CENTRAL EUROPE Frontiers.—Central Europe is divided effectively from the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions by the Alps and Illyrian-Bal kan ranges. On the east the Carpathians and the Transylvanian mountains border the Hungarian plain, without, however, consti tuting an ethnic frontier. To the north the Riesen and Erzgebirge are pierced by so many passes that the real cultural divide has always lain beyond the mountains near the terminal moraines of the last ice-sheet. Within the area thus defined the Danube, the Elbe, the Rhine and their tributaries form natural ways of com munication, easily accessible from one another and so unifying the whole region. On the other hand, the great Middle Danube-Tisza plain is really contrasted with the more broken country further north that is separated from it by the complicated ranges of Slo vakia and the eastern spurs of the Alps.
In late glacial and postglacial times the loss, clothing the slopes, but neither the higher hills nor the low-lying plains, was the main unifying factor; it provided a series of relatively open strips link ing the middle Danube to the northern plain and the Rhine valley. The forests, which constituted the most serious barrier to early human settlers, fringe the Central European loss belt, but do not interrupt it by any really impassable transverse stretches.
The Danubians' typical tool was a polished stone adze or hoe, flat on one face and arched on the other, and a chisel of the same form; both are termed "shoe-last celts." Bone and flint were very sparingly used. The sole weapon was a disc-shaped stone mace head, with precursors at Pfedmost and in pre-dynastic Egypt. Fine pots were manufactured in a grey ware, the commonest forms be ing a hemispherical bowl and a globular bottle, both seemingly imitations of gourds.
The Danubians decorated their pots and bone objects in a free geometric style with spirals and maeanders, the latter being a mo tive familiar to the hunters of the Pfedmost culture. The Danu bians also made female figurines of clay as had their palaeolithic forerunners. Early graves are scarcely known, and certain finds in Bavaria suggest that the Danubians had burned their dead. But later on inhumation in the contracted position was regularly prac tised. In such graves ornaments made from a Mediterranean shell, Spondylus gaederopi, are often found.
The simple Danubian of the north gave birth to various local cultures which may be due to epipalaeolithic hunters mixing with the peasants who were invading their territories. Meanwhile the civilization of Vinca spread into Istria, Bosnia, and perhaps along the Morava-Vardar corridor into Macedonia and North Greece.
Art now demanded expression in colour, and so the vases were decorated with red, yellow and white earth-paints, daubed thickly on the black surface to form spirals and other patterns. Clay figures of women and animals and miniature vases were also manufactured. The dead were normally interred in the contracted position in regular cemeteries like the later Danubians, or, much more rarely, cremated.
The Lengyel culture is essentially Danubian, albeit profoundly influenced by Anatolia and perhaps also by steppe-folk from the east. Still relations in all these directions were bilateral. Lengyel influence is certainly detectable in Thessaly and perhaps in Troy, and on one theory extended eastward to the Dnieper.
In Transylvania Erosd had no direct successor, but at Cucuteni and in the Ukraine the older culture, characterized by polychrome painting and spiral motives, grew into another, distinguished by light coloured pots adorned by disintegration products—circles etc.—in black paint on a buff ground. With the latter, which other wise carries on the older traditions, middle Helladic pottery im ported from Greece has been found at Cucuteni, so that the later settlements were still inhabited after i 800 B.C. A very specialized branch of the same stock found in Thrace (Wallachia and Bul garia) seems in places at least to have lasted into the iron age, though no tools or weapons of the types current in the bronze age further west occur in the area.
A first result of such incursions was the emergence of hybrid groups, largely Danubian, as the technique of the pottery shows, while its forms, influenced by vessels of leather or basketry, no less clearly betray the superposition of the pastoralist element from without. Furthermore, there was one compact body of semi nomadic folk with a centre in Thuringia who ranged from the Volga to the Rhine and from the Upper Tisza to Finland. They were armed with great battle-axes of stone, reared a barrow over their graves (in which the dead were buried in the contracted position) and ornamented their vases—beakers and amphorae— with cord-impressions. In Hungary the incursions have left less mark, unless the curious copper axes with one blade parallel and the other at right angles to the shaft be the counterparts of the stone battle-axes used further north, where no copper was avail able. In eastern Hungary there are also barrows covering con tracted skeletons stained with red ochre as in South Russia.
In the Eastern Alps, in Carniola, near the mouth of the Drave in Slavonia and in Bosnia settlements akin to those just described occur, but they show here an infusion of "Nordic" elements—e.g., stone battle-axes—while the pottery is decorated with patterns suggestive of Cypriote influence, though they are executed in a technique that must have been borrowed from the wood-carver.
