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Luigi Carlo Farini

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FARINI, LUIGI CARLO (1812-1866), Italian statesman and historian, was born at Russi, neat Ravenna, on Oct. 22, After completing a brilliant university course at Bologna, which he interrupted to take part in the revolution of 1831 (see CARBO NARI), he practised as a physician at Russi and at Ravenna. In 1843 he was expelled from the Papal States. He resided succes sively in Florence and Paris, and travelled about Europe as private physician to Prince Jerome Bonaparte, but when Pius IX. was elected to the holy see and began his reign with apparently Liberal and nationalist tendencies, Farini returned to Italy and was appointed secretary-general to G. Recchi, the minister of the interior (March 1848) . But he resigned with the rest of the ministry on April 29. Pius now sent Farini to Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, to hand over the command of the papal con tingent to him. He was again secretary to the ministry of the interior in the Mamiani cabinet, and later director-general of the public health department. He resigned otrice on the proclamation of the republic after the flight of the pope to Gaeta in resumed it for a while when Pius returned to Rome with the protection of French arms, but when a reactionary and priestly policy was instituted, he went into exile at Turin. There he contributed to Cavour's paper Il Risorgimento, in La Frusta and Il Piemonte, of which latter he was at one time editor. He also wrote his chief historical work, Lo Stato Romano dal 1815 al 185o, in four volumes (Turin, 1850). In 1851 he was appointed minister of public instruction in the D'Azeglio cabinet, an office which he held till May 1852. In the Sardinian parliament and in the press Farini was a staunch supporter of Cavour (q.v.), and urged that Piedmont should participate in the Crimean War, if indeed he was not actually the first to suggest that policy (see G. B. Ercolani's letter in E. Parri's memoir of Farini). In 1856 and 1857 he pub lished two letters to Gladstone on Italian affairs, which created a sensation. When on the outbreak of the war of 1859 Francis V., duke of Modena, was expelled and a provisional government set up, Farini was sent as Piedmontese commissioner to that city; but although recalled after the peace of Villafranca he was deter mined on the annexation of central Italy to Piedmont and remained behind, becoming a Modenese citizen and dictator of the state. He negotiated an alliance with Parma, Romagna and Tus cany, when other provisional governments had been established, and entrusted the task of organizing an army for this central Italian league to General Fanti (q.v.). Annexation to Piedmont having been voted by plebiscite and the opposition of Napoleon III. having been overcome, Farini returned to Turin, when the king conferred on him the order of the Annunziata and Cavour appointed him minister of the interior (June 186o) , and subse quently viceroy of Naples ; but he soon resigned on the score of ill-health. Cavour died in 1861, and the following year Farini succeeded Rattazzi as premier, in which office he endeavoured to carry out Cavour's policy. Ill health compelled his resignation in 1863, and he died on Aug. 1, 1866.

His son Domenico Farini had a distinguished political career and was at one time president of the chamber.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.—Several letters from Farini to Mr. Gladstone and Bibliography.—Several letters from Farini to Mr. Gladstone and Lord John Russell were reprinted in a Memoire sur les affaires d'Italie (1859) , and a collection of his political correspondence was published under the title of Lettres sur les affaires d'Italie (Paris, 1860). His historical work was translated into English in part by Mr. Gladstone and in part under his superintendence. See E. Parri, Luigi Carlo Farini (Rome, 1878) ; L. Carpi in Il Risorgimento Italiano, vol. iv. (Milan, 1888) ; and G. Finali's article, "Il 27 Aprile 1859," in the Nuova Antologia for May 16, 1903.

pius, piedmont, returned, cavour, gladstone and appointed