Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-7-part-2-damascus-education-in-animals >> Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction to Gabriel Francois Doyen

Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 7, Part 2: Damascus to Education in Animals

Loading


Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction
Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction. The Jurisdiction Exercised By Ecclesiastics, In Taking Cognizance Of And Deciding Causes, Over Other Ecclesiastics And Over The Laity. Before Its Union With The State, The Power Of The Church In This Direction, As In Others, Was Only Spiritual. Coercive Authority Over Their Bodies Or Estates Could Only ...

Ecclesiastical Law
Ecclesiastical Law, In Its Broadest Sense, The Sum Of The Authoritative Rules Governing The Christian Church, Whether In Its Internal Polity Or In Its Relations With The Secular Power. Since There Are Various Churches, Widely Differing Both In Their Principles And Practice, It Follows That A Like Difference Exists In ...

Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus (abbreviated To Ecclus.), An Alterna Tive Title Of The Apocryphal Book Otherwise Called "the Wisdom Of Jesus The Son Of Sirach." The Latin Word Ecclesiasticus Means "churchly," And Might Be Used Of Any Book Which Was Read In Church Or Received Ecclesiastical Sanction. The Name Of The Book Appears ...

Ecgbert Or Ecgberht
Ecgbert Or Ecgberht (d. 766), Archbishop Of York, Was Made Bishop Of That See In 732 By His Cousin Ceolwulf, King Of Northumbria, Succeeding Wilfrid Ii. On The Latter's Resignation. The Pall Was Sent Him In 735 And He Became The First Northern Archbishop After Paulinus, None Of His Predecessors ...

Ecgbert Or Ecgberht_2
Ecgbert Or Ecgberht (d. 839), King Of The West Saxons, Son Of Ealhmund, Succeeded To The Throne In 802 On The Death Of Beorhtric. It Is Said That At An Earlier Period In His Life He Had Been Driven Out For Three Years By Offa And Beorhtric. In 815 Ecgbert ...

Ecgonine
Ecgonine, A White Crystalline Alkaloid Of The Tropine Group, Is Chiefly Of Interest Because Of Its Relation To Cocaine. Ecgonine Is A Tropine Carboxylic Acid And Cocaine Is Its Ben Zoyl Methyl Ester : L-ecgonine Results From The Alkaline Hydrolysis Of I-cocaine (the Naturally Occurring Form) ; It Melts At ...

Echelon
Echelon, In Military Tactics And Drill, A Formation Of Troops Composed Of Successive And Parallel Units Facing In The Same Direc Tion, Each On A Flank, And To The Rear Of, The Unit In Front Of It (fr. From Echelle, Ladder). The Disposition Of The Whole Thus Resembles The Steps ...

Echidna Or Spiny Ant Eater
Echidna Or Spiny Ant-eater (echidna Aculeata), One Of The Monotremata (q.v.) The Lowest Subclass Of Mammalia. It Is A Native Of Australia, Burrowing In Sand, Or Hiding In Rock Crevices. In Size And Appearance It Resembles A Hedgehog, Its Upper Surface Being Covered Over With Strong Spines Directed Back Wards ...

Echinoderma
Echinoderma (echinoderms), A Group Of Animals That Live In The Sea And Constitute One Of The Great Branches (phyla) Of The Animal Kingdom. Familiar Examples Are The Sea-urchin (echinoid), The Sea-star Or Starfish (asteroid) And The Brittle Star (ophiuroid). Less Familiar Are The Feather-star And Sea-lily (unstalked And Stalked Crinoid), ...

Echinoidea
Echinoidea, A Class Of The Echinoderma (q.v.), Com Prising The Sea-urchins (q.v.). ...

Echinus
Echinus, In Architecture, A Convex Moulding, Under The Abacus Of A Column Capital, So Called From Its Resemblance, In Form, To A Sea Urchin (greek Ex Vos, Echinos). It Is Universal In Both Greek And Roman Doric Orders, In Which It Usually Has A Profile Of Circular Or Elliptical Curvature ...

Echiuroidea
Echiuroidea. The Echiuroids Are A Small Group Of Ex Clusively Marine Animals Which Live In Tubes Or Galleries In The Rock. They Are Of Moderate Size (ikeda Is Recorded With A Length Of Two Metres) With A Sac-like Body Surmounted By A Large Pre Oral Lobe Or Proboscis, With Which ...

