FORKEL, JOHANN NIKOLAUS German musician, was born on Feb. 22, 1749 at Meeder, Coburg. The son of a cobbler, he was a good musician ; but his fame rests on his historical work, especially as the first biographer of J. S. Bach. His library, which was accumulated with care and discrimination at a tiTe when rare books were cheap, forms a valuable portion of the State library in Berlin and also of the library of the Konig licher Institut fur Kirchenmusik. He was organist to the uni versity church of Gottingen, obtained the degree of doctor of philosophy, and in 1778 became musical director of the university. He died at Gottingen on March 20, 1818. His most important work is the Allgemeine Literatur der Musik (1792). His tJber J. S. Backs Leben (1802) was translated into English in 1820 (new trans. by C. S. Terry, 1920).