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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 9, Part 1: Extraction to Gambrinus

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James David Forbes
Forbes, James David (1809-1868), Scottish Physi Cist, Was Born At Edinburgh On April 20, 1809. He Studied At Edinburgh, Became F.r.s.e. (1828) And F.r.s. (1832), Pro Fessor At Edinburgh (1833-59), And Principal Of The United College At St. Andrews (1859-68). He Died On Dec. 31, 1868. As A Scientific Investigator ...

James Elroy Flecker
Flecker, James Elroy (1884-1915), Was Born In London On Nov. 5, 1884, The Son Of Rev. W. H. Flecker, And Christened Herman Elroy; This Name He Changed To James Many Years Later. He Was Educated At Dean Close School, Cheltenham, Where His Father Was Headmaster, Uppingham And Trinity Col Lege, ...

James Fergusson
Fergusson, James (18o8-1886), Scottish Writer On Architecture, Was Born At Ayr On Jan. 22, 18o8. His Father Was An Army Surgeon. During Ten Years Spent In Manufacturing Indigo In India He Collected Material For His Rock-cut Temples Of India (1845) . His Real Monument Is His History Of Architecture (1865, ...

James Fisk
Fisk, James (1834-1872), American Financier, Was Born At Bennington (vt.), On April 1, 1834. He Was Successively Cir Cus Hand, Hotel Waiter, Pedlar, And Dry Goods Salesman. By His Dealing In Army Contracts During The Civil War, He Accumulated A Considerable Capital. In 1864 He Became A Stock-broker In New ...

James Fitzmaurice Kelly
Fitzmaurice-kelly, James British Man Of Letters, Was Born In Glasgow. Educated At St. Charles's College, London, He Became Taylorian Lecturer In Spanish At Oxford In 1902. From 1909 To 1916 He Was Gilmour Professor Of Spanish Language And Literature At The University Of Liverpool; And In 1908 And 1912 Norman ...

James Frederick Ferrier
Ferrier, James Frederick Scottish Metaphysician, Was Born In Edinburgh On June 16., 18o8. He Studied At Edinburgh And Oxford, And Subsequently At Heidelberg. In 1842 He Was Appointed Professor Of Civil History At Edinburgh And In 1845 Professor Of Moral Philosophy And Political Economy At St. Andrews, Where He Remained ...

James Thomas Fields
Fields, James Thomas (1817-1881). American Pub Lisher And Author, Was Born In Portsmouth (n.h.), Dec. 31, 1817. At The Age Of 17 He Went To Boston As Clerk In A Bookseller's Shop, Where He Began To Write For The Newspapers. In 1839 He Became Junior Partner In The Publishing And ...

Jean Alexandre Joseph Falguiere
Falguiere, Jean Alexandre Joseph (1831 1900), French Sculptor And Painter, Was Born At Toulouse On Sept. 7, 1831. A Pupil Of The Ecole Des Beaux Arts He Won The Prix De Rome In 1859; He Became A Member Of The Institute In 1882. His "victor Of The Cock-fight" (1864), And ...

Jean Alphonse Favre
Favre, Jean Alphonse (1815-1890), Swiss Geologist, Born At Geneva On March 31, 1815, Was For Many Years Professor Of Geology In The Academy At Geneva, And Afterwards President Of The Federal Commission With Charge Of The Geological Map Of Switzerland. In 1867 He Published Recherches Geologiques Dans Les Parties De ...

Jean Charles Folard
Folard, Jean Charles, Chevalier De (1669 1752), French Soldier And Military Author, Was Born At Avignon On Feb. 13, 1669. His Military Ardour Was First Awakened By Reading Caesar's Commentaries, And He Ran Away From Home And Joined The Army. He Was Almost Continuously On Active Service, In Italy, In ...

Jean Henri Fabre
Fabre, Jean Henri (1823-1915), French Entomologist, Was Born Of Humble Parents At St. Leons In Aveyron On Dec. 21, 1823. Having Received An Elementary Classical Education At Rodez And At The Ecole Normale Of Vaucluse, He Taught Successively At Carpentras, At The College Of Ajaccio, Corsica, And In 1852 At ...

Jean Hippolyte Flandrin
Flandrin, Jean Hippolyte French Painter, Was Born At Lyons On March 24, 1809. His Father, Though Brought Up To Business, Had Great Fondness For Art, And Became A Miniature Painter. Hippolyte Was The Second Of Three Sons, All Painters, And Two Of Them Eminent, The Third Son Jean Paul (b. ...