Echo
Echo. A Sound Reflected From An Obstacle. Personified In Later Greek Mythology, As A Mountain Nymph Or Oread (not Before Euripides). In Ovid (metam. Iii., 356 Ff.) She Of Fended Hera By Keeping Her Talking And Thus Preventing Her Spying On An Amour Of Zeus; In Punishment, She Was Deprived ...

Echternach
Echternach. The Oldest Town In The Old Duchy Of Luxembourg On The Sure, Close To The Prussian, F Rontier, And The Centre From Which The English Saint Willibrord Converted The People To Christianity In The 7th Century. A Benedictine Abbey Is Represented Mainly By An Old Romano-gothic Church. The Hos ...

Ecija
Ecija, A Town Of Southern Spain, Province Of Seville, On The Cadiz-cordoba Railway. Pop. (1930) 29,884. Ecija On The Left Bank Of The River Genil, Which Is Navigable To This Point, Is The Centre Of A Fertile District Producing Olives, Cereals, Wine And Some Cotton. The Heat In Summer Is ...

Eckernforde
Eckernforde, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Schleswig-holstein, On A Fjord Of The Baltic, 20 M. By Rail N.w. From Kiel. Pop. 7,322. It Has A Good Har Bour, Fishing, Trade In Agricultural Products, And Manufactures Of Tobacco, Salt And Iron Goods. There Is A Technical School ...

Eckmuhl Or Eggmuhl
Eckmuhl Or Eggmuhl, A Village Of Germany, In Ba Varia, On The Grosse Laaber, 13m. S.e. Of Regensburg By The Rail Way To Munich. It Is Famous As The Scene Of A Battle Fought Here On April 2 2, 1809, Between The French, Bavarians And Wurttem Bergers Under Napoleon, And ...

Eclecticism
Eclecticism, A Term Used Specially In Philosophy And Theology For A Composite System Of Thought Made Up Of Views Chosen From Various Other Systems (from Gr. Ek)4yw, I Select). Where The Characteristic Doctrines Of A Philosophy Are Not Thus Merely Adopted, But Are The Modified Products Of A Blending Of ...

Eclipse
Eclipse. One Heavenly Body Is Said To Be Eclipsed By An Other When The Second Body Passes Between The Observer And The First Body So As To Obscure Part Or All Of It. Thus An Eclipse (from Gr. Kxa T'es, Failing To Appear) Of The Sun Occurs When The Moon ...

Eclipses Of Satellites Of
Eclipses Of Satellites Of Jupiter In Fig. 2 (3) We Have A Representation Of Eclipses Of One Of The Outer Planets, Jupiter Say, And Its Satellites. Satellite I. Is Drawn Inside The Umbral Cone Of Jupiter And So, Since It Is Not Self-luminous, Is Temporarily (i.e., While Passing Through The ...

Eclipses Of The Moon
Eclipses Of The Moon The Phenomena Attending Eclipses Of The Moon Are Not Of Great Astrophysical Interest Nowadays. Owing To The Earth's Atmosphere There Is Never Complete Darkening Of The Lunar Surface. Even At Mid-eclipse There Is Sufficient Light Refracted To Make It Visible As Of A Dull Ruddy Hue. ...

Eclipsing Binary Stars
Eclipsing Binary Stars Eclipsing Binaries Are Stars Which Vary In Brightness Periodi Cally. The Most Famous Of These Is Algol Or (3 Persei, And The Explanation Of The Changes Is That There Are Two Stars Revolving Round One Another In An Orbit Whose Plane Intersects The Earth, Or Does So ...

Ecliptic
Ecliptic, In Astronomy, Is The Great Circle On The Celestial Sphere Which Forms The Apparent Path Of The Sun In The Course Of The Year. The Twelve Constellations Or Signs Of The Zodiac Are Arranged Along The Ecliptic. The Plane Of The Ecliptic Is The Plane Of The Earth's Orbit, ...

Eclogite
Eclogite, In Petrology A Typical Member Of A Small Group Of Rocks Now Recognized As Including Both Igneous And Meta Morphic Representatives, And Of Special Interest On Account Of The Variety Of Minerals They Contain And Their Geological Relation Ships. The Eclogites (from Gr. A Selection) Are Mostly Coarse-grained And ...

Eclogue
Eclogue, A Short Pastoral Dialogue In Verse. The Word Is Conjectured To Be Derived From The Greek Verb Ekxe'yetv, To Choose. Another Derivation Traces It To A , Goat, And X6yos, Speech, And Makes It A Conversation Of Shepherds. The Idea Of Dialogue, However, Is Not Necessary For An Eclogue, ...

