FERRY, JULES FRANC OIS CAMILLE , French was born at Saint Die (Vosges) on April 5, 183 2. He studied law, was called to the bar at Paris, and con tributed to the Temps. He attacked the empire with great violence, directing his opposition especially against Baron Haussmann, pre fect of the Seine. Elected republican deputy for Paris in 1869, he protested against the declaration of war with Germany, and on Sept. 6, 187o was appointed prefect of the Seine by the govern ment of national defence. He administered Paris during the siege, and after the Commune was obliged to resign (June 5, 1871). From 1872-1873 he was minister in Athens, but returned to the chamber as deputy for the Vosges, and became one of the leaders of the republican party. He was a member of the first republican ministry formed under W. H. Waddington on Feb. 4, 1879, and continued in the ministry until March 3o, 1885, except for two short interruptions, first as minister of education and then as minister of foreign affairs. He was twice premier (188o-81 and 1883-1885) . Two important works are associated with his ad ministration, the non-clerical organization of public education, and the beginning of the colonial expansion of France. He reorganized the committee of public education (law of Feb. 27, 188o), and proposed a regulation for the conferring of university degrees, which, though rejected, aroused violent polemics because the 7th article took away from the unauthorized religious orders the right to teach. He finally succeeded in passing the great law of March 28, 1882, which made primary education in France free, non clerical and obligatory. In higher education the number of teachers doubled under his ministry. After the military defeat of France by Germany in 187o, he formed the idea of acquiring a great colonial empire, not to colonize it, but for the sake of economic exploitation. He directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a French protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the treaty of Dec. 17, 1885 for the occupation of Mada gascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region ; and above all he organized the conquest of Indo-China. The excitement caused at Paris by an unimportant reverse of the French troops at Lang-son caused his downfall (March 3o, 1885) , but the treaty of peace with China (June 9, 1885) was his work. After the resignation of President Grevy (Dec. 2, 1887), he was a candidate for the presidency of the republic, but the radicals re- ' fused to support him, and he withdrew in favour of Sadi Carnot. The violent polemics directed against him caused a madman to attack him with a revolver, and he died from the wound on March 17, The chamber of deputies voted him a state funeral. See Edg. Zevort, Histoire de la troisieme Republique; A. Rambaud, Jules Ferry (Paris, 1903) .