Jean Louis Forain
Forain, Jean Louis (i85 , French Painter And Illustrator Became One Of The Leading Modern Parisian Carica Turists, And In His Merciless Exposure Of The Weaknesses Of The Bourgeoisie Continued The Work Which Was Begun By Daumier Under The Second Empire. The Scathing Bitterness Of His Satire Is As Clearly ...

Jean Pierre Claris De
Florian, Jean Pierre Claris De French Poet And Romance Writer, Was Born At The Château Of Florian, Near Sauve, In The Department Of Gard. His Uncle And Guardian, The Marquis Of Florian, Who Had Married A Niece Of Voltaire, Introduced Him At Ferney And In 1768 He Became Page At ...

Jetsam Flotsam
Flotsam, Jetsam And Ligan, In Common Law, Goods Lost At Sea, As Distinguished From Goods Which Come To Land, Which Are Technically Designated Wreck (q.v.). Jetsam (the Same Word As Jettison) Is When Goods Are Cast Into The Sea And There Sink And Remain Under Water; Flotsam Is Where They ...

Johann Albert Fabricius
Fabricius, Johann Albert German Classical Scholar And Bibliographer, Was Born At Leipzig. His Father, Werner Fabricius, Director Of Music In The Church Of St. Paul At Leipzig, Was The Author Of Several Works, The Most Impor Tant Being Deliciae Harmonicae (1656). Johann Albert Studied Under J. G. Herrichen And Afterwards ...

Johann Bernhard Fischer Von
Fischer Von Erlach, Johann Bernhard (1656-1723), Austrian Architect, Was Born At Graz On July 20, 1656, And Died In Vienna On April 5, 1723. He Probably Began His Artistic Career As A Sculptor. Then, During A Period Of Study In Rome, He Turned To Architecture, And After His Return To ...

Johann Christian Fabricius
Fabricius, Johann Christian Danish Entomologist And Economist, Was Born At Tondern On Jan. 7, He Studied At Altona And Copenhagen And At Uppsala Under Linnaeus. In 1769, He Lectured On Political Economy And In 1775 Was Appointed Professor Of Natural History, Economy And Finance At Kiel. He Died On March ...

Johann Daniel Falk
Falk, Johann Daniel (1768-1826), German Author And Philanthropist, Was Born At Danzig On Oct. 28, 17 68. In 1813 He Established A Philanthropic Society (gesellscha F T Der Freunde In Der Not), One Of The Earliest Of Its Kind, And About The Same Time Founded An Institute For The Care ...

Johann Dominicus Fiorillo
Fiorillo, Johann Dominicus (174$-1_21,, Ger Man Painter And Historian Of Art, Was Born At Hamburg On Oct. 13, 1748. In 1784 He Became Keeper Of The Collection Of Prints At The University Library At Gottingen. He Was Appointed Professor Extraordinary In The Philosophical Faculty In 1799, And Ordinary Professor In ...

Johann Fischart
Fischart, Johann (c. 1545-159r), German Satirist And Publicist, Was Born, Probably At Strasbourg, About 1545, And Was Educated At Worms In The House Of Kaspar Scheid, Whom In The Preface To His Eulenspiegel He Mentions As His "cousin And Preceptor." After Travelling Extensively He Returned To Take The Degree Of ...

Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Falke
Falke, Johann Friedrich Gottlieb (1823 1876), German Historian, Was Born At Ratzeburg On April Lo, 1823. In 1856 He Was Appointed Secretary Of The German Museum At Nuremberg, And In 1859 Keeper Of The Manuscripts. With The Aid Of The Manuscript Collections In The Museum He Studied Eco Nomic History, ...

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb German Philosopher, Was Born At Rammenau In Upper Lusatia On May 19, 1762, The Son Of A Ribbon-weaver. After Attending The Cele Brated School At Pforta, Near Naumburg, He Entered The University Of Jena, But In 1781 Went To Leipzig. During 1784-87 He Acted As Tutor In ...

Johann Nikolaus Forkel
Forkel, Johann Nikolaus German Musician, Was Born On Feb. 22, 1749 At Meeder, Coburg. The Son Of A Cobbler, He Was A Good Musician ; But His Fame Rests On His Historical Work, Especially As The First Biographer Of J. S. Bach. His Library, Which Was Accumulated With Care And ...