Economic Articles
Economic Articles. The Large Subject Economics Is Dealt With In This Work Under Many Headings. The Article Economics Is A General Survey Of The Development Of Economic Theory. Further Discussions Of Different Branches Of The Subject Will Be Found In The Articles Entitled Capital, Capitalism, Land, ...

Economic Freedom
Economic Freedom, In Economics, A Term Applied To A Condition Of Society In Which Free Competition Obtains. The Term Connotes The Emergence Of Society From Slavery And Serfdom. In Complete Economic Freedom, Every Man Is At Liberty To Work As He Will, Unfettered By Law Or Regulation, And Uncontrolled By ...

Economic Man
Economic Man. The Term Homo Economicus Has Often Been Employed, With An Ironical Significance, By Critics Of Political Economy, And Has Been Especially Directed Against The English Economists Who Founded The Classic School, Such As Ricardo And Senior. Critics Reproach Them With Having Based A Science Of Eco Nomics On ...

Economics
Economics. Because Economics Has To Do With The Wealth Getting And Wealth-using Activities Of Men, It Is Of Ten Defined As "the Science Of Wealth." This Is Not A Wholly Satisfactory Defini Tion, For The Special Characteristics Of Economics Are Determined Not So Much By Its Subject-matter As By The ...

Economizer
Economizer. An Important Adjunct To A Steam-generating Plant. Instead Of Being Allowed To Escape To The Chimney Direct From The Furnaces, The Waste Gases Are Led Through Passages In Which Are Placed Sets Of Vertical Tubes. Water Passes Through The Tubes And The Heat Of The Gases Raises It To ...

Economy
Economy, The Thrifty Management Of The Financial Re Sources Of A Household Or Of An Individual, Hence A "saving," Not Only Of Money, But Of Time, Labour Or Effort, And Generally, The Least Expenditure Of Means To Attain A Required End. "economy" Is Also Used In Theology In Such Expressions ...

Ecorse
Ecorse, A Village Of Wayne County, Michigan, U.s.a., On The Detroit River, 7m. S.s.w. Of Detroit. It Is Served By The Detroit, Toledo And Ironton, The Michigan Central And The New York Central Railways. The Population Was 4,394 In 192o (81 % Native White) And Was 12,716 In 193o By ...

Ecossaise
Ecossaise, In Music, The French Name, Which Has Also Been Adopted In Germany, For A Certain Scottish Dance And Cor Responding Music. Originally This Dance Was A Slow One In Duple Time, But The Term Nowadays Signifies One Of A Quicker And Livelier Character In 2-4 Time. Beethoven And Schubert ...

Ecstasy
Ecstasy, A Term Applied To An Abnormal Mental Condition, In Which The Mind Is Entirely Absorbed In The Contemplation Of One Dominant Idea Or Object, And Loses For The Time Its Normal Self Control (gr. Grcaravcs, From I Tarrhuc, Put Out Of Its Place, Alter) . With This There Is ...

Ecuador
Ecuador (officially La Repicblica Del Ecuador), A Republic Of South America, Bounded On The North And North-east By Colombia And Peru, On The East-south-east And South By Peru, And On The West By The Pacific Ocean. The Northern Boundary (about 68o M.) Begins On The Pacific Coast At The Mouth ...

Eczema
Eczema, A Common And Important Inflammation Of The Skin Originating Without Visible External Irritation, And Characterized In Some Stage Of Its Evolution By A Serous Exudation. For An Attack Of Eczema Two Conditions Are Necessary; A Predisposition Or Special Irritability Of The Skin, And A Directly Exciting Cause. The First ...

Edam
Edam, A Town In The Province Of North Holland, Close To The Zuider Zee, About 13 M. N.n.e. Of Amsterdam. It Is Connected With The Zuider Zee By A Fine Canal Protected By A Large Sea-lock (1828). Pop. (1927) Edam Took Its Name And Origin From The Dam Built On ...

Edda
Edda, The Title Given To Two Very Remarkable Collections Of Old Icelandic Literature. Of These One Bears That Title From The Middle Ages; The Other Is Called Edda By A Comparatively Mod Ern Misnomer. The Word Is First Met With In Rigspula, A Frag Mentary Poem Dating From The First ...

