for elementary pupils has had a most profound effect on the character and physique of the younger generation. Within the school itself the holding of school exhibitions and open days for parents are forging a valuable link between home and school.

Handicraft Work.

The progress of instruction in handicrafts is on the whole slow, for this form of instruction is apt to be ex pensive. But the idea that handicraft for girls, as well as for boys, is an essential element in education has undoubtedly grown. Handicraft for boys means usually work in wood and metal ; and for girls besides needle work and cookery, laundry work, house craf t and the simpler beginnings of crafts like weaving, basketry, embroidery, lace making and pottery.

Cinema, Gramophone and Radio.—These are past the stage of experiment. Schools are considering and trying experiments in new fields with results which are not yet firmly established, experiments with the gramophone, the radio and the cinema. The gramophone has practically won its way to a position of limited but decided usefulness. It becomes more and more used for music, and the introduction by its means of a wide variety of good music into the schools means an increase of music and the appreciation of it as a liberal factor in education. It is also used in the teaching of languages. Radio reception is on its trial (see BROADCASTING) ; every day at fixed hours in the afternoon lectures and talks are broadcast from the various studios and schools, and the teachers are asked to co-operate by giving the children who listen appropriate revision and appropriate exercises, talks on literature, history, simple science, especially natural history which in this way may gain a larger place in children's education, and, of course, music. The value of the cinema is still the subject of educational thought. It appears as yet—with some notable exceptions—to be of use (where it can be used) specially as a recreative aid or as giving a pictorial impression of matter, the mass of which has been communicated by word of mouth or reading.

The Dalton System.

Mention must be made of experi ments in teaching such as the Dalton plan with its system of independent work and assignment. In a few schools this is fol lowed very thoroughly : in more, adaptations of it are made to meet special conditions, in part of a school, or in some subjects only. The experiments so far have hardly been crucial enough for a final verdict to be passed. The plan was started originally in secondary schools, but it has also been adopted experimentally in a few elementary schools. In the Howard plan the Dalton sys tem of individual work and assignment is combined with the tem porary dropping, generally for a term, of some subject or subjects in order to allow of an intensive study of others. The direct method of teaching foreign languages is another example of a movement which has passed the stage of experimentation in one sense. Its principle is fairly well accepted ; but it is carried out not always in its purist form but modified to suit the circumstances of pupils. At the Perse School, Cambridge, it is used for Latin and Greek but it has not found much favour among classical teachers.

(H. WA. ; T. P. N.) In America experimentation has become a normal function not only of individual schools and colleges but of whole systems of edu cation. The experimental movement has coincided with the rapid quantitative expansion of educational facilities which has marked the first part of the loth century. The movement owes its impetus primarily to the university schools devoted to the scientific study of education which prepare for professional service an ever increasing number of school administrators. More recently normal schools and teachers' colleges, philanthropic foundations and special research bureaux main tained in connection with State and city systems have likewise made important contributions to the movement. Not only have these latter agencies extended the range and variety of experiments, but they have also done much to inoculate the whole teaching pro fession with the experimental point of view.

The most significant educa tional experiments may be classi fied for convenience as (I) ex periments based on psychological investigations, (2) experiments dealing with the reconstruction of the curriculum and (3) experiments bearing on the reorganiza tion of the educational system.

Experiments Based on Psychological Investigations.— Educational psychologists have been concerned with developing two kinds of measures : measures of native capacity and measures of intellectual achievement. Since the World War the measures of native capacity, the so-called intelligence tests (q.v., see also EXAMINATIONS), have come into general use in schools of all grades. They have been steadily refined and improved, but are still regarded as in the experimental stage. In the classification of pupils and their selection for special treatment, in comparing the progress of different groups of children, and in a wide variety of studies of the educational process, the tests find constant applica tion. They have been adopted by many colleges as part of the matriculation machinery.

The effort to invent objective measures of achievement in school subjects has produced a series of new devices called scales or standard tests. These are designed to estimate the results of the work done in the schools more reliably than is possible by means of the conventional examination. By the correlation of the scales and standard tests with the age of the pupils, tentative norms of achievement at different stages of school life are being established. Scales or standard tests and intelligence tests are now being used in conjunction, with a view to determining the tive rates of progress of children of different mental endowments. Scales and tests of proved bility are already available in most of the school subjects.

The whole testing movement has led teachers and adminis trators to appreciate more fully the essential importance of adapt ing school procedures to individ ual differences. Thus in spite of the great growth in the school population, devices for individualizing instruction are becoming more numerous and more effective. The de f e c t i v e or sub normal child (see MENTAL DEFICIENCY) was the first to re ceive special attention. More recently, however, the realiza tion has grown that the gifted child suffers quite as much from subjection to an inflexible regime designed for the mediocre and that society suffers still more from a training process that hampers the full development of the superior individual. Hence a variety of experiments are in progress throughout the United States which have as their object the identification and the appro priate education of the gifted pupil. In these experiments col leges and universities are begin ning to participate through the establishment of so-called honours courses and through devices for segregating and stimulating the superior student.

Experiments in the Reconstruction of the

For some years the conviction has been gathering momentum that the curricula of schools at all levels are not only out of harmony with the requirements of modern life, but that they are also at variance with the laws of mental growth and of learning which the psychologists have been covering. Modern living tions have transferred to the schools a multiplicity of tasks viously performed by other cies. The social aims of education have also become more nent at the same time that the cessity of recognizing the crasies of the individual has been revealed. The problem of structing the curriculum is now the central problem of American education. It is being attacked in hundreds of schools. Certain periments have seemed promising enough to be widely imitated, with some local modification. One of these is the Dalton plan and another is the platoon or study-play plan. Under the latter plan, half the children are in classrooms while the other half are at work or at play in school shops, laboratories, studios, on the playground or in the torium. Decreased classroom space and greatly increased facili ties for work and play are features of the physical plants of schools that operate on this plan. The school day is lengthened and the school becomes responsible for the child during the major part of his waking hours.

Cutting across schemes like those just mentioned, which involve complete reorganization of the school is the project method. This method focuses instruction around typical problems actually encountered in life outside the school. In the course of solving these problems, or working out the projects, principles are dis covered and learned. The topical organization of instruction largely disappears. The pupils actively seek the solution of the problem wherever the search may lead, even outside the con fines of the school. Experiments with the project method are numerous. Some schools have applied it in a few subjects, some in practically all subjects. Instruction in vocational sub jects is now largely dominated by some form of the project method. The system of co-operative part-time instruction, first developed in the engineering school of the University of Cincinnati and now followed in many other engineering schools and industrial schools, is founded on the same underlying concept.

Experiments in the reconstruc tion of the curriculum are not confined to schools or school sys tems that are committed to some new departure in method or in organization. In many institu tions where the older type of school regimen has not been radi cally changed, the curriculum is being experimentally revised by the introduction of new material, the elimination of old material and the alteration of the order of presentation.

Numerous private schools have sprung up which are frankly experimental. These have come to be known as progressive schools. For the greater part they have been inspired by the educational philosophy of John Dewey. They have been quick to take up and test under the most favourable conditions any methods, materials or plans of organization that muster stantial scientific support. vices that have proved ful in the progressive schools constantly find their way into the more conservative public tions.

Experiments in

ing the Educational System. —The typical organization of the American system consisting of an eight-year elementary school, a four-year high school and a f year college, with entrance upon professional study coming either at the end or in the middle of the college course, has long been criticized. The several institutional units are the product of diverse influences, mostly foreign. The welding of them into a system was largely accidental. It is generally believed that the period devoted to secondary education is too short, that it should begin earlier and that secondary education should embrace much of the present content of the college curriculum. Educators commonly hold that with a rational organization of the system and with an altered and condensed curriculum, time can be saved and educational results improved.

Two experimental movements looking toward the accomplish ment of these reforms are now well under way. One of these involves the reorganization of the elementary and secondary schools and has come to be known as the junior high school move ment (see SECONDARY EDUCATION) . At the other end of the con ventional secondary school period another new institution is evolv ing, the junior college. The typi cal junior college offers the first two years of the usual college course, with certain modifica tions dictated by its local en vironment. There are (1928) more than 30o independent junior colleges in the United States; the majority are private institu tions but a large minority are attached to city school systems. Whether the junior college as a separate institution is a transi tory phenomenon it is too early to say. Its appearance has had one noteworthy effect upon universi ties, however. It has led a con siderable number of them to di vide their colleges of liberal arts into junior and senior colleges and to organize the programme of instruction so that the end of the junior college period marks the completion of general education of a secondary character and the beginning of university specialization. This tendency, together with the multiplication of junior colleges as upward extensions of public school systems, seems to point to the ultimate assimilation of the work of the first two years of the American college of liberal arts into the scheme of secondary education.


Terman, Intelligence Tests in School ReBibliography.-L. R. Terman, Intelligence Tests in School Re- organization (1923) ; Sir J. Adams, Modern Developments in Educa tional Practice (1922), Educational Movements and Methods (1924) ; L. V. Koos, Administration of Secondary School Units, The Junior High School, The Junior College, Education Series No. S (1924) ; F. N. Freeman, Experimental Education, How Children Learn, Mental Tests (1926) ; report of the Committee on Administrative Units, University of Buffalo Studies vol. vii., No. 1 (1928) . (S. P. C.) Ancient Greece.—In ancient Greece the supremacy of the State was generally unquestioned, and, especially in the earlier times, the good man was identified with the good citizen. The highest life was one of cultured leisure in which the energies were mainly concentrated on the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. But this life was only for the select few ; for the undis tinguished many the fulfilment by each of the duties of his station remained the measure of worthy life. For those, there fore, who devoted their lives to the highest culture, the essential preliminary condition was the existence of such a State as would form the most favourable environment for their leisured life. Thus Greek thought was saturated with the conception of life as essentially a set of relations between the individual and the city State of which he formed an integral part. The first aim of education was, therefore,- to train the young citizens. (For the evolution of the school from early times, see SCHOOLS.) Each State, however, had its special character, and to this character the education given in it must conform if it were to be an effective instrument for training the citizens. From these fundamental conceptions flowed the demands of Plato and Aris totle that education should be regulated in all its details by the State authority, should be compulsory on all free citizens, and should be uniform—at any rate in its earlier stages—for all. In the Republic and the Laws, Plato shows to what extreme lengths theory may go when it neglects to take account of some of the most pertinent facts of life. For the guardian-citizens of the ideal State, family life and family ties are abolished. Aristotle, indeed, did not go to these extreme lengths ; he allowed the family to remain, but he seems to have regarded it as likely to affect chil dren more for evil than for good. Neither philosopher, however, was at variance with the accepted Greek theory on the subject, although the actual practice of Greek States departed, and often widely, from this ideal, for, especially in later centuries, the Greek always tended to live his own life. The nearest approach to the theory was found in Sparta, where the end of the State as a military organization was kept steadily in view, and where, of ter early childhood, the young citizens were trained directly by the State in a kind of barrack life—the boys to become warriors, the girls the mothers of warriors. It was this feature of Spartan edu cation, together with the rude simplicity of life it enforced, which attracted Plato, and, to a less extent, Aristotle. In Athens there had of old been State laws insisting on the attendance of the children of the free citizens at school, and, in some degree, regu lating the schools themselves. But at the time of Plato these had fallen into desuetude, and the State directly concerned itself only with the training of the ephebi (q.v.) in intellectual and physical pursuits. For children and youths under the ephebic age there was no practical regulation of schools or palaestra by the State. Yet there is no doubt that the education really given was in con formity with Athenian ideals of culture and life, and that it was generally received by the children of free citizens, though of course the sons of the wealthy, then as now, could and did con tinue their attendance at school to a later age than their poorer brethren. The education of girls was essentially a domestic train ing. What Plato and Aristotle, with the theorist's love of official systematic regulation, regarded as the greatest defect of Athenian education was in reality its strongest point. In practice, the har mony between individual liberty and social claims was much more nearly attained under a system of free working out of common thoughts and ideals than would have been the case under one of the irresistible imposition from without of a rigid mould.

The instruments of education everywhere found to be in har mony with the Greek conception of life and culture were essen tially twofold—"music" (µovaeuct ), or literary and artistic cul ture, for the mind, and systematic gymnastic (ryv,uvaaruc) for the body. Plato, in the Republic, shows that the latter, as well as the former, affects the character, and doubtless, though not formu lated, this was generally more or less vaguely felt. But Greek gymnastic was really an individual training, and therefore made only indirectly for the aim of cultivating the social bonds of citi zenship. The "musical" training was essentially in the national literature and music of Greece, and this could obviously be carried to very different lengths. The essential purpose throughout was the development of the character of a loyal citizen of Athens. As Athenian culture advanced, increasing attention was paid to intellectual studies, especially in the ephebic age, with a corre sponding decrease of attention to merely physical pursuits; hence the complaints of such satirists as Aristophanes of a growing lux ury, effeminacy and corruption of youths; complaints apparently based on a comparison of the worst features of the actual present with an idealized and imaginative picture of the virtues of the past. But a disintegrating force was already at work in the edu cational system of Greece which Plato and Aristotle vainly opposed ; this was the rhetorical training of the Sophists. In a democratic city State the orator easily became a demagogue, and oratory was the readiest path to influence and power. Thus ora tory opened the way to personal ambition, and young men who were moved by that passion eagerly attended the Sophist schools where their dominant motive was strengthened.