Johannes Fibiger
Fibiger, Johannes (1868-1928), Danish Pathologist And Professor At The University Of Copenhagen, Acquired Universal Fame By His Researches Into Cancer In Rats And Cockroaches, Which Culminated In The First Experimental Production Of That Disease. While Examining Tubercular Rats, Fibiger Found Three With Cancer Of The Stomach. These Cancers Contained A ...

John Arbuthnot Fisher Fisher
Fisher, John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron (1841-1920), British Admiral, Was Born On Jan. 25, 1841, And Entered The Navy In June 1854. He Served In The Baltic During The Crimean War, And Was Engaged As Midshipman In The "highflyer," "chesapeake" And "furious," In The Chinese War, In The Opera Tions ...

John Buchanan Floyd
Floyd, John Buchanan American Politician, Was Born At Blacksburg, Va., On June 1, 1807. He Was The Son Of John Floyd (17 70-183 7 ), Governor Of Virginia, 1830 34. In 1826 He Graduated From South Carolina College, After Which He Practised Law In Virginia And In Helena, Ark. He ...

John Cooper Forster
Forster, John Cooper (1823-1886), British Sur Geon, Was Born On Nov. 13, 1823, In Lambeth, London, Where His Father And Grandfather Before Him Had Been Local Medical Prac Titioners. He Entered Guy's Hospital In 1841, And Was Connected With The Hospital From 185o Onwards. In 1858 He Performed Prac Tically ...

John Farmer
Farmer, John (fl. 1591-1601), English Madrigalist, Of Whose Life Little Is Known. He Was Living In London In 1599 When He Published His First Set Of English Madrigals To Foure Voices, "newly Composed By John Farmer," And For Four Years Before That Time He Was Organist At Dublin Cathedral. He ...

John Feckenham
Feckenham, John (c. 1515-1584), English Ecclesiastic, Last Abbot Of Westminster, Was Born At Feckenham, Worcester Shire. Educated At Gloucester Hall, Oxford, As A Benedictine Stu Dent, He Was Professed At Evesham. On The Surrender Of The Abbey To The King (1540), He Became Chaplain To Bishop Bell Of Wor Cester ...

John Fell
Fell, John (1625-1686), English Divine, Son Of Samuel Fell, Dean Of Christ Church, Oxford, Was Born At Longworth, Berkshire. In 1636 He Obtained A Studentship At Christ Church, And Took Holy Orders (deacon 1647, Priest 1649). During The Civil War He Bore Arms For The King And Held A Commission ...

John Felton
Felton, John (c. 1595-1629), Assassin Of The 1st Duke Of Buckingham (q.v.), Served In The Expedition To Cadiz In 1625, And Probably In The Expedition To Re In 1627. He Had Personal As Well As Political Grievances Against Buckingham, Whom He Stabbed To Death At An Audience At Portsmouth On ...

John Fernandez
Fernandez, John (joao, Foam), Portuguese Traveller Of The 15th Century. He Was Perhaps The Earliest Of Modern Ex Plorers In The Upland Of West Africa, And A Pioneer Of The Euro Pean Slave- And Gold-trade Of Guinea. We First Hear Of Him (be Fore 1445) As A Captive Of The ...

John Field
Field, John (1782-1837), Irish Musical Composer And Pianist, Was Born At Dublin On July 26, 1782. He Came Of A Musical Family, His Father Being A Violinist, And His Grandfather The Organist In One Of The Churches Of Dublin. From The Latter The Boy Received His First Musical Education. When ...

John Finch Finch Of
Finch Of Fordwich, John Finch, Baron (i 584 166o), Generally Known As Sir John Finch, English Judge, Was Born On Sept. 17, 1584, And Was Called To The Bar In 1611. He Became Recorder Of Canterbury In 1617. In 1626 He Was Appointed King's Counsel And Attorney-general To The Queen, ...

John Fisher
Fisher, John (c. 1469-1535), English Cardinal And Bishop Of Rochester, Born At Beverly, Went In 1484 To Michael House, Cambridge, Where He Took His Degrees In Arts In 1487 And 1491, And, After Filling Several Offices In The University, Became Master Of His College In 1499. He Took Orders; And ...

John Fiske
Fiske, John (1842-1901), American Historical, Philosophi Cal, And Scientific Writer, Was Born In Hartford (conn.), March 3o, 1842, And Died At Gloucester (mass.), July 4, 1901. Before Entering College He Had Read Widely In English Literature, History, And Ancient And Modern Languages. He Graduated At Harvard In 1863, Continuing To ...