Eddius Or Aeddi
Eddius Or Aeddi, A Kentish Choirmaster, Was Employed By Wilfrid (c. 634-709), Bishop Of York, To Organize Services In Northumbria. His Life Of Wilfrid Is The Earliest Extant Work Of An Anglo-saxon Author. It Is Invaluable For Its Period, Though Strongly Partisan In Feeling, And Was Used By Bede For ...

Edelweiss
Edelweiss (leontopodiurn Alpinum), A Perennial Plant Of The Composite Family (compositae), A Native Of The Alps Of Cen Tral Europe. It Is A Small Herb Reaching About 6 In. High, With Narrow White Woolly Leaves, And Terminal Flower-heads Enveloped In Woolly Bracts. The Woolly Cov Ering Enables The Plant To ...

Eden
Eden, Though Of Ten Used As The Name Of The Garden In Which, According To Gen. Ii. And Iii., Lived The First Man Created, Is Strictly The Name Of The Region In Which That Garden Was Situated. The Garden Contained Beautiful Fruit Trees Providing Food For The Man Whom God ...

Edenbridge
Edenbridge, A Market Town In The Sevenoaks Parliamen Tary Division Of Kent, England, 281 M. S.s.e. Of London On The Southern Railway, And I O M. W. Of Tonbridge On The Line To Redhill. Pop. Of Civil Parish (1921) 2,89o. It Is Pleasantly Situated On The River Eden, An Affluent ...

Edenkoben
Edenkoben, A Town Of Germany, In The Bavarian Palati Nate, 6 M. N. From Landau, On The Railway To Weissenburg. Pop. (1925) 5,218. It Has A Sulphur-spring. Its Industries Comprise Ironworks, And The Manufacture Of Machinery, Furniture And Cigars. It Has Also A Large Trade In Wine, And Is Frequented ...

Edentata
Edentata, An Order Of Mammalia (q.v.) Comprising The Sloths, Ant-eaters And Armadillos Restricted To The Warmer Parts Of America. But This Name, Meaning Toothless, Applies Only To The Ant-eaters. The Teeth Of Sloths And Armadillos, However, Are Ab Normal In Being Of Persistent Growth, Seldom Differentiated, With Out Enamel And ...

Edenton
Edenton, A City Of North-eastern North Carolina, U.s.a., On An Inlet Of Albemarle Sound, Near The Mouth Of The Chowan River; The County Seat Of Chowan County. It Is Served By The Norfolk Southern Railroad, River' Transportation And Ferries. The Railroad Bridge Across Albemarle Sound Is 4.8m. Long. The Popula ...

Edessa
Edessa, The Ancient Capital Of Macedonia (an Older Name Is Aegae), Situated 46 M. W. Of Thessalonica On A Beautiful Stream In The Centre Of The Kingdom, Commanding The Approaches From The Coast To The Interior. It Was The Original Residence Of The Macedonian Kings; And After The Seat Of ...

Edessa_2
Edessa, The Greek Name Of An Ancient City Of N. W. Meso Potamia (in 37° 21' N. Lat. And 39° 6' E. Long.), Suggested Perhaps By A Comparison Of Its Site, Or Its Water Supply,' With That Of Its Macedonian Namesake. It Still Bears Its Earlier Name, Urhai, Modified Since ...

Edfu
Edfu, In Coptic Atbo, A Town Of Upper Egypt, 484 M. S.s.e. Of Cairo By Rail, On The W. Bank Of The Nile, The Railway Station Being On The Opposite Side Of The River. The Inhabitants Manufac Ture Earthenware, Which Finds All Through Egypt. The Ancient Atbo (apollinopolis Magna) Was ...

Edgar Eadgar
Edgar (eadgar), King Of The English (944-975), Was The Younger Son Of Edmund The Magnificent And Aelfgifu. As Early As 955 He Signed A Charter Of His Uncle Eadred, And In 957 The Mer Cian Nobles, Discontented With The Rule Of His Elder Brother Eadwig, Made Him King Of England ...

Edgar Or Eadgar
Edgar Or Eadgar (c. 1130), Called The Aethel Ing, Was The Son Of Edward (the Exile), A Son Of The English King Edmund Ironside, By His Wife Agatha, A Kinswoman Of The Em Peror Henry Ii., And Was Born Probably In Hungary Some Time Before 1057, The Year Of His ...

Edge Hill
Edge Hill, An Elevated Ridge In Warwickshire, England, Near The Border Of Oxfordshire. The North-western Face Is An Abrupt Escarpment Of The Lias, And The Summit Of The Ridge Is Almost Level For Nearly 2.111., At A Height Somewhat Exceeding 700f T. The Escarpment Overlooks A Rich Lowland Watered By ...