Further, the closer relations between the Greek States, both in nearer and farther Hellas, led naturally to the diminution of dif ferences between civic ideals, and, as a consequence, to a more cosmopolitan conception of higher education. This process was completed by the loss of political independence of the city States under the Macedonian domination. Henceforth, higher education became purely intellectual, and its relation to political and social life increasingly remote. The University of Athens was the out come of a fusion of the private philosophical schools with the State organization for the training of the ephebi, and there were other such centres of higher culture, especially in after years at Alexandria, where the contact of Greek thought with the religions and philosophies of Egypt and the East gave birth in time to the more or less mystical philosophies which culminated in Neo platonism. But at Athens itself education became more and more a mere training in unreal rhetoric, till the dissolution of the university by Justinian (A.D. 529).

Ancient Rome.

Thus when Rome conquered Greece, Greek education with which it came in contact was an education which had largely lost its life-springs. In the earlier centuries of the republic, Roman education was given entirely in family and pub lic life. The father had unlimited power over his son's life, and was open to public censure if he failed to train him in the ordi nary moral, civic and religious duties. But it is doubtful if there were any schools, and it is certain there was no national literature to furnish an instrument of culture. A Roman boy learnt to reverence the gods, to read, to bear himself well in manly exer cises, and to know enough of the laws of his country to regulate his conduct. This last he acquired directly by hearing his father decide the cases of his clients every morning in his hall. The rules of courtesy he learnt similarly by accompanying his father to the social gatherings to which he was invited. Thus early Roman edu cation was essentially practical, civic and moral, but its intellec tual outlook was extremely narrow.

When a wider culture was imported from Greece, the instru ment of education first introduced was Greek literature, much of which was soon translated into Latin. In time the schools of the grammatici, teaching grammar and literature, were supplemented by schools of rhetoric and philosophy, though the philosophy taught in them was itself little more than rhetorical declamation. These furnished the means of higher culture for those youths who did not study at Alexandria or Athens, and were also preparatory to studies at those universities. Under the empire the rhetorical schools were gradually organized into a State system. This widen ing of culture affected both boys and girls, the domestic educa tion of the latter being supplemented by a study of literature. But it is the higher training in rhetoric which is especially char acteristic of Hellenized Roman education.

The conception of a rhetorical culture is seen at its best in Quintilian's Institutio oratoria, the most systematic treatise on education produced by the ancient world. With Quintilian the ideal of an orator was a widely cultured, wise and honourable man. And at first the teaching of rhetoric undoubtedly made for higher and true culture. But with the autocracy, soon passing into tyranny, of the empire, rhetoric ceased to be a preparation for real life. Nor was there anything in the general conditions of society to counterbalance the ill effects of such an unreal educa tion. Quintilian lamented that, even in his time, the old Roman family education by example was corrupted; and the moral degra dation of later times, though it has doubtless been exaggerated, was certainly real and widespread. The religious revival of Pagan ism which synchronized with the early centuries of Christianity does not appear to have effected any reform in life. Alexandria, the birthplace of Neo-platonism and the intellectual centre of the later empire, was also a very sink of moral obliquity.

Christianity and Pagan Education.

It was into such a decaying civilization that Christianity brought new life. Of course, careful instruction in the Faith was given in catechetica! schools, of which that at Alexandria was the most famous. But the question as to the attitude of Christians towards the ordi nary classical culture became of growing importance. The Greek Fathers, especially Clement of Alexandria (150-217) and Origen (185-253), regarded Christianity as essentially the culmination of philosophy, to which the way must be found through liberal culture. Without a liberal education the Christian could live a life of faith and obedience but could not attain an intellectual understanding of the mysteries of the Faith. On the other hand, Tertullian (16o-24o) was very suspicious of Pagan culture ; though he granted the necessity of employing it as a means of education, yet he did so with regret. Many of the cultivated Christians of the 3rd and 4th centuries were little more than nominal adherents to the Faith, and the intercourse between Christian and Pagan was often close and friendly. The general attitude of Christians towards the traditional education is evi denced by the protest raised against the edict of Julian, which forbade them to teach in the public schools. The ultimate out come seems to be fairly expressed in the writings of St. Augustine and St. Jerome (346-420), who held that literary and rhetorical culture is good so long as it is kept subservient to the Christian life.

In another way Greek philosophy exercised a formative influ ence over the culture of future ages, in the case of the Eastern Church through Neoplatonism, the last effort of Paganism to attain a conception of life and of God. In the West, this formu lation had to be translated into Latin, for Greek was no longer generally understood in Italy, and thus the juristic trend of Roman thought also became a factor in the exposition of Chris tian This formulation of the Faith was one of the chief legacies the transition centuries passed on to the middle ages. Had classical culture been less formal than it was during the early centuries of Christianity, the innate antagonism of the Pagan and Christian views of life and character must have been so apparent that the education which prepared for the one could not have been accepted by the other. Thus the Pagan ideal of life, especially as it had been developed in the individualistic ethics which had prevailed for more than six centuries was anti thetical in essence to that of the Christian Church. The former was essentially an ethics of self-reliance and self-control showing itself in moderation and proportion in all expressions of life. An essential feature in such a character was high-mindedness and a self-respect which was of the nature of pride. On the contrary, Christian teaching exalted humility as one of the highest virtues, and regarded pride and self-confidence as the deadliest of sins. The highest state attainable by man was absorption in loving ec stasy in the mystic contemplation of God. The practical attempt to realize this gave rise to monasticism, with its minutely regu lated life expressing unlimited obedience and the renunciation of private will at every moment. The monastic life was regarded as the nearest approach to the ideal which a Christian could make on earth. Naturally, as this conception gathered strength in gen erations nurtured in it, the value of classical culture became less and less apparent, and by the time of St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) the use of classical literature as a means of education was discouraged.

Of course, during these centuries, the gradual subjugation of the western empire by the barbarians had been powerfully opera tive in the obscuring of culture. Most of the public schools dis appeared, and such light of learning as was kept burning in the monasteries was mainly confined to monks and novices. Though the barbarians absorbed the old culture in various degrees of im perfection, yet the four centuries following the death of St. Augustine were plunged in intellectual darkness, relieved by transitory gleams of light in Britain and by a more enduring flame in Ireland. The utmost that could be done was to preserve to some extent the heritage of the past. This, indeed, was essen tially the work of men like Boethius, Cassiodorus, Isidore and Bede.

Modification of Latin.

During these same centuries another process had been advancing with accelerating steps. This was the modification of the Latin language. Thus, with Christian writers, slavish imitation of the past gradually gave way to the evolution of a new and living Latin, which showed itself more and more regardless of classical models. This Christian Latin was a real living instrument of expression, which conformed closely in its structure to the mode of thought and expression of actual life. It is the Latin in which St. Jerome wrote the Vulgate. But with the obscuring of culture during the barbarian invasions this cur rent Latin became more and more oblivious of even such elements of form as grammatical inflexions and concords.

It was to the reformation of this corrupt Latin by a return to classical models, and to the more general spread of culture, espe cially among clergy and nobles, that the Carolingian revival ad dressed itself. The movement, essentially practical and conserva tive, was directed by Alcuin (735-804 ), who was Charlemagne's educational adviser and chief executive officer in scholastic mat ters. Its most valuable outcome was the establishment of the palace school, and of bishops' schools and monastic schools throughout the empire. Thus, the educational system north of the Alps was pre-eminently ecclesiastical in its organization and profoundly religious in its aims. For two centuries the new in tellectual life was obscured by the troubled times which followed the death of Charlemagne, but the learning which the Carolingian revival had restored was preserved here and there in cathedral and monastic schools, and the sequence of well-educated ecclesi astics was never altogether interrupted.

Mediaeval Curriculum.

The scope of that learning was comprised within the seven liberal arts and philosophy, on the secular side, together with some dogmatic instruction in the doc trines of the Church, the early Fathers, and the Scriptures. The ology was as yet not organized into a philosophical system : that was the great work the middle ages had to perform. The seven liberal arts (divided into the Trivium—grammar, dialectic, rhet oric ; and the more advanced Quadrivium—geometry, arithmetic, music, astronomy) were a legacy from old Roman education through the transition centuries. They appear in the Disciplri narum libri IX. of Varro in the and century B.C. But they reached the middle ages chiefly through the summaries of writers in the transition centuries, of which the best known were the De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii of the Neoplatonist Martianus Capella, who wrote probably early in the 5th century; The De artibus ac disciplinis liberalium litterarum of the Christian Cassiodorus (468-562) ; and the Etymologiarum libri XX. of St. Isidore of Seville (5 70-636) .

The scope of the arts was wider than their names would sug gest in modern times. Under grammar was included the study of the content and form of literature; and in practice the teaching varied from a liberal literary culture to a dry and perfunctory study of just enough grammar to give some facility in the use of Latin. Dialectic was mainly formal logic. Rhetoric covered the study of law, as well as composition in prose and verse. Geom etry was rather what is now understood by geography and natural history, together with the medicinal properties of plants. Arith metic, with the cumbrous Roman notation, included little more than the simplest practical calculations required in ordinary life and the computation of the calendar. Music embraced the rules of the plain-song of the Church, some theory of sound and the connection of harmony and numbers. Astronomy dealt with the courses of the heavenly bodies, and was seldom kept free from astrology. In philosophy the current text-books were the De consolatione philosophiae of Boethius (470-524), an eclectic summary of pagan ethics, and the same writer's adapted transla tions of the Categories and De interpretatione of Aristotle and of Porphyry's Introduction to the Categories.

Scholastic Revival.

In the i i th century Europe had settled down, after centuries of war and invasion, into a condition of comparative political stability, ecclesiastical discipline and social tranquillity: the barbarians had been converted, and civic life had developed in the fortified towns of Italy, raised as defences against the pressure of Saracen and Hungarian invasions. Soon, communication with the East by trade and in the crusades, and with the highly cultivated Moors in Spain, further stimulated the new burst of intellectual life. Arabic renderings of some of the works of Aristotle and commentaries on them were translated into Latin and exercised a profound influence on the trend of cul ture. A new translation of Aristotle's Metaphysics appeared in 1167, and by the beginning of the i3th century all his physical, metaphysical and ethical treatises were available, and during the next half century the translations from Arabic and other Semitic versions were superseded by renderings direct from the original Greek. It was only when the real Aristotle was known that it was found possible to bring the Peripatetic philosophy into the service of theology. There were thus two broad stages in the edu cational revival commonly known as scholasticism. In the first the controversies were essentially metaphysical, and centred round the question of the nature of universals; the orthodox the ological party generally supporting realism, or the doctrine that the universal is the true reality, of which particulars and individ uals are only appearances ; while the opposite doctrine of nomi nalism—that universals are "mere sounds" and particulars the only true existences—showed a continual disposition to lapse into heresies on the most fundamental doctrines of the Church. The second stage was essentially constructive ; the opposition of phi losophy to theology was negated, and philosophy gave a system atic form to theology itself. The most characteristic figure of the former period was Abelard (1079-1142), of the latter St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-74). The former knew little of Aristotle beyond the translations and adaptations of Boethius, but he was essen tially a dialectician who applied his logic to investigating the fundamental doctrines of the Church and bringing everything to the bar of reason. This innate rationalism appeared to bring the ology under the sway of philosophy, and led to frequent con demnations of his doctrines as heretical. With St. Thomas, on the other hand, the essential dogmas of Christianity must be unques tioned. In his Summa tlieologiae he presents all the doctrines of the Church systematized in a mould derived from the Aristotelian philosophy.

It is evident, then, that during the period of the scholastic re vival, men's interests were specially occupied with questions con cerning the spiritual and the unseen, and that the great instru ment of thought was syllogistic logic, by which consequences were deduced from premises received as unquestionably true. There was a general acceptance of the authority of the Church in mat ters of belief and conduct, and of that of Aristotle, as approved by the Church, in all that related to knowledge of this world.