John Fitch
Fitch, John (1743-1798), American Pioneer In Steam Boat Navigation, Was Born At Windsor, Conn., On Jan. 21, Largely Self-educated, He Became Successively A Clock-maker, Brass-founder, Silversmith And Surveyor. During The Revolu Tionary War He Was Made A Lieutenant And At Trenton And Valley Forge Furnished Supplies To The American Troops. ...

John Flamsteed
Flamsteed, John , English Astronomer, Was Born At Denby, Near Derby, On Aug. 19, 1646. He Was Edu Cated At The Free School Of Derby, But Was Forced To Leave In May 1662, Because Of Bad Health. During His Illness He Began To Study Astronomy. He Read All The Books ...

John Flaxman
Flaxman, John English Sculptor And Draughtsman, Was Born At York On July 6, 1755, The Second Son Of John Flaxman, Who Carried On The Trade Of A Moulder And Seller Of Plaster Casts At The Sign Of The Golden Head, New Street, Covent Garden, London. Within Six Months After His ...

John Floyd
Floyd, John (1572-1649), English Jesuit, Was Born In Cambridgeshire. When At Rome In 1592 He Joined The Jesuits, And By 1606 Was A Missionary Priest In England. He Had Con Siderable Fame As A Preacher And Teacher, And Was Frequently Arrested. His Last Years Were Spent At St. Omer Where ...

John Ford
Ford, John (1586–c. 164o), English Dramatist, Was Bap Tized On April 17, 1586, At Ilsington In North Devon. His Father Was In The Commission Of The Peace And His Mother Was A Sister Of Sir John Popham, Successively Attorney-general And Lord Chief Justice. John Ford Matriculated At Exeter College In ...

John Forrest
Forrest, John, 1st Baron West Aus Tralian Statesman And Explorer, Son Of William Forrest, Of Les Chenaulty, Bunbury, West Australia, Was Born On Aug. 22, 1847, And Educated At Perth, West Australia. In 1865 He Joined The Government Survey Department At Perth, And In 1869 Led An Exploring Expedition Into ...

John Forster
Forster, John (18r2-1876), English Biographer And Critic, The Son Of A Cattle-dealer, Was Born At Newcastle-on-tyne On April 2, 1812, And Was Educated At Newcastle Grammar School And London University. He Was Entered At The Inner Temple, But Devoted Himself To Journalism, Acting As Literary And Dramatic Critic To The ...

John Henry Foley
Foley, John Henry (1818-1874), Irish Sculptor, Was Born At Dublin On May 24, 1818. He Studied At The Schools Of The Royal Dublin Society And The Royal Academy, London. He Began To Exhibit At The Academy In 1840, And In 1844 Was Com Missioned To Do The Statues Of John ...

John Of Fordun
Fordun, John Of (d. C. 1384), Scottish Chronicler. The Statement Generally Made That The Chronicler Was Born At Fordoun Has Not Been Supported By Direct Evidence. It Is Certain That He Was A Secular Priest, And That He Composed His His Tory In The Latter Part Of The 14th Century; ...

John Ritchie Findlay
Findlay, John Ritchie (1824-1898), Scottish News Paper Owner And Philanthropist, Was Born At Arbroath On Oct. 21, 1824, And Was Educated At Edinburgh University. He Entered First The Publishing Office And Then The Editorial Department Of The Scotsman, Became A Partner In The Paper In 1868, And In 1870 Inherited ...

John William Fletcher
Fletcher, John William (17 29-1 785), English Divine, Was Born At Nyon, Switzerland, On Sept. 1 2, 1729, His Origi Nal Name Being De La Flechiere. He Was Educated At Geneva For The Church, But Went To Lisbon And Enlisted. An Accident Pre Verited His Sailing With His Regiment To ...

Jonathan Eybeschutz
Eybeschutz, Jonathan German Rabbi, Was From 175o Rabbi In Altona. A Man Of Erudition And Personality, Eybeschutz Became Specially Notorious Because Of A Curious Controversy Concerning The Amulets Which He Was Sus Pected Of Issuing. These Amulets Recognized The Messianic Claims Of Sabbatai Sebi (q.v.), And A Famous Rabbinic Contemporary ...

Josef Bohuslav Foerster
Foerster, Josef Bohuslav ), Czech Composer, Was Born On Dec. 3o, 1859, At Detenice, Bohemia. His Father, Josef Foerster (1833-1907), Was Organist At Prague Cathedral From 1887 Onwards, And Did Much For The Reformation Of Church Music In Bohemia. The Son Held Various Musical Posts In Prague, And Married An ...