Edge Tools
Edge Tools. A General Term Which Includes Cutting And Scraping Tools, As Distinguished From Those Of Percussive Type, As Hammers, And Of Lever Type, As Spanners. Edge Tools Date From The Remote Palaeolithic Age When Rough Axes Were Chipped From Flints, To Be Improved By Neolithic Men Who Ground And ...

Edgecumbe Or Edgecombe
Edgecumbe Or Edgecombe, The Name Of A Celebrated West Of England Family, Taken From The Manor Of Edgecumbe In Cornwall. One Of Its Earlier Members Was Sir Richard Edgecumbe (d. 1489), Who Was Descended From A Richard Edgecumbe Who Flourished During The Reign Of Edward I. Richard Was A Member ...

Edhem Pasha
Edhem Pasha (c. 1815-1893), Turkish Statesman, Of Greek Origin, Entered The Turkish Government Service And Rose To High Office, Being Successively Minister Of Public Works, Grand Vizier For 1 1 Months (1878), Ambassador At Vienna (1879) And Minister Of The Interior. He Left A Reputation Of Unblemished Honesty And Uprightness. ...

Edible Birds Nest
Edible Bird's-nest, The Nest Of A Species Of Swift Of The Genus Collocalia, Composed Chiefly Of The Saliva Of Birds. They Are To Be Found In The East Indies And Australia And Are Valued By The Chinese As An Article Of Food. See Swift. ...

Edict
Edict, An Order Or Proclamation Issued Under Authority And Having The Force Of Law. The Word Is Especially Used Of The Pro Mulgations Of The Roman Praetor (q.v.), Of The Roman Emperors, And Also Of The Kings Of France (see Roman Law). ...

Edinburgh
Edinburgh (ed'in-bru), City And Royal Burgh, Capital Of Scotland, County Town Of Midlothian Or Edinburghshire, South Of The Firth Of Forth, 393 M. By Rail N.n.w. Of London. The Old Royal Observatory On Calton Hill Stands In 55° 5 7' 23" N. And Io' 46" W. Edinburgh Occupies A Group ...

Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois Crance
Dubois-crance, Edmond Louis Alexis French Revolutionary, Born At Charleville, Was Elected Deputy To The States-general In 1789 By The Third Estate Of Vitry-le-francois. At The Constituent Assembly, Of Which He Was Named Secretary In Nov. 1789, He Worked For The Replacement Of The Old Military System, With Its Caste Distinctions ...

Edmonton
Edmonton, An Urban District And Parliamentary Borough Of Middlesex, England, 7 2m. N. Of London Bridge, With Stations On The L.n.e. Railway. Pop. (1931) 77,652. Edmonton, Con Sisting Of Upper And Lower Edmonton, Lies Along The Old North Road Between Tottenham And Enfield, With The River Lea For Its Eastern ...

Edmonton_2
Edmonton. Capital Of The Province Of Alberta, Canada. Pop. (1901) 2,65 2 ; 79,197. The City Takes Its Name From Fort Edmonton, A Hudson Bay Company Post Built In 1795, 20 Miles Further Down The North Saskatchewan River, Where The Great Rival Fur Company, The North West Fur Company, Also ...

Edmund Crouchback
Edmund (crouchback), King Of Sicily And Earl Of Lan Caster (1245-96), Was The Second Son Of Henry Iii. Of England By Eleanor Of Provence. At Ten Years Of Age Edmund Was In Vested By Pope Alexander Iv. With The Kingdom Of Sicily (april 1 2 55) ; The Pecuniary Obligations ...

Edmund Dudley
Dudley, Edmund (c. 146 2-151 O) , Minister Of Henry Vii. Of England, Was A Son Of John Dudley Of Atherington, Sussex, Vii. Of England, Was A Son Of John Dudley Of Atherington, Sussex, And A Member Of The Great Baronial Family Of Sutton Or Dudley. After Studying At Oxford ...

Edmund Dulac
Dulac, Edmund ), Illustrator, Born At Tou Louse In 1882. After Having Studied In Paris Under Jean Paul Laurens He Settled In London. His Exhibition Of Watercolours Illus Trating "arabian Nights" At The Leicester Gallery In 19o7 Was Very Much Liked And His Work Was Reproduced With A Text By ...