The foregoing types characterize the middle bronze age of south west Germany and Bohemia, which lasted from i 600 to 130o B.C. Before its end a rapier of late Mycenaean type had found its way to Bavaria, and heavy slashing swords, often with an octagonal bronze hilt, were coming into use among the Tumulus folk. Their culture lasted on throughout the late bronze age till, with a return of a damp, cold climate about Boo B.C. it becomes transformed, through contact with intruders from Illyria into a Hallstatt cul ture. In the late bronze age barrows cremation became the com monest funerary rite under the influence of the urnfield folk, the swords were heavy and leaf-shaped and the pins grew to extrava gant lengths. Barrows of this period are found also south of the Alps in north-west Hungary, Styria and Bosnia. In the last-named area inhumation was the regular rite and early forms of safety pin were in use. They were little more than pins bent round for security with the point caught against the head.
Eventually the whole plain is found to be covered with urnfields, i.e., cemeteries of urns containing cremated bones. The urns and accessory vases were often beautifully decorated, in the west with excised patterns, in the south with punctured lines and stamped circles and in the north with conical warts. In the southern graves models of female personages were sometimes deposited, as at Klicevac in North Serbia. The people buried in these cemeteries must have belonged to a mixed race of farmers, traders and metallurgists.
The Lausitz people spread very widely, over-running Lower Austria, Slovakia and North Hungary and apparently even reach ing Macedonia about Io5o B.C. Another branch spread westward towards the North Alpine zone—Bavaria and the Tyrol—where extensive urnfields with occasional Lausitz ossuaries mixed with other types appear in the late bronze age. But the North Alpine urnfield culture is complicated owing to the absorption in it of western Aunjetitz people and Alpines and to its relations, both peaceful and hostile, with the Tumulus folk of the same area. Hence the North Alpine culture has a martial aspect, the graves being furnished with heavy swords and other weapons. Yet the people buried in them were pre-eminently industrialists; it was they who inaugurated the systematic exploitation of the Alpine deposits of copper and salt by shafts and tunnels that are trace able to-day. The same people conquered Switzerland, where they synoicized the hamlets beside each lake into one or two larger pile villages. The latter became flourishing industrial centres whose products—swords, knives, penannular razors and ornaments—were exported in all directions. In exchange there came amber, bronze basins and fibulae from Denmark, copper, tin and antimony from the east, and Villanovan artifacts from Upper Italy. Another branch of the same stock had spread down the Rhine valley to Holland, whence they eventually reached England.
In Slovakia and North Hungary, on the other hand, which since I I oo B.C. had been under the control of Lausitz people engaged in exploiting the rich deposits of copper, a brilliant but belated bronze age civilization was elaborated while the use of iron was beginning further west. In the enormous hoards of this period we meet not only socketed Celts, beautifully decorated leaf-shaped swords and very complicated brooches, but also great bronze buckets and bronze or gold cups, ornamented with embossed pat terns such as birds' heads flanking a disc, identical with those cur rent in Villanovan Italy. Farther to the south-east remnants of the native population, having survived the shock of the Lausitz invasion, continued in a bronze age, as, farther north, till the 8th century B.e., rejecting not only iron but such innovations as the safety-pin and the socketed Celt that their neighbours had ap propriated.
By goo B.c. the Tumulus-builders living south of the Noric Alps had adopted from their neighbours, the urnfield-folk of Styria, the use of iron and the types of safety-pin and sword that the latter had elaborated. Some of the Tumulus folk, notably those congre gated on the high plateau of Glasinac in South Bosnia, were also in contact with the Greek world. From these western highlands inhumationists spread eastward into the upper Morava valley and thence to Macedonia and Bulgaria, taking with them the spectacle brooch and other types of Styrian antecedents. Other bands spread along a parallel route across western Hungary and then up the Maros, while, very probably, a similar movement in a more north erly direction brought the classical Hallstatt culture to Moravia and Silesia on the one hand and to south-west Germany on the other. In these regions the presence of Illyrian intruders among the urnfield-folk is revealed by inhumation burials furnished with horse-trappings and Hallstatt swords and safety-pins. But the in truders were far from numerous and mingled with the urnfield folk and the older Tumulus-builders.
