NOTES UPON THE KAHUKU LAVA-FLOW OF 1907.
The earliest intimation of this great eruption was im mediately after midnight, opening January loth, when a power ful glare was observed at Hilo, over the caldera of Mokuaweo weo, on the summit of Mauna Loa, forty miles distant. This evi dently proceeded from a copious emission of lava upon the floor of the crater.
That glare appears to have abated after about three hours, per haps obscured by smoke, but more probably owing to the trans ference of activity to the Kahuku district. There, about 4 A. M. on the loth, burst forth enormous fountains of lava, flowing rapidly down the mountain slope. The precise location of this eruptive source has not been accurately located. It has, however, been visited. It is believed to be about 8,500 feet above the sea and nearly half way from Puu o Keokeo to the summit of Mauna Loa. Keokeo is a prominent cone on the top of the great Kahuku shoulder of Mauna Loa, altitude 6,30o feet and twenty miles S.S.W. from Mokuaweoweo. The flow of 1887 broke out a short distance below Keokeo. This new flow starts eight or nine miles above Keokeo.
Its source seems to be on the slight ridge stretching up from Keokeo, from which the land falls off on either side. Several
small branches were observed to the east and west. The main flow at first took a route east of Keokeo, soon invading the area occupied by the flow of 1887. It seems to have crossed the upper part of the latter, continuing to occupy the west border thereof until below the Government road seven miles from the sea, cross ing the road early on the i3th.
The bulk of the flow appears about that time to have been diverted to the west side of Keokeo, forming what is called the Manuka flow from the name of the district invaded by it. It came down with great rapidity and force, crossing the road during the night of the 14th. There were some two hundred white ob servers, gathered from the northern and western parts of the island.
This division of force prevented either branch of the flow from reaching the sea, as did the eruptions of '68 and '87. They stopped three or four miles short of the shore, but while still in motion were observed on their fronts by some two hundred and fifty passengers from Honolulu, who went up on steamers, landing immediately below. The general map of Hawaii, Plate 14, shows the course of this flow, and Plate 23 its end.