Edmund I
Edmund I., King Of The English (d. 946), Was The Son Of Eadgifu, Third Wife Of Edward The Elder, And Half-brother To His Predecessor Aethelstan. He Succeeded To The Throne In 94o, But Had Already Played An Active Part In The Previous Reign, And Fought With Aethelstan In The Great ...

Edmund Or Eadmund
Edmund Or Eadmund (c. 980-1016), Called Ironside, King Of The English, Was The Son Of Aethelred Ii. (the Unready) By His Wife Emma, Or Aelfgifu. When Canute Invaded England In 1015, Edmund Was Betrayed And Deserted By The Ealdorman Ethic, Who Went Over To Canute, And Wessex Submitted To The ...

Edmund
Edmund, King Of East Anglia (c. 840-870), Succeeded To The East Anglian Throne In 8s5 While Yet A Boy. According To Tradition He Was Born At Nuremberg, And Was The Son Of King Alkmund And Queen Scivare. Offa, King Of The East Angles, Visited Alkmund On His Way To The ...

Edo
Edo, A Southern Nigerian Tribe (sub-tribes : Bini, Esa, Kuku Ruku, Sobo), Living In The Provinces Of Benin, Ondo, Owerri And Warri. Their Language Resembles Ewe. The Tribe Became A Power Ful Kingdom In The 15th Century And The Chieftainship (obba) Became Hereditary In The 17th. The Chief Is Surrounded ...

Edom
Edom, The District Situated To The South Of Palestine, Be Tween The Dead Sea And The Gulf Of 'akaba (aelanitic Gulf), The Inhabitants Of Which Were Regarded By The Israelites As A "broth Er" People (see Esau). On The East It Touched Moab, The Tribes Of The Great Desert And ...

Edred Eadred
Edred (eadred), King Of The English (d. 955), Was The Youngest Son Of Edward The Elder And His Wife Eadgifu. He Succeeded His Brother Edmund In The Year 946 And Received The Formal Submission Of The Northumbrians And Scots. In The Next Year Edred Went To Tanshelf In Yorkshire, Where ...

Edric
Edric (or Eadric), Streona (d. 1o17), Ealdorman Of The Mercians, Was A Man Of Ignoble Birth Who Was Advanced To High Dignity Through The Favour Of The English King Aethelred Ii. In 1007 He Became Ealdorman Of The Mercians, And In 1009 Mar Ried Aethelred's Daughter Eadgyth. In The Struggle ...

Education And Industry
Education And Industry (including Commerce). The Problem Of The Relations Of The School To Industry And Com Merce Is Only Part Of The Wider Question Of Vocational Training (q.v.), Namely That Of Co-ordinating The Preparation For Livelihood (specialized Training) With The Existing Preparation For Life (gen Eral Education) , And ...

Education In Animals
Education In Animals. In Some Birds And Mam Mals It Has Been Observed That The Young Receive Parental Educa Tion. This Varies In Its Detail In Different Cases, For It May Be Little More Than The Supplying Of A Liberating Stimulus Or An Incentive To Action, While In More Complicated ...

Education
Education. The Subject Of Education Is Treated In This Introduction Under The Following Heads : I. Educational Theory. Ii. Psychology And Ancillary Sciences. Iii. Science Of Education. Iv. Educational Experiments, Followed By Sections On History And National Systems. Definition.—many Definitions Have Been Given Of The Word "education," But Underlying Them ...

Educational Associations
Educational Associations. Many Educational And Professional Associations Have Been Formed Since The Middle Of The 19th Century, These Have Done Much To Co-ordinate Methods Of Education And To Organize The Teaching Profession As A Whole. University Teachers Of Great Britain Are Represented By The Association Of University Teachers (founded 1919) ...

Educational Experiments
Educational Experiments Educational Experiments In England And Wales Are Usually Suggested By The Needs Of The Moment. (for America See "edu Cational Experiments In The U.s.") Those Who Conduct Them Do So To Overcome A Recognized Difficulty Or To Achieve A Better Way Of Teaching. In One Department, That Of ...

Edward Dowden
Dowden, Edward (1843-1913), Irish Critic And Poet, Was Born At Cork And Educated At Queen's College, Cork, And Trinity College, Dublin. He Became Professor Of English Litera Ture At Trinity College In 1867. His First Book, Shakespeare, His Mind And Art (1875), A Revision Of A Course Of Lectures, Was ...