Joseph Benson Foraker
Foraker, Joseph Benson (1846-1917), American Political Leader, Was Born Near Rainsboro, Highland County, Ohio, On July 5, 1846. He Passed His Early Life On A Farm, Enlisted As A Private In July 1862, Served Throughout The Civil War And In 1865 Received A Captain's Brevet. After The War He Spent ...

Joseph Fesch
Fesch, Joseph (1763-1839), Cardinal, Was Born At Ajac Cio, Corsica, On Jan. 3, 1763. He Was Connected With The Bona Parte Family By His Father's Second Marriage With Laetitia, Bona Parte's Widowed Mother. At The Outbreak Of The French Revolu Tion, He Was Archdeacon Of Ajaccio; He Protested Against The ...

Juan Fernandez
Fernandez, Juan (fl. C. 157o), Spanish Navigator And Discoverer. By Putting Out From The Coast, And So Avoiding The Prevailing Southerly Winds And Gaining The Help Of The Trade Winds, He Sailed From Callao To Chile In 3o Days, Which Resulted In His Arrest For Sorcery. In 1563 He Discovered ...

Juan Pablo Forner
Forner, Juan Pablo (1756-1797), A Spanish Satirist And Scholar Who Was Author Of The Violent Diatribe El Asno Erudito (1782), Was Born At Merida On Feb. 23, 1756, And Died At Madrid On March 17, Under Various Pseudonyms, He Engaged In A Series Of Polemics With Garcia De La Huerta, ...

Jules Claude Gabriel Favre
Favre, Jules Claude Gabriel French Statesman, Was Born At Lyons On March 21, 1809, And Was An Advocate By Profession. From The Time Of The Revolution Of 183o He Declared Himself A Republican. After The Revolution Of 1848 He Was Deputy For Lyons To The Constituent Assembly. On The 2nd ...

Jules Franc Ois Camille
Ferry, Jules Franc Ois Camille , French Was Born At Saint Die (vosges) On April 5, 183 2. He Studied Law, Was Called To The Bar At Paris, And Con Tributed To The Temps. He Attacked The Empire With Great Violence, Directing His Opposition Especially Against Baron Haussmann, Pre Fect ...

Karl Follen
Follen, Karl German Poet And Patriot, Brother Of A. L. Follen, Was Born At Romrod, Hesse-darmstadt, On Sept. 5, 1795. He Studied At Giessen, And After A Year's Serv Ice In The Army (1814) Began The Study Of Jurisprudence, And In 1818 Established Himself As Privatdocent Of Civil Law At ...

Kirsten Flagstad
Flagstad, Kirsten (1895– ), Norwegian Opera And Concert Singer, Was Born In Hamar, Norway. At The Age Of Eighteen She Sang As Nuri In D'albert's Tie (land. Her Debut Was So Successful That She Was Sent To Stockholm For Study. There Fol Lowed Years In The Oslo And Gothenberg Operas ...

Knight Service Hide
Knight Service ; Hide, And For A General Sketch See T. Ii. Of The His Toire Gezerale Of Lavisse And Rambaud. Other General Works Are P. Roth, Feudalitat And Unterthanverband (weimar, 1863) ; And Ge Schichte Des Beneficialwesens (185o) ; Sir H. S. Maine, Village Com Munities In The East ...

Konstantin Fehrenbach
Fehrenbach, Konstantin (1852-1926) German Statesman, Chancellor Of The Reich, Was Born At Wellendingen On Jan. 11, 1852, The Son Of An Elementary Schoolmaster. He Was A Member Of The Baden Second Chamber (1885-87 And 1901-13), And Acted From 1907-1909 As Its President. He Entered The Reichs Tag In 1903, Was ...

Land
Land.) Germany.—the Constitution Of Germany Under The Empire (1871-1918), Whilst Presenting Many Aspects Peculiar To Itself, Was So Far Federal That The Bundesrat, In Which The Component States Were Represented By Their Delegates, Was "the Authoritative Representative Of The Body Of German Sovereigns And The Senates Of The Free Cities" ...

Laurence Shirley Ferrers
Ferrers, Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl (172o 1760), The Last Nobleman In England To Suffer A Felon's Death, Was Born On Aug. 18, 172o. In 1758 His Wife Obtained A Separation From Him For Cruelty. The Ferrers Estates Were Then Vested In Trustees, An Old Family Steward, Johnson, Being Appointed Re ...