Before the rediscovery of Aristotle exerted such a general in fluence on the form of education, there was a real revival of classical literary culture at Chartres and a few other schools, and John of Salisbury (d. 1182) in his Metalogicus advocated litera ture as an instrument of education and lamented the barrenness of a training confined to the subtleties of formal logic. But the recrudescence of Aristotle accelerated the movement in favour of dialectic, though at the same time it furnished topics on which logic could be exercised which only a bare materialism can esteem unimportant. The weaknesses of the general educational system which grew up within scholasticism were that haste to begin dia lectic led to an undue curtailment of previous liberal culture, and that exclusive attention to philosophical and theological ques tions caused a neglect of the study of the physical world and a disregard of the critical functions of the intellect. Doubtless there were exceptions, of which perhaps the most striking is the work in physical science done at Oxford by Roger Bacon But Albertus Magnus (1193-128o), the master of St. Thomas, was also a student of nature and an authority for his day on both the natural and the physical sciences. And the work of Grosse teste (d. 1253), as chancellor of the University of Oxford, shows that care for a liberal literary culture was by no means unknown. Probably the most striking instance of the stunting effect of this premature specialization may be found in the fact that the ency clopaedias of general information which were in general use dur ing the middle ages show little or no advance in positive knowl edge upon the treatment of similar subjects in Isidore of Seville.

Foundation of Universities.

The services of scholasticism to the cause of education, however, cannot well be overestimated, and the content of scholastic studies was in fundamental harmony with the intellectual interests of the time. Above all other bene fits owed by future ages to scholasticism is the foundation of the universities of western Europe. (See ScxooLS and UNIVERSITIES.) The concentration of higher instruction in universities was not antagonistic to the mediaeval conception of the Church as the teacher of mankind. University life was modelled on that of the cloister, though the monastic ideal could not be fully realized, and the scholars not infrequently exhibited considerable licence in life. This was inevitable with the very large numbers of the scholars and the great variations of age among them. Moreover, students, and to a less extent teachers, passed from university to university, so that the universities of mediaeval Europe formed a free confederacy of learning in close relation to the Church but untrammelled by State control. Nevertheless, the introduction of studies derived from the Greeks through the Arabians led to an in creased freedom of thought, at first within authorized limits, but when occasion served, to transcend those limits. The scheme of instruction was arranged on the assumption that spe cial studies should be based on a wide general culture. Thus of the four faculties into which university teaching was organized, that of arts, with its degrees of Baccalaureus and Magister, was regarded as preliminary to those of theology, law and medicine. It often included, indeed, quite young boys, for the distinction be tween grammar school and university was not clearly drawn. Little or no attempt was made to extend the bounds of knowl edge ; the aim was to pass on a body of acquired knowledge re garded as embracing all that was possible of attainment, and the authority of Aristotle in physics as well as in philosophy, and of Galen and Hippocrates in medicine was absolute. The methods of instruction—by lecture, or commentary on received texts ; and by disputation, in which the scholars acquired dexterity in the use of the knowledge they had absorbed—were in harmony with this conception, and were undoubtedly thoroughly well suited to the requirements of an age in which the ideal of human thought was not discovery but order, and in which knowledge was re garded as a set of established propositions, the work of reason being to harmonize these propositions in subordination to the authoritative doctrines of the Church.

Such an extension of the means of higher education as was given by the universities was naturally accompanied by a corres ponding increase in schools of lower rank. Not only were there grammar schools at cathedral and collegiate churches, but many others were founded in connection with chantries, and by some of the many gilds into which mediaeval middle-class life organ ized itself. In addition to the grammar schools were writing and song schools of an elementary type, in which instruction was usu ally in the vernacular. Girls were taught in women's monasteries and in the home, and those of the upper classes, at least, very generally learned to read, write and keep accounts, as well as fine needlework, household duties and management, and such elemen tary surgery and medicine as served in cases of slight daily acci dents and illnesses. Even those boys and girls who did not re ceive formal scholastic instruction were instructed orally by the parish priests in the doctrines and duties of the Faith; while the pictures and statues with which the churches were adorned aided the direct teaching of sermons and catechizing in giving a general knowledge of Bible history and of the legends of the saints.

No doubt, in times of spiritual and intellectual lethargy, the practice fell short of the theory; but on the whole it may be con cluded that in mediaeval times the provision for higher instruc tion was adequate to the demand, and that, relatively to the cul ture of the time, the mass of the people were by no means sunk in brutish ignorance. Indeed, especially when the paucity of books before the invention of printing is borne in mind, the number of people who could read the vernacular, as evidenced by the de mand for books in the vulgar tongue as soon as printing made them available, is clear proof that the latter part of the middle ages was by no means a time of general illiteracy.

Feudalism, the other characteristic aspect of mediaeval society, had also its system of education, expressing its own view of life, and preparing for the adequate performance of its duties. This was the training in chivalry given to pages and squires in the halls and castles of the great. This training was not in opposition to the spirit of religion which animated the scholastic education which went on side by side with it. Throughout chivalry was sancti fied by the offices of the Church. The education of chivalry aimed at fitting the noble youth to be a worthy knight, a just and wise master, and a prudent manager of an estate. Much was ac quired by daily experience of a knightly household, but in addi tion the page received direct instruction in reading and writing; courtly amusements, such as chess and playing the lute, singing and making verses; the rules and usages of courtesy; and the knightly conception of duty. As a squire he practised more assid uously the knightly exercises of war and peace, and in the man agement of large or small bodies of men he attained the capacity of command.

With the unification of existing knowledge and the systematiza tion of theology the constructive work of scholasticism was done. At the same time the growth of national feeling was slowly but surely undermining feudalism. Moreover, deep resentment was accumulating throughout western Europe against the practical abuses which had become prevalent in the Church, and especially in the court of Rome and in the prince-bishoprics of Germany. In such conditions, the customary and traditional education of school and university tended to lose touch more and more com pletely with the new aspirations and views of life. Had a new cultural movement not begun, the education of Europe threat ened to become as arid as the rhetorical education of the last centuries of the Roman empire had been. From this it was saved by the renaissance of classical studies which began in the 14th century.

The Renaissance.—Ever since the i ith century the cities of northern Italy had been in advance of Europe beyond the Alps both in culture and in material progress. The old classical spirit and the feeling of Roman citizenship had never quite died out, and the Divina Commedia of Dante (1265-13 21) furnishes evi dence that the poet of the scholastic philosophical theology was also a keen student and lover of the old Latin poets. But the greatest impulse to the revived study of the classics was given by Petrarch (1304-74) and Boccaccio . Generally through out western Europe the 14th century, though full of war and political unrest, was a time of considerable intellectual activity, shown in the increase of schools and universities, as well as in the literary and artistic revival in Italy, in the social and theological movement in England and Bohemia associated with the names of Wycliffe and Huss, and in the more or less complete substitution of Roman law everywhere except in England for the law of cus tom which had hitherto prevailed.

But it was the literary movement which most affected educa tion, and, indeed, the whole life of Europe. A decisive step was taken when Manuel Chrysoloras was invited to teach Greek in the University of Florence in 1397. The enthusiasm for classical culture, to which Petrarch had given so great an impetus, gath ered force and extended over the whole of Italy, though, of course, felt only by a select few and leaving the mass of the people lit tle, if at all, affected. From Italy it spread gradually to countries north of the Alps. In the old writers men found full expression of that new spirit of self-conscious freedom which was vaguely striving for expression throughout the whole of Christendom. In the free political atmosphere of the Italian communes, with their wealthy and leisured merchant class, that spirit could flourish much more readily than in the feudalized Europe across the Alps. Moreover, the antique spirit was in direct line of ancestry with that of mediaeval Italy. Thus, for a couple of centuries, Italy stood in the van of European culture.

It is the spirit of the new movement which is of interest to the student of education. And that spirit was essentially one of opposition to authority and of assertion of individual liberty, which worked itself out in various forms among peoples of differ ent temperaments. In Italy the form was literary and artistic, and the full development of the Renaissance spirit was seen in a practical Paganism which substituted the attractions of art for the claims of religion and morality, and eventuated in deep and widespread immorality and a contemptuous tolerance of the out ward observances of religion without faith in the doctrines they symbolized. The most valuable service of the Italian humanists to Europe was the restoration to man of the heritage of knowl edge which he had allowed to slip from his grasp, and the leading the way to a freer intellectual atmosphere. In Germany the spirit manifested itself in a rebellion against the doctrinal system of the Church as the only effectual means of attaining reform of eccle siastical abuses. The Protestant Reformation of Luther was the real German outcome of the Renaissance. In no other country of Europe did the movement take so distinctive a form.

The revival of interest in classical studies was, therefore, only a first step. These newly discovered literatures responded to the intellectual and moral cravings which had been blindly gathering force for generations, as they encountered in them the pagan view of life with its assumption of the essential worth and self-reliance of the individual and its frank delight in all the pleasures of ex istence. It was in just this Pagan view of individual worth and the supremacy of the human intellect, that the Church gradually realized the supreme danger to herself.

At first the revival of interest in the classical literatures did not show any antagonism to Catholic faith and practice, and its warmest supporters were faithful sons of the Church. The view of the relation of classical literature to Christianity adopted by the great humanist schoolmaster, Vittorino da Feltre (1378 1446), was broadly that of the early Fathers, and in his school at Mantua he showed that culture was not inconsistent with loy alty to the Church or with purity of life. With him classical literature was not the end and sum of education, but was a means of implanting ideas, of developing taste and of acquiring knowl edge, all as helps and ornaments of a Christian life. The school at Mantua may, indeed, be said to have exhibited in practice a Christianized application of the doctrines of Quintilian and Plutarch.

So was it in the other countries of Christendom. In the Neth erlands the Brethren of the Common Life introduced humanistic studies into their schools side by side with definite religious teaching and observances and their work was always dominated by the Christian spirit. The earlier German humanists, such as Nicholas de Cusa, Hegius, Agricola and Wimpheling, adopted the same attitude, and Erasmus himself, bitterly as he attacked the practical abuses of the Church, remained in communion with it, and aimed at harmonizing classical culture with the Christian life. In England the same love of culture combined with devo tion to the Church was seen in Selling, prior of Christ Church, Canterbury, the first real English humanist; in Grocyn, Linacre, More, Fisher, Colet and many others whose enthusiasm for cul ture was as undoubted as was their loyalty to Catholicism. It seemed, then, at first as if the greatest educational effect of the classical revival would be the deepening of literary culture, and the substitution of real enquiry for dialectic subtleties in the courses of schools and universities, without any break with estab lished religious teaching. It is true that the majority of schools were but little affected, and many of the universities had given but a half-hearted welcome to humanistic studies when the re ligious revolt in Germany under the leadership of Luther threw the whole of Europe into two hostile camps. But even the con servative University of Paris—the headquarters of scholastic phil osophical theology—had permitted the teaching of Greek as early as 1458, and both Oxford and Cambridge had welcomed the new studies.

The Reformation.

The immediate effect of the religious con troversies of the i6th century on education was disastrous. The secularization of ecclesiastical property too often absorbed the endowments of the schools, so that, both in Germany and in Eng land, the majority of grammar schools either disappeared or con tinued a starved existence with diminished funds; the doctrine of salvation by faith alone and the futility of good works dried up the source from which such endowments had flowed ; the violent fulminations of the German reformers against the universities as the homes of the hated scholastic theology and philosophy led to wholesale abstention from those seats of learning; while the the ological speculations and quarrels led those few who did resort to the universities to devote their energies to interminable wran gling over controversial points. This decadence in culture was at tended by an outbreak of licence and immorality, especially among the young, which called forth violent denunciations from Luther and many of his followers in Germany, and from Latimer and other reformers in England. Humanism and Protestantism, which had so far diverged that Erasmus (1467-1536) had de clared that where Lutheranism flourished learning decayed, were brought together again by Melanchthon (1497-1560), under whose influence universities were founded or reorganized and schools re established in Protestant German States; and in England the reign of Elizabeth saw the creation of a certain number of new foundations. But this restoration of the means of education was only partial, and the doctrine of the worthlessness of "carnal knowledge," which led the Barebones Parliament to propose the suppression of the English universities, was held by many fervent Protestants both in England and in Germany all through the 17th century.

Moreover, the schools continued to ignore the new directions of men's thoughts and the new view of knowledge as something to be enlarged, and not merely a deposit to be handed down from generation to generation. The later humanist theories of educa tion, which the schools continued to follow generally for over two centuries, and in many cases for another hundred years after that, were drawn mainly from Erasmus and Melanchthon, who found in the classical languages and literatures, and especially in Latin, the only essential instruments of education. General knowledge of natural facts might be desirable to the cultured man as ornaments to his rhetoric, but it was to be sought in the writings of antiquity. Even so revolutionary a thinker on educa tion as Rabelais (1495-1553) with all his demand for an ency clopaedic curriculum, held the writings of the ancients as authori tative on natural phenomena. Melanchthon exercised enormous influence, both directly and through such disciples as Trotzen dorf and Neander, but especially through his friend Sturm •(1507 89), whose Latin gymnasium at Strasbourg became the model which the grammar schools of Protestant Europe strove to imi tate. In this school nearly the whole of the energies of the boys was given to acquiring a mastery of the Latin language after the model of Cicero.