Edward John Moreton Drax
Dunsany, Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron (1878- ), Irish Dramatist, Was Born In London On July 24, 1878. He Was Educated At Eton And Sandhurst, And Succeeded His Father As 18th Baron Dunsany In 1899. Entering The Coldstream Guards, He Served In The Boer War, And, In The ...

Edward Sackville
Edward Sackville, 4th Earl Of Dorset (i 591-165 2 ), Son Of The 2nd Earl, Succeeded His Brother Richard, The 3rd Earl (1590-1624), In 1624. He Had Attained Much Notoriety By Killing Edward Bruce, 2nd Lord Kinloss, In A Duel, And In 1620 He Fought For James Is Son-in-law, Frederick ...

Egyptian Costume
Egyptian Costume Until The I8th Dynasty Men In The Way Of Costume Wore A Sim Ple White Kilt, Which Under The 12th Dynasty Was Often Made Very High, So That It Began Almost Immediately Under The Armpits. It Was Often Starched And Stiff In The Case Of Persons Of Some ...

Eleonora Duse
Duse, Eleonora (1859-1924), Italian Actress, Belonged To A Family Of Actors From Chioggia, Near Venice. Her Grand Father, Luigi Duse, A Celebrated Actor Of Goldoni Plays, Created The I8th Century Venetian Masque Of Giacometto, Round Which A Whole Dialect Repertory Turned. Born On A Tour In Lombardy On Oct. 3, ...

Emile Durkheim
Durkheim, Emile (1858-1917), French Philosopher, Was Born On April 15, 1858, At Les Vosges, And Studied At The 1 Cole Normale Superieure Under Boontroux. After Travelling In Ger Many, He Accepted The Chair Of Sociology Founded For Him At Bordeaux In 1887, And Five Years Later Became Professor In Paris. ...

Engineering Drawing
Drawing, Engineering, The General Term For The Drawing Used In The Industrial World By Engineers And Designers, Mechanical, Architectural, Structural, Etc., As The Formula In Which Is Expressed And Recorded The Ideas And Information Necessary For The Building Of Machines And Structures. It Is Distinguished From Drawing As A Fine ...

Engraving Bibliography W P Etching
Etching, Engraving.) Bibliography.-w. P. Robins, Etching Craft (1922), Pp. 163 Seq.; Bibliography.-w. P. Robins, Etching Craft (1922), Pp. 163 Seq.; E. S. Lumsden, The Art Of Etching (1925), Pp. 1$, 46, 127 Seq. (mu. B.) ...

Ernst Ludwig Dummler
Dummler, Ernst Ludwig German Historian, The Son Of Ferdinand Diimmler (1777-1846), A Berlin Bookseller, Was Born In Berlin, On Jan. 2, 1830. He Studied At Bonn Under J. W. Lobell (1786-1863), Under L. Von Ranke And W. Wattenbach. He Entered The Faculty At Halle In 1855, Became Professor Extraordinary (1858), ...

Eugen Karl Duhring
Duhring, Eugen Karl (1833-1921), German Phi Losopher And Political Economist, Was Born On Jan. 12, 1833, At Berlin, And Died On Sept. 21, 1921. After A Legal Education He Practised At Berlin As A Lawyer Till 1859. A Weakness Of The Eyes, Ending In Total Blindness, Occasioned His Taking Up ...

Felix Dujardin
Dujardin, Felix (18oi-186o), French Biologist, Was Born At Tours On April 5, 18o1, And Died At Rennes On April 8, 186o. He Forsook His Early Training In Art And Engineering For Natural Science, From 1843 Concentrating On Microscopic Work In Zoology. In 1840 He Became Dean Of Rennes University, But ...

Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky
Dzerzhinsky, Felix Edmundovich (1877 1926), Russian Politician Of Polish Descent, Was Born At Vilna. He Joined The Social Democratic Party Of Lithuania In 1895, And Two Years Later Was Arrested And Banished To Siberia For Political Agitation. In 1899 He Escaped, Was Rearrested In The Following Year And In 1902 ...

Ficial Respiration
Ficial Respiration.) Bibliography.--taylor, Medical Jurisprudence; E. A. Schafer, Bibliography.--taylor, Medical Jurisprudence; E. A. Schafer, F.r.s., "description Of A Simple And Efficient Method Of Performing Artificial Respiration In The Human Subject, Especially In Cases Of Drowning" (vol. 87, Medico-chirurgical Society's Transactions) ; E. A. Schafer, F.r.s., "the Relative Efficiency Of Certain ...