Lavinia Fenton
Fenton, Lavinia (1708—i 760), English Actress, Was Probably The Daughter Of A Naval Lieutenant Named Beswick, But She Bore The Name Of Her Mother's Husband. Her First Appearance Was As Monimia In Otway's Orphans, In 1726 At The Haymarket. She Then Joined The Company Of Players At The Theatre In ...

Lavinia Fontana
Fontana, Lavinia (155 Italian Portrait Painter, Was The Daughter Of Prospero Fontana (q.v.). She Was Greatly Employed By The Ladies Of Bologna, And, Going Thence To Rome, Painted The Likenesses Of Many Illustrious Personages. She Enjoyed The Patronage Of The Family (buoncampagni) Of Pope Gregory Xiii. The Roman Ladies, From ...

Law Of Fisheries
Fisheries, Law Of. As Fishing Is Carried On Both Within And Beyond Regions Over Which National Laws Are In Operation, Any Consideration Of The Law Of Fisheries Naturally Falls Into Two Main Divisions. Accordingly The National And The International As Pects Of The Subject Will Be Dealt With Separately, The ...

Leonard Joseph Faucher
Faucher, Leonard Joseph [leon] French Politician And Economist, Was Born At Limoges On Sept. 8, 1803. With The Revolution Of 183o He Was Drawn Into Active Political Journalism On The Liberal Side. He Was On The Staff Of The Temps From 183o To 1833, When He Became Editor Of The ...

Light Filters
Filters, Light. Light Filters Are Used To Modify The Light Which Traverses Them By Absorbing Some Portion Of It Either Partially Or Completely. They May Be Used As Liquid Filters In The Form Of Solutions Or As Solid Filters, Which May Consist Of Coloured Glasses Or Of Films Containing Dyes. ...

Limestone And Chalk Lime
Lime, Limestone And Chalk These Substances Act In Two Ways : They Supply Calcium As A Base, And They Improve The Physical Condition Of The Soil. The Need For Calcium Arises From The Circumstance That Fertile Soils Are Rich In Exchangeable Calcium (see Soil) ; If This Becomes Dis Placed ...

Lion Feuchtwanger
Feuchtwanger, Lion (1884– ), German Writer, Was Born In Munich On July 7, 1884, Of A Jewish Family, His Father Being A Manufacturer. He Studied Philosophy In Berlin And Munich But Early Devoted Himself To Literature. His First Works Were Dramatic Pieces, Original Or Translations; Die Perser (aeschylus) (1915) ; ...

Livingston Farrand
Farrand, Livingston American Edu Cationalist, Was Born At Newark, N. J., June 14, 1867. After He Graduated From Princeton University In 1888, He Studied Medicine At The College Of Physicians And Surgeons, New York (m.d., 1891). During The Next Two Years He Studied At Cambridge (eng Land) And At Berlin. ...

Lord Edward Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald, Lord Edward Irish Patriot, Fifth Son Of James, Ist Duke Of Leinster, By His Wife Emilia Mary, Daughter Of Charles Lennox, And Duke Of Richmond, Was Born At Carton House, Near Dublin, On Oct. 15, 1763. Join Ing The Army In 1779, Fitzgerald Served In America On The Staff ...

Lord Thomas Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald, Lord Thomas (loth Earl Of Kildare) (1513-1537), Known As "silken Thomas," The Eldest Son Of Gerald Fitzgerald, 9th Earl Of Kildare, Was Born In London In 1513. He Spent Much Of His Youth In England, But In 1534 When His Father Was For The Third Time Summoned To England ...

Louis Fontanes
Fontanes, Louis, Marquis De French Poet And Politician, Was Born At Niort (deux Sevres) On March 6, He Wrote A Number Of Poems, Including A Version Of Pope's Essay On Man. Fontanes Drew Up The Protest Of The Citizens Of Lyons Against Collot D'herbois, And Was For Some Time In ...

Louis Leon Cesar Faidherbe
Faidherbe, Louis Leon Cesar French General And Colonial Administrator, Born On June 3, 1818, At Lille, Received His Military Education At The Ecole Polytech Nique And At Metz, And Entered The Engineers In 184o. From To 1847 He Served In Algeria, Then Two Years In The West Indies, And Again ...

Louis Marie Fontan
Fontan, Louis Marie (1801-1839), French Man Of Letters, Was Born At Lorient. He Wrote A Number Of Plays, Of Which Perkins Warbec (1828), Written In Collaboration With Mm. Halevy And Drouineau, Was The Most Successful. He Was Repeat Edly In Trouble With The Authorities Under The Restoration, And Spent Some ...

