ERMELAND or ERMLAND (Varmia), a district in East Prussia, extending from the Frisches Haff inland towards the Polish frontier. It is a well-wooded sandy tract of country, has an area of about I,65osq.m., a population of 240,000, and is di vided into the districts of Braunsberg, Heilsberg, Rossel and Al lenstein.
Ermeland was originally one of the II districts of old Prussia and was occupied by the Teutonic Knights, being made in 12 5o one of the four bishoprics of the country under their sway. The bishop of Ermeland shortly afterwards declared himself inde pendent of the order, and became a prince of the empire. In 1466 Ermeland, together with West Prussia, was by the peace of Thorn attached to the crown of Poland, and the bishop had a seat in the Polish senate. In 1772 it was again incorporated with Prussia.
See Hipler, Literaturgeschichte del Bisthums Ermeland (Brauns berg, 1873) ; the Monumenta historiae Warmiensis (Mainz, 186o-64, and Braunsberg, x866-72, 4 vols.) ; and Buchholz, Abriss einer Ge schichte des Ermlands (Braunsberg, 1903) .