In Catholic countries the Church retained control of education. The practical reformation of abuses by the Council of Trent, and the energy and skill of the Society of Jesus, founded by St. Igna tius Loyola, in 1534, brought back most of south Germany into the fold of the Church. Everywhere Catholic universities were mainly taught by Jesuit fathers ; and under their influence, scho lasticism, purged from the excretions which had degraded it, was restored. Everywhere the society established schools, which, by their success in teaching and the mildness of their discipline, at tracted thousands of pupils who came even from Protestant homes. Their curriculum was purely classical, but it was elabo rated with much skill, and the methods of instruction and disci pline were made the subject of much thought and of long-con tinued experiment. All Jesuit fathers being trained, the teachers in Jesuit schools attained a degree of skill in their art which was too generally wanting elsewhere.

Decadence of Schools and Universities.

Mulcaster (1530 16r 1) pointed out that Latin was not of value to the majority of boys. For them he urged an elementary education in the vernac ular; but neither in this nor in his advocacy of the training of teachers was his advice followed. In the 17th century the dis location between the Latin schools and the needs of life began to be accentuated as Latin gradually ceased to be the language of learning ; and, as a consequence, the numbers attending the schools decreased, and the mass of the people sunk continually lower in ignorance. In vain Hoole urged the establishment of a universal system of elementary schools giving instruction in the vernacular, Petty put forth his plan for elementary trade schools, and Cowley proposed the establishment of a college devoted to research. Ideas of reform were in the air, but the main current of scholastic practice flowed on unaffected by them. Some atten tion was, indeed, paid to the conservative reforms advocated by the Port Royalists, of which the most important was the inclu sion of the vernacular as a branch of instruction, but the cry for more fundamental changes based on the philosophy of Bacon was unheeded. Of these, none was a more active propagandist than Comenius (1392-1670). Unfortunately his Great Didactic, in which he set forth his general principles, attracted little atten tion and won less adherence, though his school books, in which he attempted with very little success to apply his principles, were widely used in schools. But these were little more than bald sum maries of real and supposed facts, stated in Latin and the vernac ular in parallel columns. In content they differed from such me diaeval summaries of knowledge as the well-known work of Bartholomew Anglicus, which had been widely used since the 13th century, chiefly by their greater baldness and aridity of statement.

In the universities, too, the i6th and 17th centuries saw a con tinuous decadence. The 16th century was not ripe for real in tellectual freedom; and Protestantism, having based its revolt on the right of private judgment, soon produced a number of con flicting theological systems, vying with each other in rigidity and narrowness, which, as Paulsen says, "nearly stifled the intellec tual life of the German people." Further, the idea of national autonomy, which exercised so great an effect on the politics of the time, included the universal adherence of the citizens to the re ligion of the State. Hence, till the end of the i 7th century the universities of Protestant Europe were regarded mainly as in struments for securing adhesion to the national theological sys tem on the part of future clergy and officials, and the State in terfered more and more with their organization and work. In Paris, on the other hand, the faculty of theology had decayed through the withdrawal of those preparing for the priesthood into episcopal seminaries, and the higher studies pursued were mainly law and medicine. Thus, generally, the universities were less and less fulfilling the function of providing a general liberal educa tion. Another change, due to the same causes and making for the same results, was the isolation of universities, often directly fos tered by the State governments, which for the universal inter change of mediaeval thought substituted a narrow provincial culture and outlook.

Indeed, from the middle of the 17th century, the main current of intellectual life had drifted away from the orthodox centres of learning. The formation of the Berlin Academy in Germany and of the Royal Society in England, and the refusal of Leibnitz to accept a chair in any German university, were signs of the times. In France, and later in Germany, the education of the noble youth was increasingly carried on apart from the schools, and was really an outgrowth from the education of chivalry. In the i6th century Castiglione and Montaigne had advocated a training di rectly adapted to prepare for active public life, and Elyot wrote on similar lines. But the most important movement in this direc tion was the formation of the courtly academies which flourished in France in the 17th century, and were soon imitated in the Ritterakademien of Germany. In these schools of the nobility French was more honoured than classics, and the other subjects were chosen as directly adapted to prepare for the life of a noble at the court or in camp. Milton in his Tractate advocated the foundation of such academies in England. More and more, too, foreign travel had, from the middle of the i6th century, been looked upon as a better mode of finishing the education of a gentleman than a course at a university.

Revival of University Life.

The later years of the 17th century saw a revival of university life in Cambridge, through the work of Newton and the increasing attention paid to mathe matics and the physical sciences, though the number of students continued very small. In Germany, also, a new era opened with the foundation of the Universities of Halle (q.v.) in 1694 and Gottingen in 1737, which from the first discarded the old con ception that the function of a university is to pass on knowledge already complete, and so opened the door of the German univer sities to the new culture and philosophy. It was soon seen that students could thus be attracted, and the influence spread to the other German universities, which by the end of the 18th century had regained their position as homes of the highest German thought.

At Halle, too, was set the example by Francke of providing for the education of the children of the poor, and to his disciple, Hecker, Germany owes the first Realschule. Simultaneous move ments for the education of the poor were made by St. Jean Baptiste de la Salle and the Brothers of the Christian Schools in France, and by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowl edge in England. Mention should also be made of the Sunday School movement started by Robert Raikes in 1780. But the total results were not great ; the mass of the people in every European country remained without schooling throughout the 18th century.

Education in the 18th Century.—The intellectual move ments of that century were, indeed, essentially aristocratic. Voltaire and the Encyclopaedists aimed at the enlightenment of the select few, and Rousseau declared baldly that the poor need no education. That these movements influenced education pro foundly is undoubted. The individualistic and abstract rational ism of Voltaire, derived from the sensationist philosophy of Locke through the more thoroughgoing Condillac, and finding its logical outcome in the materialistic atheism of La Mettrie and the refined selfishness of Rochefoucault, infected the more cultured classes. In Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son is shown its educational outcome—a veneer of superficial culture and artificial politeness covering, but not hiding, the most cold-blooded selfishness. Against this fashionable artificiality, as well as against the obvious social and political abuses of the time, Rousseau's call for a return to nature was a needed protest.

Rousseauism, however, was not merely a transitory revolt against a conventionality of life that had become unbearable; it was emphatically the voicing of a view of life and of education which has profoundly influenced Europe ever since. In that Rousseau (1712-78) attempted to look at life as a whole, he was on truer ground than were the intellectualists of the "Enlighten ment," especially in his advocacy of the hitherto ignored claims in education of feeling and emotion. His Emile may be, in spite of certain crudities, not unfairly described as the charter of child hood. It is, in fact, a declaration of childhood's rights. On the other hand, his overinsistence on the efficacy of nature, as shown by his theory that man is born good, and if left to his own instincts cannot fail to achieve happiness, is obviously one-sided.

Against this position the educational teaching of Kant (17 24 1804), influenced though he was by the Emile, is essentially a protest. The most necessary element in education, according to Kant, is constraint, which by the formation of habit prepares the young to receive as principles of conduct the laws at first imposed upon them from without. And the supreme guide of life is the law of duty which is always more or less opposed to the promptings of inclination. The French Revolution—the patural outcome of the teachings of Voltaire and of Rousseau—was the second stage in the movement of which the Reformation was the first. It was essentially the assertion of the natural rights of man, and, as a logical sequence, of the right of every child to be properly trained for life. The gradual recognition of this truth, with the necessary corollary of the establishment of a national system of education, is emphatically the characteristic mark of the educational history of all countries in the 19th century.

The 19th Century.—Preached and practised by Pestalozzi (1746-18 2 7) in Switzerland, the general education of the poor was first made a reality by Prussia after the crushing defeat of Jena. In France and England it remained for nearly three-quarters of the century the work of the Church and other voluntary agencies, though aided by the State. Finally a State system of schools was more or less fully set up in every State of western Europe and in America, and subjected to more or less State regu lation and control. Equally marked was the growing care for the education of girls as well as boys, though only in America were the two regarded as practically identical in form and content.

Thus the 19th century saw the final working out of the idea that the State should be substituted for the Church as the official agent of education. Among the principal causes of such a change, was the growing conviction that with the ever-widening distribu tion of political power, the State has a right to demand a minimum of knowledge from every citizen, while, on the other hand, it is alike to the benefit of the individual and the State that the door of educational opportunity should be thrown as wide open as pos sible. Equally potent was the idea which had its roots in the Renaissance conception of the right of man to direct his life apart from theological determinations. The more direct outcome of the same idea was apparent in the absolute liberty with which the presuppositions of knowledge were questioned, and the maxim of Descartes—to prove everything by the reason and to accept noth ing which fails to stand the test—was acted upon. No greater contrast is possible than that between the mediaeval student and the modern searcher after truth.

The influence of the same spirit has wrought an equally mo mentous change in the methods of instruction. The impetus given by the doctrine of Rousseau to the view that the nature of the child should determine the means of education, led to more thor oughgoing attempts than had hitherto been made to base educa tional method on a knowledge of child psychology. Pestalozzi and Froebel (178 2-1 8 2) , by their insistence on the need of educating a child through his own activity, and by their widespread influence, made the new view of method an actuality. The influence of Rousseau has, thus, passed into modern educational practice in a form that, in its essence, is true, though in practice it has shown itself apt to run into the same excess of emphasis on impulse and feeling which characterizes his teaching. The influence of Herbart (1776-1841) tended to counteract this. The essence of Herbart ianism was that mental life consists of presentations, or reactions of the mind on the environment, and that will springs from the circle of thought thus developed. The emphasis was therefore placed on intellect and instruction, while in Froebelianism it was placed on spontaneous activity and on the arrangement of the environment. Each exaggerated the function of the one factor in concrete experience which it made the centre of interest, and each was tinged with the individualistic conception of life which char acterized the 18th and early 19th century. (See also ACADEMIES ; CLASSICS; CO-EDUCATION ; EXAMINATIONS ; POLYTECHNIC SCHOOLS ; TECHNICAL EDUCATION ; UNIVERSITIES, etc.) BIBLIOGRAPHY.-G. Compayre, Histoire critique des doctrines de Bibliography.-G. Compayre, Histoire critique des doctrines de l'education en France depuis le i6ieme siecle (1879) ; P. Monroe, A Text-book on the History of Education (New York, 191o) ; J. W. Adamson, A Short History of Education (1919) ; W. Boyd, The History of Western Education (1921) ; F. Paulsen, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts auf den deutschen Schulen u. Universitdten (2 vols. ; 3rd ed. edit. and supplemented by R Lehmann, 1921) ; H. Wodehouse, A Survey of the History of Education (1924)• (X.; C. BR.) Elementary Education.—It was the development of indus try and the social unrest at the end of the 18th century, following on the French Revolution, which combined to bring home to the public mind the need of a national system of day schools. Unfor tunately, just at this moment the revival of Nonconformity as the result of the religious vitality of the Evangelical movement shattered the religious peace of the early Hanoverian period and divided the nation once more into hostile camps, to which class distinctions lent additional bitterness. The famous controversy between Andrew Bell and Joseph Lancaster and their respective followers in the opening years of the 19th century served to define the religious difficulty substantially in the form in which it existed for over 10o years. Both these remarkable men con ceived independently the idea of a national system of popular education upon a voluntary basis. The controversy between them, begun upon personal grounds, resolved itself into a national con test of rival principles of religious teaching. Lancaster as a young Quaker schoolmaster, confronted with pupils drawn from various religious bodies, planned his religious instruction upon the lines of doctrine common to all the orthodox Christian denom inations. Thus he is the father of the undenominational religious teaching which later formed the basis of the Cowper-Temple com promise. But whereas the Cowper-Temple clause is purely nega tive in form and so seems to point to an undogmatic religion, the Lancastrian teaching was essentially positive and dogmatic within its limits. The Church as a whole refused to co-operate in religious teaching upon the basis of a common Christianity, and joined issue with Lancaster and his Whig and Nonconformist fol lowing not merely upon the question of the exclusion of dogmatic formularies, but also upon the question of the control of what ever religious teaching should be given. In fact the vital question at this period was whether the clergy of the Established Church were to control the national education. The religious issue was prominent in connection with the remarkable attempt at legisla tion made by the Whig statesman Whitbread in his Parochial Schools bill of 1807. It was rejected by the Lords, mainly on the ground that it did not place education on a religious basis or sufficiently secure control to the minister of the parish.