Then between the 7th and 5th centuries Silesia and still more Transylvania and northern Hungary were raided by Scyths from the east, while abundant Scythian products were introduced in ex change for copper and antimony. The regular use of iron in Hun gary and Transylvania was due to these incursions. Down to the 4th century the lowlands east of the Danube were dominated by the eastern power, while further west the later Glasinac and Hall statt cultures developed under Italian influence. After 40o B.C., however, La Tene forms and the use of the wheel began to perco late eastward, in some cases at least brought by Celtic invaders. Their infiltrations form a prelude to more extensive incursions, as a result of which the culture of Illyria and Pannonia was assimila ted to that of the Celtic west before the Romans occupied those provinces. (See Hallstatt, La Tene, Villanovans.) (V. G. C.) For archaeology of North Europe, see the articles ARCHAEO LOGY : Bronze Age, Iron Age, Stone Age; SCANDINAVIAN CIVIL IZATION. For archaeology of the mediterranean region, see AFRICA: Archaeology, North Africa.
Pigmentation of skin, hair and eyes, diminishes in Europe from the Mediterranean northwards to mid-Norway and Sweden, to increase again in the Arctic. Stature increases from the Medi terranean northwards to mid-Norway and Sweden, to diminish again in the Arctic, but the changes are less regular for the Dinaric peoples, and the Castilian Spaniards are mostly tall. The Iberian peninsula, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, south Italy, have long-headed populations and so have various areas in France, the British Isles and Norway and Sweden, apart from the Arctic area, in which the head runs very broad. The great mass of peoples of central Europe, from central France eastward to central Russia, and from Greece and north Italy to Prussia is broad-headed though less pronouncedly so in the north.
Deniker added an Adriatic or Dinaric variant of the Alpine race, with tall stature, and a high head, found chiefly in the west of the Balkan peninsula and in Venetia, with congeners from Asia Minor and Armenia. The more ordinary short Alpine round head he called "Cevenole" or "Occidental." The rather broad-headed fair types of the regions north-east of central Europe he called the Oriental race ; much the same group being termed by others the East-Baltic race. He also gave the name Atlanto-Mediter ranean to an element with taller stature and less narrow heads among the people of the Iberian peninsula.
As to origins of the long-headed types in Europe, most of the Upper Palaeolithic skulls are dolichocephalic, and in that early period there were streams of people, with long heads, from north Africa, as well as, probably at a later stage, from the south Russian steppe. Here and there, as in Tras os Montes (Portugal), Sardinia, La Dordogne (France), Plinlymon (Wales), inland Norway and mid-north-Sweden, there are groups of people with the very long, very high and narrow heads, strong brows, big cheek bones and rather broad noses of certain Upper Palaeolithic skulls. It is, therefore, likely that survivals from the Upper Pa laeolithic age are one element in the composition of the European peoples. Ripley was inclined to think, and many agree, that in the cool, cloudy north-west, the type became taller through post ponement of maturity, and fairer ; the warmth of the south, on the other hand, encouraging the maintenance of pigment and of relatively early maturity. The localized distribution of survivals of ancient types suggests that they are not merely the extreme cases in a large group of variants, their likeness to early skulls (especially Combe Capelle and Predmost skulls) supports the view that they are survivals. It has also been claimed, with less strength, that there are survivals of other Upper Palaeolithic types such as that of Grimaldi (lower layers) and that of Cromagnon.
Arctic Europe has received westward drifts from Asia of dark skinned dark-haired broad-heads, and there have been spreads of Asiatic broad-heads into the south Russian steppe and into east central Russia.
Giuffrida-Ruggeri, Biasutti, Collignon, Pittard, Beddoe, Arbo, Bryn and Fleure have noted at various coastal spots from south Italy round to Norway, dark broad-heads, often tall, who seem to be the origin of Deniker's idea of the Atlanto-Mediterranean type, a type which he derived from statistics of populations that included both these broad-heads and the Mediterranean type. Many of the broad-heads of north Brittany belong to this power ful type rather than to the Alpine type as commonly stated.
It seems not improbable that broad-headedness in Europe acts to some extent as a Mendelian dominant (see HEREDITY), and probably, in some crosses at least, brown eyes are dominant over blue ones. Thus types may appear to change in the course of time without there being vast migrations to account for this.
Thus almost every country has a people of mixed breeds. Italy has chiefly Mediterraneans in the south and chiefly Occidental Alpines and Alpine-Dinarics in the north. Germany is mainly Alpine, with marked fairness of colour and some Nordic long headedness near the Baltic, and here and there in other parts. France is mainly Alpine, but of darker colouring than Germany, with some Mediterraneans in the south and west, and some Nordics in the north and east and many mixtures. Britain is long-headed, with a good many Nordic types in the east, and Mediterranean types in the west and south-west, and vestiges of the curious type noted above for Castile in Devon, Wales and the west Scottish Highlands. But the great mass is neither fully Medi terranean nor fully Nordic, thus lending support to the idea that each of these is the result of evolution in its characteristic area, Britain being between the two.