Finley Peter Dunne
Dunne, Finley Peter (1867-1936), American Jour Nalist And Humorist Of Irish Descent, Was Born In Chicago, Illi Nois, July Io, 1867, And Educated In The Public Schools. In 1885 He Became A Newspaper Reporter. Later He Was A Member Of The Editorial Staff Of The Chicago Evening Post, And Of ...

Francesco Durante
Durante, Francesco (1684-17 5 5 ), Italian Composer, Was Born At Frattamaggiore, In The Kingdom Of Naples, On March 15, 1684. At An Early Age He Entered The Conservatorio Dei Poveri Di Gesu Cristo, At Naples, Where He Received Lessons From Gaetano Greco; Later He Became A Pupil Of Alessandro ...

Francis Douce
Douce, Francis English Antiquary, Was Born In London. He Interested Himself In Antiquities, And Was For A Short Time Keeper Of Manuscripts In The British Museum. He Left His Books, Illuminated Manuscripts, Coins, Etc., To The Bodleian Library ; His Own Manuscript Works To The British Museum, But They Were ...

Francois Clement Theodore Dubois
Dubois, Francois Clement Theodore (1837-1924), French Musical Composer, Was Born At Rosney (marne) On Aug. 24, 1837. He Studied At The Conservatoire Under Ambroise Thomas, And Won The Grand Prix De Rome In 1861 With His Cantata Atala. On His Return To Paris He Was Ap Pointed "maitre De Chapelle" ...

Francois Dumont
Dumont, Francois (1751-1831), French Miniature Painter, Was Born At Luneville (meurthe) , Studied For A Time Under Jean Girardet, And In 1788 Was Accepted As An Academician And Granted An Apartment In The Louvre. He Married The Daughter Of Antoine Vestier, The Miniature Painter, And Had Two Sons, Aristide And ...

Frank Duveneck
Duveneck, Frank (1848-1919), American Figure And Portrait Painter, Was Born At Covington, Ky., Oct. 9, 1848. He Was A Pupil Of Diez In The Royal Academy Of Munich, And A Prominent Member Of The Group Of Americans Who In The '7os Overturned The Traditions Of The Hudson River School And ...

Frederick Douglass
Douglass, Frederick American Orator And Journalist, Was Born In Tuckahoe, Md., Probably In Feb. 1817. His Mother Was A Negro Slave Of Exceptional Intelligence, And His Father Was A White Man. Until Nearly Eight Years Of Age, He Was Under The Care Of His Grandmother ; Then He Lived For ...

Frederick Temple Hamilton Temple Blackwood Dufferin
Dufferin And Ava, Frederick Temple Hamilton-temple-blackwood, 1st Marquess Of (1826-1902), British Diplomatist, Son Of Price Blackwood, 4th Baron Dufferin, Was Born At Florence, Italy, On June 21, 1826. The Irish Blackwoods Were Of Old Scottish Stock, Tracing Their Descent Back To The 14th Century. Frederick Went To Eton (1839 43) ...

Friedrich Adolf Ebert
Ebert, Friedrich Adolf German Bibliographer, Was Born At Taucha, Near Leipzig, On July 9, 1791, The Son Of A Lutheran Pastor. In 1813 He Was Attached To The Leipzig University Library, And In 1814 Was Appointed Secretary To The Royal Library Of Dresden And, In 1827, After A Short Period ...

Friedrich Ebert
Ebert, Friedrich (187o-1925), German Politician, Was Born In Heidelberg On Nov. 4, 187o, The Son Of An Impecuni Ous Tailor. He Was An Early Recruit To The Socialist Movement, Becoming A Fluent Speaker And A First-class Trade Union Organizer, Suffering Persecution And Boycott For The Cause. He Moved To Hanover, ...

Friuli
Friuli (1772-1813 ) , French General, Was Born At Pont A Mousson (meurthe Et Moselle) On Oct. 25, 1772. He Was Gazetted Second Lieutenant (artillery) In The 4th Regiment In 1793, And Advanced Steadily In The Service. Captain Duroc Became Aide-de Camp To Napoleon In 1796, And Distinguished Himself At ...

Gabriel Francois Doyen
Doyen, Gabriel Francois French Painter, Was Born At Paris In 1726. He Became In His 12th Year A Pupil Of Vanloo, Obtained At 20 The Grand Prix, And In 1748 Set Out For Rome. Among His Greatest Works Are Counted The "miracle Des Ardents," Painted For The Church Of Ste ...