Early Voluntary Schools.—The failure of the liberal proposals of Whitbread, and the strength of the Dissenting opposition to any settlement on purely Church lines (such as that advocated by Bell in 1808 for establishing schools under the control of the parochial clergy), rendered recourse to voluntary effort inevitable. In i8o8 the Royal Lancasterian Society was formed to carry on the work of Lancaster, the name being afterwards changed to the British and Foreign School Society. In the following year the National Society for promoting the education of the poor in the principles of the Established Church throughout England and Wales was formed, with Bell as its superintendent. In voluntary effort on a grand scale the Church easily outdistanced her oppo nents, and in 1831 the National Society was able to show that there were in all over I3,o0o schools in connection with the Church, of which 6,47o were both day and Sunday schools, having a total attendance of 409,000.

The rapid development of the voluntary school system was no doubt greatly facilitated by the monitorial plan of teaching, upon which Bell and Lancaster equally relied. This plan never rested upon any educational theory; it was simply a rough-and-ready expedient for overcoming the practical difficulty caused by the dearth of competent teachers. Historically it is important as the precursor of the pupil-teacher system which so long formed the exclusive basis of the English elementary system.

Meantime, Brougham, in 1816, procured the appointment of a general commission of enquiry into endowed charities. The labours of this great inquisition lasted for 20 years and led to the reformation of many cases of abuse or waste of wealthy endow ments, and eventually to the establishment of the Charity Com mission in 1853. In 182o Brougham introduced a bill which pro posed to require teachers to be members of the Church of Eng land and to be appointed upon a certificate from the parochial clergyman, and on the other hand to prohibit religious formularies and to confine religious instruction to Bible reading without com ment. The bill naturally failed through the opposition of the dis senters, and served only to accentuate the religious impasse.

Establishment of State Aid.—In 1832 the Whig Government placed on the estimates a sum of f 20,000 for public education, thus initiating the system of the annual grant voted by parliament. The funds thus granted were to be confined to the erection of school buildings, and to be administered only through the Na tional and the British and Foreign School societies. In Lord Melbourne's Government, by means of an order in council, established a Committee of Council on education, and the sum voted by parliament was increased to f 39,000. The original inten tion of the Government was to establish a State normal school or training college as the foundation of a national system of educa tion. Unfortunately this design had to be abandoned in view of the religious difficulty, with the result that the training of ele mentary teachers was left in private hands. In view of the lim ited resources placed at their disposal by parliament, the Com mittee of Council were at first compelled to confine their assistance to capital grants in aid of the provision of school buildings, but in the distribution of the money three important conditions were at once imposed. In the first place, the continuing right of inspec tion was required in all cases ; secondly, promoters were obliged to conform to a fixed standard of structural efficiency; thirdly, the building must be settled upon trusts permanently securing it to the education of poor children.

By the minute of Aug. 1o, 184o, the Committee of Council con cluded what came to be known as the concordat with the Church. Under this minute no appointment was to be made of any persons to inspect schools in connection with the Church of England without the concurrence of the archbishop of the province, and, what seems still more extraordinary to modern ideas, any such appointment was to be revoked should the archbishop at any time withdraw his concurrence. The altered financial relations, how ever, between the State and the voluntary managers brought about by the institution of maintenance grants soon rendered this con cordat obsolete.

Among the first acts of the Committee of Council was the promulgation of a set of model trust deeds. The necessary con ditions were the permanent appropriation of the site to purposes of education, and the permanent right of Government inspection; a conscience clause was not obligatory, and indeed was only offered in the limited form of exemption from instruction in formularies and attendance at Sunday school or public worship. Special facilities for the conveyance of land for school purposes were afforded to limited owners by the School Sites Acts of 1841 and subsequent years. The landed gentry responded with great pub lic spirit to the call thus made upon their generosity by the State, with the result that the vast majority of rural, and many urban, parishes were freely endowed with sites for elementary schools.

The Grammar Schools Act of 184o, which was passed to deal with the case of the decayed "grammar" (i.e., classical) schools which abounded throughout the country, belongs to the history of elementary rather than secondary education. As a result of this act a considerable number of ancient endowments were reorgan ized so as to afford an improved elementary instead of an ineffi cient classical education,- and the schemes made under the act constituted an early, but not very successful, experiment in the direction of higher elementary schools.

In 1843 the Committee of Council decided to make grants in aid of the erection of normal schools or training colleges in con nection with the National Society and the British and Foreign School societies, thus marking the definite abandonment of the system of relying on voluntary effort for the provision of training colleges.

In 1846 an important step forwards was taken in the founda tion of the pupil-teacher system. The regulations of this year inaugurated annual maintenance grants in the form of stipends for apprenticed pupil-teachers receiving a prescribed course of in struction under the head teacher, and a lower grade of stipendiary monitors in schools where such instruction could not be provided. These regulations inaugurated the system of Queen's scholarships to assist pupil-teachers to proceed to a training college ; they also established capitation grants for the support of such colleges, and annual grants to elementary schools under Government inspection of from 5 to £3o in aid of the salary of every trained teacher employed. Provision was at the same time made for retiring pensions to elementary teachers.

To facilitate the recognition of denominational schools other than Church of England, the Committee of Council in 1847 issued a minute dispensing schools not connected with the Established Church from enquiries concerning their religious condition, and in the same year State aid was extended to Wesleyan and Roman Catholic schools. Jewish schools received recognition in 1851 upon condition that the Scriptures of the Old Testament should be daily read in them.

During the middle years of the century various unsuccessful legislative attempts were made to establish a national system of elementary schools upon the basis of rate-aid. The only one of these attempts which calls for notice here is the bill introduced by Lord John Russell (called the Borough bill, on account of its being restricted to municipal boroughs) in 18J3, and forming part of a comprehensive scheme of legislative and administrative reform of which a portion was actually carried into effect. The bill as a measure for elementary education was supplemented by an administrative system of capitation grants for rural areas. The Government scheme also comprised a measure dealing with the administration of charitable trusts (which took shape as the Charitable Trusts Act 1853), the constitution of the Department of Science and Art, and university reform upon the lines recom mended by the Oxford and Cambridge commissions.

The failure of the Borough bill did not affect the new system of capitation grants which was introduced by minute of the Com mittee of Council dated April 2, 1853. These grants were fixed at a scale varying from 3s. to 6s. per head, payable upon certain conditions, of which the most important were that the school must be under a certificated teacher, and that three-fourths of the children must pass a prescribed examination. The capitation grant was, by minute of Jan. 26, 1856, extended to urban areas. As in the case of all the early grants, the regulations governing the distribution of the capitation grants were framed upon the principle that subventions of public money must be met by local funds derived from voluntary contributions, endowments and school fees ; thus the basis of the denominational system as fos tered by the State at this stage was one of financial partnership.

In 1856 a purely administrative bill was passed, establishing the office of vice-president of the Committee of Council on edu cation as a minister responsible to parliament. At the same time, the Science and Art department was transferred from the Board of Trade to the Committee of Council.

The Newcastle Commission.—The progress of State-aided edu cation during this period may be measured by the increase of the annual parliamentary grant, which rose from £30,000 in 1839 to £ioo,000 in 1846, £150,00o in 1851, £396,000 in 1855, and £663, 400 in 1858. This expansion was viewed with misgiving by the friends of the denominational system, and by the strong individual i.;t school of that day, who upon wider grounds clung to the old ideal of voluntary initiative. These sections combined with the advocates of further State intervention to press for a commission of enquiry, and a royal commission was appointed in 1858, under the chairmanship of the duke of Newcastle, to inquire into the state of popular education in England, and to consider and report what measures, if any, were required for the extension of sound and cheap elementary instruction to all classes of the people. The Report of the Newcastle commission, issued in 1861, contains an exhaustive account of the existing condition of elementary education, and, with due allowance for the grave defects revealed, and in particular the glaring inefficiency of the numerous little private-venture schools kept by "dames" and others, the graphic picture drawn by the commissioners constitutes a striking tribute to the sterling qualities of self-help and religious earnestness which were so characteristic of the early Victorian period. It was found that in round numbers about 2,500,000 children were at tending day schools, the proportion to population being one in seven, as compared with one in nine in France, one in eight in Holland and one in six in Prussia, where education was compul sory. On the other hand, of this number only 1,675,00o were in public schools of all kinds, only 1,100,000 in schools liable to inspection, and 917,00o in schools receiving annual grant. The result was that only one child in every 20 was attending a school whose efficiency could be in any way guaranteed by the State. The commissioners as a body rejected free and compul sory education in view of the religious difficulty and upon general grounds of individualistic principle. In view of the solution adopted in 1902 it is of interest to note that the Newcastle com missioners deliberately rejected the parish as unfit to be taken as the unit of elementary education upon the ground that manage ment by parochial ratepayers must tend to be illiberal and nig gardly, and recommended the constitution of county boards with power to levy a rate for the aid of existing voluntary schools.

The one definite achievement of the Newcastle commission was the famous system of payment by results. Impressed by the defects of the existing teaching, the commissioners reported that there was only one way of securing efficiency, and that was to institute a searching examination by competent authority of every child in every school to which grants were to be paid, with the view of ascertaining whether the indispensable elements of knowl edge were thoroughy acquired, and to make the prospects and posi tion of the teacher dependent to a considerable extent upon the results of this examination. They recognized that to raise the character of the children, both morally and intellectually, was and must always be the highest aim of education; but they thought that the training in the rudiments of education, which must be the foundation of all teaching, had been lost sight of, and that there was justice in the common complaint that while a fourth of the scholars were really taught, three-fourths after leaving school forgot everything they had learnt there.

Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), as vice-president of the Committee of Council (1859-64), adopted the system of payment by results in what became famous in history as the Revised Code, issued in i862. The Revised Code provided for the payment of a grant of 4s. upon the old principle and a further grant of not more than 8s. upon the result of examination. Lowe declared of the system in the House of Commons that "if it was costly it should at least be efficient ; and if it was inefficient it should at least be cheap." In fact, it proved to be cheap; the grant fell from £813, 400 in 1861 to £636,800 in 1865. Later, to meet objections, some modifications were introduced in the code under the Conservative Government in 1867. The system of paying grant upon the result of individual examination of the scholars was not finally abolished till 1904.

The Act of 1870 and Its Effects.—In 1868 the Conservative Government brought in, but did not proceed with, an education bill deliberately discarding the principle of rate-aid on the ground that it would destroy voluntary contributions and gradually starve out the denominational schools. In 1867 and again in 1868, Bruce (afterwards Lord Aberdare), W. E. Forster and Algernon Egerton introduced a bill which formed the basis of the measure of 187o. As redrafted in 1868 the bill of Bruce and his coadjutors proposed a universal system of municipal and parochial rating with liberty for voluntary schools to unite themselves to the rate-aided system under their existing management, subject to the acceptance of a conscience clause. The bill also proposed to empower town coun cils to co-opt outsiders upon their education committees. Thug both in the principle of co-optation and in the extension of rate aid to schools not under public control the bill of these Liberal statesmen in 1868 anticipated certain features of Balfour's Edu cation Act of 1902. In the meantime, in the country the Education League, originated at Birmingham, was carrying on a propaganda in favour of free secular schools, whilst the Education Union, formed to counteract the influence of the league, urged a settle ment upon the old lines. As a concession to the popular feeling against secularism, the league proposed to allow Bible reading without doctrinal exposition. Thus opinion was sufficiently fo cussed to enable Gladstone's administration in 187o to undertake a comprehensive measure of educational reform.

The Elementary Education Act of 187o bore in every respect the marks of compromise. As Forster explained in introducing the bill, the object of the Government was "to complete the vol untary system and to fill up gaps," not to supplant it. To this end the Education Department was charged with the duty of as certaining whether 1r not there was in every parish a deficiency of public school accommodation, and of making provision for the formation of school boards in every school district (i.e., parish or municipal borough) requiring further public school accommo dation. The definition of public elementary school contained in section 7 of the act is still in force (1928). Shortly, a public elementary school is a school subject to a conscience clause en titling scholars to complete exemption from all religious instruc tion and observance whatsoever. Any religious instruction or observance in the school must be either at the beginning or the end of the school meeting. The school must also be open at all times to the Government inspectors, and must be conducted in accordance with the prescribed conditions in order to obtain an annual parliamentary grant. In the same connection an important change was made in the conditions of inspection by declaring that it should be no part of the duties of the inspector to inquire into religious instruction, whilst a later section of the act provided that no parliamentary grant should be made in respect of any religious instruction.