Ltd Fine Cotton Spinners
Fine Cotton Spinners' And Doublers' Association, Ltd. This British Combination Of Com Panies And Firms Engaged In Spinning The Fine Sea Island And Egyptian Cottons, And In Doubling Yarns Made From Those And Other Staples Of Cotton Was Formed In 1898 With A Capital Of £6,000,000, Which Had Grown In ...

Lucas Fernandez
Fernandez, Lucas (14 74 , Spanish Dramatist And Disciple Of Encina (q.v.). He Is Best Represented By His Religious Play, Auto De La_ Pasion ...

Lucius Cary Falkland
Falkland, Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount (c. 1610 1643 ), Son Of Sir Henry Cary, Afterwards 1st Viscount Falkland (d. 1633), Lord Deputy Of Ireland From 1622 To 1629, Was Born Either In 1609 Or 161o, And Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin. In 1625 He Inherited From His Grandfather The ...

Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach
Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas (1804-1872) , Ger Man Philosopher, Fourth Son Of The Eminent Jurist (see Below), Was Born At Landshut, Bavaria, On July 28, 1804. After Two Years In Berlin, Under Hegel, Feuerbach Studied Natural Science At Erlangen In 1828. His First Book, Published Anonymously, Ge Danken Uber Tod And ...

Luigi Carlo Farini
Farini, Luigi Carlo (1812-1866), Italian Statesman And Historian, Was Born At Russi, Neat Ravenna, On Oct. 22, After Completing A Brilliant University Course At Bologna, Which He Interrupted To Take Part In The Revolution Of 1831 (see Carbo Nari), He Practised As A Physician At Russi And At Ravenna. In ...

Luigi Federzoni
Federzoni, Luigi ), Italian Politician And Journalist, Was Born At Bologna On Sept. 17, 1878. Educated At The University There, He Took To Journalism And Literature, And For Several Years Was On The Staff Of The Giornale D'italia, Rome. In Politics He Was A Conservative, And Became A Warm Supporter ...

Luigi Ferri
Ferri, Luigi (1826-1895), Italian Philosopher, Was Born At Bologna On June 15, 1826. Educated At The Ecole Normale In Paris, He Lectured In The Colleges Of Evreux, Dieppe, Blois, Tou Louse, Annecy And Casal-montferrat, And Became Head Of The Education Department Under Mamiani In 186o. In 1863 He Became Professor ...

Manfredo I Fanti
Fanti, Manfredo (i , Italian General, Was Born At Carpi On Feb. 24, 18o6, And Educated At The Military Col Lege Of Modena. In 1831 He Was Implicated In The Revolutionary Movement Organized By Ciro Menotti (see Francis Iv., Of Modena), And Was Condemned To Death And Hanged In Effigy, ...

Manuel De Faria Y
Faria Y Sousa, Manuel De (1590-1649), Spanish And Portuguese Historian And Scholar, Commentator Of Os Lusiadas And Author Of A History Of The Portuguese In All Parts Of The World. This Work Appeared In Portions After His Death Under The Titles: Europa Portugueza (1667); Asia Portugueza (1666-75); Africa Portugueza (1681). ...

Manuel Deodoro Da Fonseca
Fonseca, Manuel Deodoro Da Soldier And First President Of The United States Of Brazil, Was Born In Alagoas, On Aug. 5, 1827, The Third Son Of A Brazilian Army Officer. He Received His Education In The Military School At Rio De Janeiro And His Military Experience At The Siege Of ...

Manufacture
Manufacture.) Baking Powder Leavening Agents.—much Of The Bread Baked In The Home Is Of The Hot Bread Or Biscuit Variety And Is Made By Adding Chemical Leavening Agents To The Flour And Water, Or Milk Mixture. Baking Powders Are Used In Very Large Quantities In The Production Of Biscuits, Cakes ...

Marcus Fulvius Flaccus
Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, Grandnephew Of The Foregoing, Lived In The Times Of The Gracchi, Of Whom He Was A Strong Supporter. After The Death Of Tiberius Gracchus (133 B.e.) He Was Appointed In His Place One Of The Commission Of Three For The Distribution Of The Land. He Was Suspected ...

Marie Emile Fayolle
Fayolle, Marie Emile (1852-1928), French Soldier, Entered The Polytechnique In 1873, Joined The I6th Regiment Of Artillery In 1875, Entered, In 1889, The Ecole De Guerre, Where He Was Professor (of The Artillery Course), 1897-1907, And Where, Against Orthodox Opinion, He Urged The Importance Of Concentra Tion Of Fire And ...