The Basques are a linguistic and social rather than a racial group, though they are mostly long-headed and very probably include survivals of Upper Palaeolithic types. They occupy the western Pyrenees on the French and Spanish sides, and the language has a considerable extension south-westward on the Spanish flank. The Basque language (q.v.) does not belong to the Indo-European language family at all, and is probably very ancient. The people have many social features, such as house types, ceremonies, games, etc., distinguishing them from their neighbours. They still call themselves Eskualdunak, i.e., "those who possess the Eskualda" or Basque tongue.
The name Aryan (see INDO-EUROPEANS) has been used in many senses at different times. It was once supposed to relate to a people of central Asia who were supposed to have drifted west into Europe, bringing our civilization with them. It is strictly used for an element in a language-group, the two most primitive survivals of the group being Sanskrit and Lithuanian. It has re cently been argued on archaeological grounds that the Aryan languages probably developed on the steppes of south Russia, and were spread thence in the 3rd and and millennia B.C. by long headed warriors armed at first with perforated stone battle axes, and later with bronze.
The name Celtic has been used, especially in France, to name the Alpine broad-heads so characteristic of the region that the Romans called Gallia Celtica. It is strictly used for a language group (see CELTIC LANGUAGES) and is best discarded as a racial name. The peoples of Celtic speech in modern Europe include a considerable proportion of individuals of dark, short, long-headed type (Mediterranean race).
In the Balkan peninsula race, language, religion and economic life are all important as dividing features among the peoples. The western mountains contain many of the people called Dinaric, the ordinary short round-headed Alpine stock is characteristic for the Serbian Morava basin and for the Rumanian peasantry, as well as among the Bulgars. The last owe their name, some features of their language, and occasional physical characteristics to Asiatic (Tatar) elements entering from the south Russian steppe. The Rumanian peasantry, largely Alpini, includes also some dark long headed elements, especially, it is said, in the north-east. The name of Vlachs, people of Wallachia, is applied also to nomad groups, who in generations past have wandered between Thessaly and the Danube and in Transylvania. The Rumanian language, as is usual for any European region that felt the Roman power, owes a great deal to Latin. In the west the Albanians form a warlike high land group organized in clans, with blood feuds between them; they are largely Dinaric in type, but apparently include some fair broad-heads who may be descendants of immigrant conquerors of early times. The coastal Greek population appears to be pre dominantly broad-headed on the mainland, with long-headed elements chiefly in the islands.
The Lithuanians and Letts are the best known peoples of the forested basins of the Niemen and Duna, mainly rural, with Ger man elements in the ports and Jewish elements in the towns gen erally. It has been said that the Lithuanian language (q.v.) is an early member of the Aryan family; the Lett language (q.v.) includes Slavonic elements and is said to preserve features from the non-Indo-European tongues of the region. Both language groups include many fair, broad-headed types with some Nords.
The Finns and Goths speak languages with north Asiatic affin ities, but should apparently not be confounded with the Lapps and Samoyedes on this account. They include a Nordic element of Swedish origin, the fair broad-headed element usually described as "East Baltic," and doubtless in the remoter parts a considerable Arctic (Lapp) element. The Tavastlandian Finn has been sup posed to be longer and the Karelian or Eastern Finn broader headed.
The Magyars speak a language of the Finno-Ugrian family (see HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE) brought in by conquerors who came westward via south Russia after the decline of the Roman power. Asiatic elements are not physically conspicuous among them save among gipsies, who are fairly numerous on the Hungarian plains, and it is supposed that those elements have diminished and dis appeared in the course of subsequent centuries. (H. J. F.) The history of Europe can only be written in so far as it is possible to consider the European peoples as a whole. The task of history, therefore, is to show how the unity of Europe was effected. This resulted from several causes : first, from the com mon customs of everyday life, religion, and law ; secondly, from the general similarity of social and political organization; thirdly, from the subjection of different peoples to a single political or religious authority; fourthly, from the establishment of perma nent relationships between the different European States. The solidarity of Europe has only been achieved very slowly as from time to time new peoples have come under the influence of Euro pean civilization. In this sense Europe has continued to expand throughout the centuries. Beginning in the extreme south-east, in the days of the Roman empire her civilization spread over the Mediterranean sea-board and to the coasts of the Atlantic. Dur ing the middle ages it advanced over central Europe and the Scan dinavian countries. Russia entered the comity of Europe only at the beginning of the century, and it was not until the 19th century that the conception of European unity was expressed in the language of diplomacy by the use of the word "European."