Three important changes were made in the measure during its passage through parliament : (1) In lieu of the rate-aid as first suggested, the Government proposed an increased grant from the Treasury, that is to say, the voluntary schools were left standing as State-aided schools under private management, side by side with the new rate-supported schools. (2) The character of the religious instruction in the board schools was determined upon an undenominational basis by a provision which has become known to history after the name of its author, as the Cowper-Temple clause (section 14 of the act), directing that "no religious cate chism or religious formulary which is distinctive of any particular denomination shall be taught in the school." The clause was not intended to exclude doctrinal exposition, and was in fact a com promise not merely between absolute secularism and denomina tionalism, but between denominationalism and the view of those who would have the Bible read without note or comment. The Apostles' Creed as a symbol common to all denominations of Christians was held by Forster (at Gladstone's suggestion) not to be excluded under the Cowper-Temple clause. The result was the establishment in the schools, upon the lines laid down by Joseph Lancaster at the beginning of the 19th century, of what may be termed the common Protestantism of the English nation. The Cowper-Temple compromise, notwithstanding its inherent want of logic, stood the test of experience for more than a genera tion against the consistent denominationalists on the one hand and the party of secular education on the other. (3) The third change in the bill was the substitution of the ad hoc school board for the municipally appointed board originally proposed. These boards were elected by the system of cumulative voting under which each elector had as many votes as there were candidates to be elected, with liberty to give all his votes to one candidate or to distribute them amongst the candidates as he thought fit. This system was much criticized as being unduly favourable to minor ities, whose representation it was devised to secure ; it continued, however, until the act of 1902.

School boards were empowered not only to acquire sites for schools under powers of compulsory purchase, but also to take transfers of existing voluntary schools from their managers. The act of 1870 did not introduce either direct compulsory attend ance or free education, but it took a distinct step forward in each direction by enabling school boards to frame by-laws rendering attendance compulsory, and also to pay the school fees in the case of poverty of the parent. Building grants were continued tem porarily for the benefit of those who applied (as voluntary man agers alone could apply) before Dec. 31, 1870. On the other hand, the Education Department was authorized to refuse parliamen tary grants to schools established in school board districts after the passing of the act if they thought such schools were unnecessary.

The following figures are of interest as showing the progress made under the act of 1870. In the year 1870 there was accom modation in inspected day schools for about 2,000,000 children; the average attendance was 1,168,00o, and the number on the books about 1,500,00o. It was computed, however, that there were, exclusive of the well-to-do classes, at least 1,500,000 chil dren who attended no school at all or schools not under inspec tion. In 1876 accommodation had been provided for nearly 3,500,00o, and of the 1,500,000 new places nearly two-thirds were provided by voluntary agencies. "These voluntary agencies," says Sir H. Craik, "had received grants in aid for about one-third of the schools they had built, the grants defraying about one-fifth of the cost of the aided schools." On the other hand, the growth of school boards was rapid and continuous, notwithstanding the permissive character of the act and the strenuous efforts of the voluntaryists to keep pace with the new demands. In 1872, 9,700,00o of the population were under school boards, and of these 8,142,000 were under by-laws; in 1876 the numbers were respectively 12,500,000 and 10,400,00o. In the same period the annual grants increased from £894,000 in 1870 to f 1,600,00o in 1876. The development evidenced by the above figures, and in particular the fact that 52% of the population were subject to by-laws, enabled Disraeli's Government in 1876 to pass a law in troducing universal compulsory attendance, with certain excep tions. In order to complete the machinery for compulsion, the act directed that, in every district where there was no school board, a school attendance committee should be appointed by the local authority.

In 188o Mundella, as vice-president of the Council in Glad stone's administration, passed a short act which made the framing of by-laws compulsory upon school boards and school attendance committees, thus completing the system of universal direct com pulsion. Under the acts of 1876 and 188o the average attendance increased from 2,000,000 in 1876 to 3,500,000 in 1878 and 4,000, 00o in 1881; in terms of percentage to population, 8.o6 in 1876, 9.6o in 1878, and 10.69 in 1881. In the last-mentioned year the annual grant rose to £2,200,000, having more than doubled in the decade.

In 1887 a royal commission under the presidency of Viscount Cross was appointed to enquire into the working of the educa tion acts. The labours of this commission produced a thorough discussion of the educational problem in all its aspects, political, administrative, scholastic and religious. For any clear recom mendations with regard to the reorganization of education gen erally the moment was not opportune, inasmuch as the commission just preceded the establishment of the new county authorities and the powers with respect to instruction other than elementary which parliament was shortly to confide to them under the Tech nical Instruction Acts. Nevertheless the report of the majority of the commissioners pointed unmistakably towards the solutions adopted in the act of 1902, and their definite recommendation that voluntary schools should be accorded rate-aid without the im position of the Cowper-Temple clause, served as the basis of that legislation.

Of the developments which followed the Cross report, it is convenient to mention in the first place, out of chronological sequence, the practical establishment of free education by the act of 1891, not by the absolute prohibition of school fees but by the device of a special grant payable by parliament in lieu of fees, called the fee grant. The result of this legislation and of subsequent administrative action was to place free education within the reach of every child, fees being retained (with few ex ceptions) only where some instruction of a higher elementary type was given.

Secondary and Technical Education.

The establishment of county councils by the Local Government Act, 1888, introduced a new factor, destined to exert a determining influence upon sub sequent developments of public education. In the first place, it at once rendered possible the partial and experimental provision for higher education attempted by the Technical Instruction Acts, which affected secondary education as well as technical education in the proper sense of the term. In order to understand the state of secondary education at this period, it is necessary to refer to the first attempts made at State intervention (for earlier history, see ScHooLs).

In 1861 the first step was taken by the appointment of a royal commission, presided over by Lord Clarendon, to enquire into the condition of nine of the chief endowed schools in the coun try, viz., Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylors, Harrow, Rugby and Shrewsbury. The report of this commission led to a statute, the Public Schools Act of 1864, which introduced certain reforms in the administration of seven of these schools, leaving the two great London day schools, St. Paul's and Merchant Taylors, outside its operation.

The Schools Enquiry Commission.—In 1864 the Schools En quiry Commission was appointed under the presidency of Lord Taunton to enquire into all the schools which had not been in cluded either in the commission of 1861 or the Popular Education Commission of 1858. It thoroughly explored the field of second ary education, discussing all the problems, administrative and pedagogic, which the subject presents, and "its luminous and ex haustive report" (to quote the words of Bryce's commission of 1894) remains the best introduction to the problem of public secondary education in England. The existence of numerous and frequently very wealthy endowments arising from private bene factions and bequests has at all times been a feature in education as in other departments of English social life. At the date of the Schools Enquiry Commission the state of the ancient endow ments was largely one of abuse. Very many endowments in tended for advanced education were applied for instruction of a purely elementary character, and that of an inferior kind ; indeed the possession of an endowment in a rural locality not infrequently operated to prevent the establishment of an efficient State-aided school. The evidence showed that the proportion of scholars in the country grammar-schools who were receiving some tincture of the classical education intended by the founders was steadily decreasing, and nothing had been done to bring the curriculum into harmony with the actual needs of the time. In addition to the general inelasticity of the curriculum, the special evils from which the grammar-schools suffered were the want of effective governing bodies and the freehold tenure of the headmasterships. The report of the commission was immediately followed in 1869 by the .Endowed Schools Act, which conferred upon a special commission (united in 1874 with the Charity Commission) very wide and drastic powers of reorganizing ancient endowments. A direction for extending the benefits of endowments to girls did much to assist the movement for the secondary education for girls. Thanks to their powers in framing schemes for the reor ganization of ancient endowed schools the commissioners found themselves able to treat the majority of cases as undenominational. In such cases the general practice was to direct that instruction should, subject to a strict conscience clause, be given in the prin ciples of the Christian faith; this provision, however, did not exclude special doctrinal instruction.

The Schools Enquiry Commission also submitted proposals for t:se general organization of a system of secondary education. They recommended the establishment of three authorities—(1) a cen tral authority; (2) a local or provincial authority, representing the county or a group of counties, and (3) a central council of education charged with examination duties. Further, it was pro posed to raise the level of proprietary and private schools by offering them inspection and examination and by establishing a system of school registration. Lastly, it was proposed to confer upon towns and parishes powers of rating for the establishment of new schools. For these proposals as a whole the time was not ripe. The bill of 1869 attempted to give effect to the suggested creation of a central council, but exigencies of parliamentary time made it necessary to drop this part of the measure; the result was that the plan of the commissioners was only half carried out. Nevertheless the work accomplished was sufficient to exert a con siderable influence upon the secondary education of the country. Thus in 1895 Bryce's commission was able to report that schemes under the Endowed Schools Acts had been made for 902 endow ments in England, excluding Wales and Monmouth, leaving un touched only S46 endowments out of the total of 1,448 endow ments in England known to be subject to the Endowed Schools Acts. The total income of the endowments known to be subject to the Endowed Schools Acts, and therefore available for pur poses of secondary education, according to the estimate of the Secondary Education Commission, was in 1895 about ;F735,o0o gross.

The creation by the Local Government Act in 1888 of the representative and popular county authorities rendered the muni cipalization of secondary instruction at last possible. In 1889 the Technical Instruction Act (extended in some particulars by an act of 1891) empowered the councils of counties, boroughs and urban districts to levy a rate (not exceeding a penny in the pound) for the support or aid of technical or manual instruc tion. Comparatively few councils were prepared to resort to their rating powers, but progress under these acts was greatly facili tated by the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act of 189o, which mentioned technical instruction as one of the purposes to which the imperial contribution paid to local authorities in re spect of the beer and spirit duties might be applied. (See TECH NICAL EDUCATION.) By virtue of the very liberal interpretation given to technical instruction by these acts the financial assist ance afforded under them was extended to cover the whole field of mathematical and physical science, as well as modern lan guages.

At the same time the Department of Science and Art (founded in 1853) gradually utilized its grants to encourage Jiterary studies in secondary schools as well as the scientific and mathematical subjects to the promotion of which it was primarily directed. Thus the combined effect of the local resources available under the Technical Instruction Act and the imperial grant administered by the department was gradually to develop a national system of secondary education with a marked bias on the side of physical science. But the schools giving higher education still practically consisted, apart from the big public schools, of endowed grammar schools, or proprietary schools established by religious bodies or joint-stock companies. No public body had, as yet, the right to build a secondary school.

An undoubted stimulus was given to secondary education in the great centres of industry during the last quarter of the i9th cen tury by the rise of the new university colleges, among which must be reckoned those established expressly for women. At the same time (1889) a beginning was made of State aid to these col leges, through a committee appointed by the Treasury in a min ute of July I (see UNIVERSITIES). Meanwhile, with the develop ment of elementary education, the great school boards found themselves obliged to provide for the further education of their best pupils in what were known as higher-grade elementary schools. These were really secondary schools of the third grade, and, as the commission on secondary education observed, the school boards simply stepped in to fill the educational void which the Schools Enquiry Commissioners had proposed to fill by schools of that name. Their creation was greatly fostered by the upper departments in such schools being recognized for grants by the Science and Art Department. In fact they continued to multiply and prosper till 1901, when the famous judgment in the test case of Rex v. Cockerton pronounced them to be illegal. It was at once recognized that the legislature must, without delay, step in to secure the educational work which the un doubtedly correct principles of judicial interpretation had placed in jeopardy.

Secondary Education Commission.—Meanwhile, as far back as 1894, a royal commission had been appointed under the presi dency of Bryce to enquire into secondary education. The prin cipal recommendations of the commission were: (I) the unifica tion of the existing central authorities, viz., the Department of Science and Art, the Charity Commission (so far as it dealt with educational endowments), and the Education Department, in one central office, and the establishment of an educational council to advise the minister of education in certain professional matters; (2) the establishment of local authorities, to consist of commit tees of the county councils with co-opted elements; (3) the forma tion of a register of teachers with a view to the encouragement of professional training, and a system of school registration upon the basis of inspection and examination. The first of these recom mendations was carried out by the Board of Education Act and under the same act an attempt was made to give some effect to the third-named object, which unfortunately fell short of suc cess. The realization of the second, and the most important, of the recommendations was deferred till 1902, when it was brought about as a part of a wider reorganization of the educational system.

In 1896 an endeavour was made to meet the demands of the voluntary managers of elementary schools by means of a bill introduced by Sir John Gorst. This bill with its provision for a special aid grant to be administered by county education author ities, which were to exist side by side with the school boards, represented a kind of compromise between the systems of 187o and 1902. It encountered opposition in all quarters and was withdrawn. In.1897, however, the position of the denominational schools was strengthened by the Voluntary Schools Act, which provided for a special aid grant of 5s. per head of the scholars in average attendance in these schools.

Partial effect was given to the recommendations of the Second ary Education Commission by the Board of Education Act of 1899, which united the Department of Science and Art with the Education Department in one central office under the title of the Board of Education, with a president and parliamentary secre tary ; and provided for the transfer to this board of the powers of the Charity Commissioners in relation to educational endow ments; also for a consultative committee, consisting, as to not less than two-thirds, of persons qualified to represent the views of university and other bodies interested in education, for the purpose (I) of framing a register of qualified teachers, and (2) of advising the Board of Education upon any matters referred to the committee by the board. In 1902, a tripartite division was adopted to correspond with the three branches of education with which the Board of Education is concerned, viz., elementary, secondary and technological. Mention may also be made here of another uncontroversial measure, the Elementary Education Act of 1899, which dealt for the first time, from the point of view of the State, with mental deficiency (q.v.).