Marino Falieri
Falieri, Marino , Doge Of Venice, Belonged To One Of The Oldest And Most Illustrious Venetian Families And Had Served The Republic With Distinction In Various Capacities. In 1346 He Commanded The Venetian Land Forces At The Siege Of Zara, Where He Was Attacked By The Hungarians Under King Louis ...

Mark Firth
Firth, Mark (1819-188o), English Steel Manufacturer And Philanthropist, Was Born At Sheffield On April 25, 1819, The Son Of A Steel Smelter. At The Age Of 14 Mark, With His Brother, Left School To Join Their Father In The Foundry Where He Was Em Ployed, And Ten Years Later The ...

Marshall Field
Field, Marshall (1835-1906), American Merchant, Was Born At Conway (mass.), On Aug. 18, 1835. At The Age Of 17 He Became A Clerk In A Dry Goods Store At Pittsfield (mass.) . In 1856 He Removed To Chicago, Where He Became A Clerk In The Large Mercantile Establishment Of Cooley, ...

Marsilio Ficino
Ficino, Marsilio Italian Philosopher And Writer, And Recognized As The Earliest Platonist Of The Renais Sance, Was Born On Oct. 19, 1433, At Figline, In The Upper Arno Valley. His Father, A Physician Of Some Eminence, Was Attached To Cosimo De' Medici. Cosimo Perceived The Boy's Ability In Literature And ...

Mary Fitton
Fitton, Mary (c. Identified By Some Writers With The "dark Lady" Of Shakespeare's Sonnets, Was The Daughter Of Sir Edward Fitton Of Gawsworth, Cheshire, And Was Baptized On June 24, 1578. About 1595 Mary Fitton Became Maid Of Honour To Queen Elizabeth. Her Father Recommended Her To The Care Of ...

Maso Finiguerra
Finiguerra, Maso (i.e., Tommaso) (1426-1464), Florentine Goldsmith, Draughtsman And Engraver, Was Born In March 1426 In Sta Lucia D'ognissanti And Died In Dec. 1464. He Was The Son Of Antonio, And Grandson Of Tommaso Finiguerra Or Finiguerri, Goldsmiths Of Florence, And Was Brought Up To This Profession, Becoming Early Distinguished ...

Maternus Julius Firmicus
Firmicus, Maternus Julius, A Latin Writer, Who Lived In The Reign Of Constantine. His De Erroribus Pro F Anarum Religionum, Written C. 346 And Still Extant, Attacks The False Objects Of Worship Among The Oriental Cults And Discusses A Number Of Formulae And Rites Connected With The Mysteries. Its Declamatory ...

Matthew Flinders
Flinders, Matthew English Navigator, Was Born At Donington In Lincolnshire On Mar. 16, 1774, And Entered The Navy In 1789. He Served In The "bellerophon" At Ushant In 1794, And From 1795 To 1799 Was Engaged In Explora Tion On The Australian Coast, Including The Circumnavigation Of Tasmania In 1798. ...

Matthias Flacius
Flacius, Matthias (152o–i575), Surnamed Illyr Icvs, Lutheran Reformer, Was Born At Albona, In Illyria, On March 3, 152o. He Studied Under Baptista Egnatius In Venice, And From 1539 Onwards At Basel, Tubingen And Wittenberg. Here He Was Welcomed (1541) By Melanchthon And Here He Came Under The Decisive Influence Of ...

Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria
Ferdinand, Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria ), King Of Bulgaria, Fifth And Youngest Son Of Prince Augustus Of Saxe-coburg And Gotha, Was Born On Feb. 26, 186r. In 1879 He Travelled With His Brother Augustus To Brazil, And The Results Of Their Botanical Observations Were Pub Lished At Vienna, 1883-1888, Under ...

Michael Faraday
Faraday, Michael (1i91-1867), English Chemist And Physicist, Was Born At Newington, Surrey, On Sept. 22, 1791. His Parents Had Migrated From Yorkshire To London, Where His Father Worked' As A Blacksmith. Faraday Himself Was Apprenticed To A Bookbinder. He Continued To Work As A Journeyman Book Binder Till March 1813, ...

Millard Fillmore
Fillmore, Millard (1800-1874), 13th President Of The United States Of America, Came Of A Family Of English Stock, Which Had Early Settled In New England. His Father, Nathaniel, In 1795 Made A Clearing Within The Limits Of What Is Now The Town Of Summerhill, Cayuga County, N.y., And There Millard ...