Education Act, 19o2.—No law, during the last 5o years, with the exception of the Home Rule controversies, excited a more acute or prolonged controversy than the Education Act of 19o2. Yet at this distance of time, when the political and religious pas sions it provoked have practically disappeared, it appears in its true light as the veritable charter of incorporation of English education, hitherto consisting of disconnected and often discordant elements. In the sphere of elementary education it boldly abol ished the school boards and made the one authority for every form of education (below the university), the county or county borough, already the recognized authority for technical and, to a limited extent, for secondary education. By putting voluntary and or dinary elementary schools on the same footing, it practically made the standard of the work in the two identical, and eventually built up an almost complete network of well equipped secondary schools, as well as a vigorous system of technical education. Un der the impartial administration of the counties, the religious question practically ceased to exist. The act was extended to Lon don in 19o3. For framing and carrying it through, special credit is due to Mr. (afterwards Lord) Balfour and Sir R. Morant.

Principal Provisions of the 1902 Act.—Part I. Local Education Authority. The council of every county and of every county borough is the local education authority for higher and elemen tary education; for the purpose of elementary education au tonomous powers are conferred upon boroughs with a population of over io,000, and urban districts with a population of over 20,000.

Part II. Higher Education. "The L.E.A. (local education au thority) shall consider the educational needs of their area and take such steps as seem to them desirable, of ter consultation with the Board of Education, to supply or aid the supply of education other than elementary, and to promote the general co-ordination of all forms of education." The usual conscience clause in schools, colleges or hostels provided by the council is modified by a pro vision for facilities for any particular religious instruction to be given at the request of parents of scholars.

Part III. Elementary Education. (i) Powers and duties. The L.E.A. are responsible for and have the control of all secular in struction in public elementary schools not provided by them.

(2) Management of schools. (a) For public elementary schools, such number as they may determine. For schools not provided by the L.E.A. (voluntary schools) the act directs that there shall be a body of six managers, of whom four are to be "foundation managers" and two are to be appointed in counties, one by the L.E.A., and one by the minor local authority, and in autonomous boroughs or urban districts both by the borough or urban dis trict council.

(3) Maintenance of schools. (a) Powers. The L.E.A. are re quired to maintain and keep efficient all necessary public elemen tary schools. The managers must carry out the directions of the L.E.A. as to the secular instruction to be given in the school, including any directions with respect to the number and educa tional qualifications of the teachers, and for the dismissal of any teacher on educational grounds. The consent of the L.E.A. is re quired to the appointment of teachers, but that consent may not be withheld except on educational grounds ; and the consent of the authority is also required to the dismissal of a teacher unless the dismissal is on grounds connected with the giving of religious instruction. (b) Liabilities. The managers are required to provide the school premises to the L.E.A. for use as a public elementary school free of charge, and, out of funds provided by them, to keep the school premises in good repair and to make such altera tions and improvements in the buildings as might reasonably be required by the L.E.A. The L.E.A. are required to make good such damage as they consider to be due to fair wear and tear of rooms used by them. Assistant teachers and pupil teachers may be appointed in voluntary schools "if it is thought fit" without reference to religious creed and denomination ; where there are several candidates for the post of pupil teacher, the appointment is to be made by the L.E.A.

Provision of new schools.—New schools may be provided either by the L.E.A. or any other persons, subject to the issue of three months' public notice, and to a right of appeal on the part of the managers of any existing school, the L.E.A. (in the case of pro posed voluntary schools) or any ten ratepayers of the district, to the Board of Education on the ground that the proposed school is not required. Any enlargement of a public elementary school which in the opinion of the Board of Education is such as to amount to the provision of a new school, and any transfer of a school to or from the L.E.A. must be treated as the provision of a new school. In deciding appeals, the board are to have regard to the interest of secular instruction, the wishes of parents as to the education of children, and the economy of the rates, but existing schools are not to be considered unnecessary if the average at tendance is not less than 3o.

Aid Grant.—Section so provides a new aid grant payable to the L.E.A. in respect of the number of scholars in average attendance in schools maintained by them.

Education Committees.—All councils having powers under the act, except those having concurrent powers as to higher education only, must establish education committees in accordance with schemes approved by the Board of Education. All matters relat ing to the exercise by a council of their powers under the act, except the power of raising a rate or borrowing money, stand re ferred to the education committee. Every scheme must provide (a) for the appointment of a majority of the committee by the council, the persons so appointed to be already members of the council unless the council otherwise determine; (b) for the ap pointment by the council of persons of experience in education, and of persons acquainted with the needs of the various kinds of schools in the area of the council; (c) for the inclusion of women.

Expenses.—All parliamentary grants were made payable to the L.E.A. instead of, as previously, to the managers. The county council must charge a proportion of all capital expenditure and liabilities, including rent, on account of the provision or improve ment of any public elementary school, on the parish or parishes which are served by the school, such proportion to be not less than one-half or more than three-fourths as the council think fit. The county council may also charge on the parishes benefited any expenses incurred with respect to education other than elementary.

Endowments.—The act introduced a new principle into the ad ministration of endowments by directing that their income, so far as necessarily applicable for those purposes of a public ele mentary school for which the local authority are liable, must be paid to that authority for the relief of the parochial rate.

A number of Nonconformist ratepayers refused to pay the education rate on the ground that their consciences forbade their supporting the religious teaching in denominational schools; and their willingness to become subject to distraint and consequent inconveniences rather than pay the rates became the foundation of a widespread political campaign known as "Passive Resistance." In Wales, where in the rural districts the schools were commonly Anglican whilst the population was Nonconformist, particular difficulties arose in administering the act in consequence of the hostile attitude of the county authorities. Accordingly the Gov ernment passed the Local Education (Local Authority Default) Act, 1904, empowering the Board of Education, in the case of default by the local authority, to make payments direct to the managers of tbe school and to deduct the amount from the sums payable to the defaulting authority.

Supplementary Bills.—When the Liberal Party came into power again in 1906, Birrell, as president of the Board of Education in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's administration, introduced a bill to amend the Education Acts, 1902–o3, with the object of securing full public control of all rate-aided schools and the ap pointment of teachers without reference to religious belief. The bill encountered strong opposition from Anglicans and Catholics; it passed the House of Commons by a large majority, but after unavailing attempts at compromise upon the amendments intro duced in the House of Lords, the two houses failed to agree and the measure was lost.

Early in the session of 1908, McKenna introduced a bill con taining a scheme for a new system of allocating the parliamentary grant, and proposing to make Cowper-Temple teaching compul sory in all aided schools. The bill was remodelled by his successor, Runciman, but in spite of negotiations with the Church Party, no compromise was reached, and the bill was ultimately with drawn by the Government when in committee of the House of Commons.

The Education (Provision of Meals) Act, 1906, enabled local education authorities to aid voluntary agencies in the provision of meals for children attending public elementary schools, and in certain cases with the consent of the Board of Education to defray the cost of the food themselves.

In 1907 an uncontroversial act entitled the Education (Admin i-trative Provisions) Act, besides dealing with various matters of technical and administrative detail, laid upon local education authorities the new duty of providing for the medical inspection of all children attending public elementary schools. In connection with this act the Board of Education established a medical depart ment to advise and assist them in supervising local education authorities in carrying out their statutory duties in this regard. The whole departure was significant of the new sense of the im portance of hygiene and physical training, which has been one of the remarkable features in recent educational developments. Other noteworthy developments were the extension in the provision for mentally and physically defective children (see MENTAL DEFICIENCY ; BLIND, TRAINING OF THE ; DEAF AND DUMB, etc.), and a more definite organization of "after care" work, including the finding of employment for pupils on leaving school. The act of 1902, by placing secular education in public elementary schools under the control of strongly organized local education authorities, enabled the Board of Education in the code of 1904 to abolish the last traces of the system of payment by results, by setting forth "a properly co-ordinated curriculum suit able to the needs of the children, with an indication of the relation which the various subjects of instruction should bear to each other, in place of the relatively haphazard list of possible branches of knowledge which were formerly presented to the choice of individ ual schools or authorities." In the new code also the board for the first time endeavoured to state for the guidance of teachers and parents the proper aim of the public elementary school, laying stress upon that element of the training of character which the sys tem of payment by results had obscured. The new spirit was strik ingly manifested in the volume of Suggestions for the Considera tion of Teachers, issued by the Board of Education in 1905. Apprehension of the true aims of elementary education led to a corresponding development of instruction of a practical charac ter, observation lessons and nature study being treated as a neces sary element in the curriculum, while handicraft and gardening, and domestic subjects (for girls), were encouraged by special grants. Increased attention was bestowed both by the central and local authorities upon the problem of rural instruction, though much still remains to be done in this matter (see RURAL EDUCA TION) .

According to the official returns for 1907-08, the total number of scholars on the registers was as follows : council schools, 2,991,741; voluntary schools, 2,566,030; total, 5,557,771; and the total attendance upon which grant was paid was 4,928,659. The percentage of actual average attendance to average number on the registers was 88.50%. The parliamentary grant (England and Wales) for elementary schools, other than higher elementary, amounted to f 1 1,023,433 A large number of the old higher grade board-schools (declared illegal under the Elementary Education Acts by the judgment in the case of Rex v. Cockerton in 1901, and legalized temporarily by an act passed for the purpose in the same year) were con verted into municipal secondary schools under the act of 19o2. In the succeeding years provision was made in the code for higher elementary schools of a specialized and technical type intended only for industrial districts. In 1906, as the result of the recommendations of the consultative committee, a new type of higher elementary school was admitted for children over 12, corresponding generally to the French ecole primaire superieure, and having "for its object the development of the education given in the ordinary public elementary school, and the provision of special instruction bearing on the future occupations of the schol ars, whether boys or girls." (For subsequent history, see CENTRAL SCHOOLS.) The total expenditure (exclusive of capital outlay) of the local authorities (1906-07) in England only, upon elementary educa tion, including "industrial" and "special" schools, was £19,776,733, of which (a) L10,408,242 was met by the ordinary parliamentary grant, and (b) £8,930,468 was the balance required to be met by rates, the difference being represented by receipts from various sources. The average cost per child of elementary schools in Eng land and Wales (including London) was £3 4s. I od., and the aver age central grant (excluding grants for special purposes) at 415., leaving 195. to be raised locally.

Training of Teachers.—The training of teachers for the two great branches of public education, elementary and secondary respectively, is an important part of the general administrative problem. Sir Joshua Fitch pointed out that the full appreciation of the importance of training began at the lower end of the social scale. Shuttleworth and Tufnell in 1846 urged the necessity of special training for the primary teacher, and hoped to establish State training colleges to supply this want ; but the one college at Battersea which was founded as an experiment was soon trans ferred to the National Society (the "National Society for educat ing the poor in the principles of the Established Church": founded in 1811). Before this, Bell and Lancaster had made arrange ments in their model schools for the reception of a few young people to learn the system by practice. The religious bodies in England, notably the Established Church, proceeded to avail themselves of the failure of the central Government, and a num ber of diocesan colleges for men, and separate colleges for women, were gradually established. In 1854 the British and Foreign School Society (founded 1808) placed their institutes at the Borough road and Stockwell, London, on a collegiate footing, and subsequently founded other colleges at Swansea, Bangor, Darling ton and Saffron Walden; the Roman Catholic Church provided two for women and one for men ; and the Wesleyans two, one for each sex. The new provincial colleges of university rank were invited by the Educational Department to attach normal classes to their ordinary course and to make provision for special train ing and suitable practice in schools for those students who desired to become teachers. Thus the residential colleges of the old type and the day colleges attached to institutions of university rank, were both subsidized by grants from the Treasury, and regularly inspected. As the need of special training for teachers became further recognized by the consideration of the same question as regards teachers in higher and intermediate schools (Cambridge instituting in 1879 examinations for a teacher's diploma, and other universities providing courses for secondary as well as primary teachers, and establishing professorships of education), the atti tude of the Board of Education towards the problem gradually became more and more a subject of controversy and of public interest, as indicated by the clause in the act of 1899 providing for a public registration of qualified teachers and for the gradual elimination from the profession of those who were unqualified. And meanwhile the increased solidarity of the National Union of Teachers (founded in 1870), the trade union of the teachers, brought an important body of professional opinion to bear on the discussion of their own interests.

The question of preliminary education of elementary teachers reached a critical stage in 1909. The history of pupil-teachership as a method of concurrent instruction and employment shows that it was, in its inception, something in the nature of a makeshift ; the ideal placed before local education authorities in the regula tions of the Board was the alternative system whereby with the aid of national bursaries (instituted in 1907) "the general educa tion of future teachers may be continued in secondary schools until the age of 17 or 18, and all attempts to obtain a practical experience of elementary school work may be deferred until the training college is entered, or at least until an examination making a natural break in that general education and qualifying for an admission to a training college has been passed." Under the revised pupil-teacher system established by the regulations of 1903, provision was made for the instruction of pupil-teachers in centres which as far as possible are attached to secondary schools receiving grants from the Board of Education under the regula tions for secondary schools. Accordingly, the result has been to modify the old system in two ways ; first by providing the alter native of a full course of secondary education, secondly by asso ciating pupil-teachership itself as far as possible with part-time attendance at a secondary school. The success of the scheme has been great and, in fact, no better plan could have been devised for breaking down the party-wall between elementary and sec ondary education. More recently the abolition of the pupil-teacher system has been strongly advocated (see TEACHERS, TRAINING OF).

One of the principal difficulties which confronted the State and the local authorities in their task of organizing an improved sys tem of public education under the act of 1902 lay in the deficiency of training colleges in view of the increased number of teachers. Moreover there was a widespread feeling that the provision of training colleges should be undertaken by the State as a matter of national concern. Accordingly a new system of building grants in aid of the establishment of training colleges was instituted in 1905. In 1906 these grants were raised from 25 to 75% of the capital expenditure, but were limited to colleges provided by local authorities. A further difficulty in view of the municipalization of education arose from the fact that the majority of the resi dential colleges were in the hands of denominational trusts which did not admit a conscience clause. Under the presidency of McKenna (19o7), the Board of Education, in regulations which excited much controversy, "with a view to throwing open as far as possible the advantages of a course of training in colleges supported mainly by public funds to all students who are quali fied to profit by it, irrespective of religious creed or social status," laid down that the application of a candidate might in no circum stances be rejected on any religious ground, nor on the ground of social antecedents or the like. The same regulations provided that no new training colleges would be recognized except on terms of compliance with certain conditions as to freedom from denomina tional restrictions or requirements. The obligation as to religious exemptions has since been limited to 5o% of the admissions.

Training facilities for secondary teachers existed at Cambridge as far back as 1890, and the other universities have since followed suit. None the less progress has been far slower than in the ele mentary sphere, especially as regards the men. Many head masters, especially in the public schools, still believe that the best way is for the young master to play himself in. With the head mistresses, on the other hand, training is more and more regarded as a sine qua non. It is only fair to add, however, that even with the men the pace has accelerated.

The fear that a considerable part of the national expenditure upon elementary education was wasted, for want of an effective system of continuative instruction to be given out of working hours to adolescents engaged in industrial employment, led to an enquiry by the consultative committee of the Board of Education, whose report (1909) recommended a reduction in the size of classes in elementary schools by the new staffing regulations of that year; an increase in hand-work with a view to rendering the curriculum less bookish and more efficient as a training for indus trial and agricultural life; and legislation to reform the system of half-time attendance and raise the age of compulsory attendance to 13 and ultimately 14. They further recommended a super structure of continuative schools or classes, attendance at which up to 17 would be compulsory under by-laws adoptive locally at the option of the local education authorities. In 1906-07 about 21 per thousand of the population of England and Wales attended evening schools and classes inspected by the Board of Education, and grants amounting to L361,596 were paid in respect of 440,718 regular attendants. (See CONTINUATION SCHOOLS.) The general progress in elementary education, great as it was in the years following the act of 1902, had been outstripped by that made in secondary education. During that period there had been built up a liberal system of local scholarships and free places, amounting since 1907 to 25% or more of the pupils actually in the schools, providing a ladder from the elementary school to the secondary and thence to the university, including, as we have seen, ti,e majority of future elementary teachers. In addition scales of salaries had been introduced by many local authorities, the curriculum rendered far more flexible by the abolition of regu lations, the school life lengthened, and an imposing, though still incomplete, network of schools developed throughout the country. By 1910 there were on the Board of Education's grant list, 841 secondary schools with 141,149 pupils, while in addition 87 schools were recognized as efficient, but received no grant. (For the full history of university education up to 1910, see UNIVERSITIES.) 1910-14.—The period of 1910-14 was one of steady progress in education even if somewhat uneventful from the parliamentary point of view. One noticeable matter in that sphere was the Ele mentary Education Act of 1914 which renewed the act of (Defective and Epileptic Children) in a more drastic form. Another landmark was the Board's circular on physical exercises in secondary schools, in which Swedish exercises were definitely laid down as the official form of physical training (q.v.), similar recognition having already taken place in elementary schools and training colleges. But, in view of subsequent history, the most important event was in the realm of university education when in 1913 the report of the royal commission on London university (q.v.), presided over by Lord Haldane, was issued, the commis sion having been appointed in 1907. One part of the report seriously threatened the existence of the external degree, a danger since averted, but a still more important part of it dealt with the revision of the organization and government of the university, which formed the groundwork of a subsequent commission and parliamentary action.

The World War.—During the period of the World War all grades of work suffered. The elementary schools lost many of their teachers, who were called on for military service. The men's training colleges were seriously depleted, and several were closed or amalgamated, while in the later stages of the war, the boys' secondary schools lost practically all their pupils at the age of 18. A large amount of the teaching was done by women who occupied positions usually held by men teachers. Nevertheless, there is progress to chronicle. In 1917 the Board, which in 1914 had abol ished all examinations for lower and middle forms in secondary schools (q.v.), established the Secondary Schools Council for co ordinating the standards of the remaining examinations in these schools, multiplicity of examinations, with considerable variety in standard, having been in the past a serious flaw in English education. (See EXAMINATIONS.) Education Acts 1918 and 1921.-The men who returned from the front on the conclusion of the war had realized the need of education as a sine qua non to promotion from the ranks. At the same time there had been forming at home a strong body of opinion in favour of insuring, as far as possible, against the inevi table aftermath of post-war unemployment. This opinion may be said to have focused round the report of the departmental com mittee on juvenile education in relation to unemployment, which, appointed in 1916, reported in 1917, many of its suggestions being embodied in the bill of 1918.

The Education Act of 1918, which was carried through by H. A. L. Fisher, and which was re-enacted, with most of the earlier acts, in consolidated form by the Education Act of 1921, made a determined attempt to improve the state of things in England and Wales. It aimed at the establishment of "a national system of public education available for all persons capable of profiting thereby," and the local authorities were called on to prepare schemes setting out the provision which they had made and proposed to make to this end. The act effected important changes in respect of elementary education (see ELEMENTARY EDUCATION) including the power to establish Nursery schools (q.v.) for children between two and five years of age. It raised the compulsory school age from 12 to 14 with power to the local authority to extend that age to 15. It abolished part-time attend ance, made provision for central schools for the older and more intelligent children in the elementary schools, and laid emphasis on physical training, enlarged facilities for recreation of all kinds, and the social side of education. The local authorities were to co-operate in providing for the preparation of children for further education in schools other than elementary, and for their trans ference at suitable ages to such schools. The act also dealt with the supply and training of teachers, and extended the duties and powers of the local authorities with reference to medical inspec tion and mental deficiency and treatment, to secondary and con tinuation schools. It removed the limit imposed on rating powers for education other than elementary.

But perhaps the most novel feature of the statute was that which instituted a compulsory system of part-time education after the close of the elementary school period. "Young persons," between the ages of 14 and 18, were required to attend a continu ation school for 3 20 hours in the year, unless able to claim exemp tion under the act. (See CONTINUATION SCHOOLS.) Other move ments that have grown out of this legislation, or have received an added momentum from its presence on the statute book, are the Workers' Education Association and the movement for adult education (q.v.).

In 192o, for the first time in the history of English education, a national scheme of salaries for elementary and secondary teach ers (see SECONDARY EDUCATION) was established under the chair manship of Lord Burnham, known henceforth as the Burnham scale. Slight modifications were subsequently made in both pen sion and salary schemes, but the general result of these reforms was to place the position of the teacher on a distinctly satisfactory footing, one direct outcome being the rapid growth of members on the teachers' register that followed, largely due to the efforts of the National Union of Teachers. In 192o, also, the Board started State scholarships to enable the talented children of parents with limited means to proceed to the university. Dropped during 1922-23, they were revived in 1924, and the maximum number offered in 1927 was 200. Moreover, during the same period (1918-2 2) , the Board published four reports of committees on modern languages, science, classics and English. In 1922 the Board issued a valuable circular on the possibility of co-ordinating the recommendations made in these reports with the claims of other subjects.

Universities After 19i8.—If the universities were depleted dur ing the war, they were speedily overcrowded after the declaration of peace. Most of the men who had interrupted their studies to go to the front returned, and a vast number of ex-officers availed themselves of Government grants which were estimated in 1920 for the five years they were to be in force, to amount to I8,5oo, 000, though the total sum was not entirely expended. No less than 23,00o ex-officers availed themselves of this unique opportunity. Those of them who did not go to the universities went to commer cial, art and technical schools, or studied for the various profes sions. The technical institutes of all sorts, therefore, shared to some extent in the general prosperity. The universities also re ceived substantial grants (1soo,000 in 1919-2o) to set them on their feet. All these grants were made through a standing com mittee known as the University Grants committee, and not through the Board of Education direct. The creation of this inter mediary body has, like the creation of a buffer state, preserved the complete autonomy of the university which has always been such a marked feature in English education. In this connection it is worth noting that Oxford and Cambridge only accepted State aid in 1919, and at first with no conditions attached. All the uni versities, quite apart from financial help, gained by the work of this committee which, in practice, was largely a co-ordinating and levelling-up committee.

Developments Since r922.—After 1922 education went through a period of slowing down and consolidation, while at the same time, a large amount of official investigation and research took place. The financial uneasiness may be said to have started with the seventh report of the Select Committee on national expendi ture in 192o, which specially dealt with national education. But the actual financial stress did not make itself felt till 1922 when, with almost dramatic suddenness, unemployment, hitherto at an insignificant figure, bounded up in less than six months to an ab normal height. Among educational developments the scheme for universal day "continuation schools" (q.v.) was the first to suffer. Unfortunately, conceived as the prolongation of a general educa tion, they became speedily unpopular with the pupils, parents and the general public. Practically the only schools that survived were the London ones. A certain number of these were saved by being placed on a voluntary basis with a vocational bias, and as such became increasingly popular.

In spite of the financial crisis, elementary schools, secondary schools, universities and technical institutes of all kinds held their ground, and even progressed, though in elementary education, owing to the falling off in the juvenile population from war causes, the number of pupils showed a considerable decrease. In sec ondary schools the numbers did not decline and there was a sub stantial increase in the number of pupils over 16 and in those doing advanced work. The Burnham scale was extended to tech nical institutes. In the universities the organizations for finding employment for graduates continued to extend, many new chairs were created, and the volume of research increased. The univer sity grants were increased also and one of the outstanding features of post-war years was the commissions on Oxford, Cambridge and London universities, appointed by parliament.

Publications by the Board of Education.—Since 1922 the Board has published some exceedingly valuable reports, memoranda and suggestions. Thus in 1922 suggestions were issued on the teaching of gardening and handcraft. In 1923 the consultation committee of the Board published a long report on the differences in cur ricula between the sexes in secondary schools, recommending inter alia greater freedom of curricula and more flexibility in the matric ulation, more free periods for pupils in school, a more generous time allowance for music and art, both the latter to be recognized as suitable subjects for the first school examination, with further investigations into the subject of mental and physical fatigue. Two pamphlets which, though published by the Industrial Fatigue Board, have a considerable bearing on education are worth men tion—one on performance tests of intelligence (1925) and the other a study in vocational guidance (1926).

The Board also issued reports, circulars or suggestions on the teaching of English and drawing in secondary schools (1924), the teaching of arithmetic in elementary schools and the teaching of science in secondary schools (1925), the position of French in grant-aided secondary schools (1926), short courses for teachers (giving a list of courses available) and a revised edition of the Handbook of Suggestions (1927); a Survey of Technical and Fur ther Education (1926) ; Recent Developments of Secondary Schools, a history of the subject since 1902 and even earlier; First Report of the Committee on Education and Industry (1926), a committee partly appointed by the Ministry of Labour ; Report of an Inquiry into the relationship of Technical Education to other forms of Education and to Industry and Commerce (1927); Report of the Departmental Committee on the Training of Teachers mainly remarkable for the wide divergence of opinion it contained, and the Report of the Departmental Committee on the Preparation of the Rural Teacher (appointed 1927). Perhaps the most important report was that on the education of the adolescent —dealing with further education of pupils over 1I (see ELEMEN

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