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Papers from the Department of Marine Biology, Volume 11 by Carnegie Institution of Washington 1917

Gobiida
Gobiida. Stadium Antillarnm Ogilvie-grant. Several Specimens, 5 To 12 Cm. Long, Obtained From Mountain Streams Flow Ing Into The Arecibo River In The Vicinity Of Utuado. Only One Specimen Corresponds To The Description Of The Type; 12 Other Specimens Of This Genus Were Obtained; These Vary Enough To Indicate 6 ...

Habits
Habits. Little Is Known About The Habits Of The Barracuda, Hence The Few Notes That Have Been Collected In The Course Of This Research May Be Of Value. The Fish Seems In The Main To Be Rather Solitary. Only Once Was A School Of Them Noticed. The Water At Loggerhead ...

Habits Sphyr1na Barracuda Its
Sphyr1na Barracuda; Its Morphology, Habits, And History. The Family Sphyreenidie, The Barracudas, Comprises One Genus Only, Sphyrcena. The 20 Or More Species Of This Genus Are Found In The Warm Waters Of The Tropical And Sub-tropical Zones All Round The World. They Are Carnivorous Fishes, Generally Of Large Size, Fierce ...

Hemopoiesis In Yolk Sac
Hemopoiesis In Yolk-sac. The Yolk-sac Wall Consists Of Three Layers: (1) The Thin Superficial Mesothelial Layer; (2) The Wide Middle Mesenchymal Layer, Filled With Endothelium-lined Blood-channels; (3) The Inner Entodermal Lining, Consisting Of A Single Layer Of Large Cuboidal Cells More Or Less Flattened (fig. 2, Plate I; And Fig. ...

Historical Account
Historical Account. The Brief Historical Account Herein Contained Will Be Confined To The Gaff-topsail. The First Scientific Man Who Seems To Have Had Knowledge Of This Curious Habit Of The Gaff-topsail Was S. C. Clarke. In The American Angler For December 15, 1883, He Says Of The Gaff-topsail In Florida: ...

Historical Survey Of The
Historical Survey Of The Subject. The Power Of Certain Fishes To Give Electric Shocks Has Been Known From The Earliest Times. A Hieroglyphic Representation Of Arazvi:germ/us Eledvieua, The Electric Cat-fish, Has Been Preserved On The Egyptian Tomb Of Ti (gotch 50, And The Still More Formidable Shock Of The Elec ...

How The Barracuda May
How The Barracuda May Be Taken. Taking Advantage Of The Habit Of The Barracuda In Basking Near The Surface Of The Water, And Of Its Insatiable Curiosity, It Was Our Custom To Have A Trolling-spoon Behind The Velella Or The Henderson (our Smaller Launches) On Their Trips To And From ...

Iguanme
Iguanme. Aeolis Envied Merrem. One From Utuado, 405 Min. In Total Length. Color In Life With Iris Brown Ish Yellow, A Ring Of Pure Yellow Next To The Black Pupil. Scales Around Eye Yellow, Barred With Black. These Colors Seem To Hold Even When The Animal Changes Color From Black ...

Influence Of Nerve Centers On
Influence Of Nerve-centers On Rate Of Regeneration. Previous Studies On The Influence Of The Nervous System Upon Re Generation Have Given Very Divergent Results Which Can Hardly Be Recon Ciled Even When We Consider That Widely Separated Groups Of Animals Were Used As The Material For Experimentation. While Certain Students ...

Influence Of Sense Organs On
Influence Of Sense-organs On The Change In Rate Of Pulsation In Response To Changes In Temperature The Studies Of Harvey (1911) And Mayer (1913) Have Shown That When Cassiopea Is Slowly Heated The Rate Of Nerve-conduction Increases From About 18° C. To About 36° C., After Which There Is A ...

Influence Of The Sense Organs
Influence Of The Sense-organs On The Loss In Weight During Starvation. The Influence Of The Sense-organs On The Rate Of Regeneration Is So Clearly Marked When Muscular Activity Is Excluded As The Determining Factor That It Seemed Apparent That Other Metabolic Activities Might Be Used As A Measure Of This ...

Insects Taken At Rebecca
Insects Taken At Rebecca Shoal From June 26 To July 18. Those Insects Which Migrated To Rebecca Shoal Light-station Proved To Belong To Four Orders, Odonata, Neuroptera, Lepidoptera, And Dip Tera. Of The First Order Only Two Appeared, One Being A Large Dragon Fly And The Other A Damsel-fly. A ...

Internal Organs
Internal Organs. Of No Less Interest Than The Structures Just Described Are The Internal Organs. Of Fish No. 10 (3 Feet 10 Inches In Extreme Length) Careful Dissection And Full Notes Were Made. The Abdominal Cavity Was 18.5 Inches Long From The Diaphragm To The Anus, With A 1-inch Post-anal ...

Ionization Of Sea Water
Ionization Of Sea-water. Sea-water Is A Very Complex Solution, And It Is Not Possible To Calcu Late The Concentrations Of The Different Ions In It From The Older Analyses. Since Many Of These Ions Affect The P„ And The Content, It Might Be Worth While To Consider Some General Facts ...

Iron Hematoxylin Stain 11 Day Embryo
11-day Embryo; Flemming Fixation, Iron-hematoxylin Stain. In View Of What Was Said Above It Seems Clear That The Best Way Of Approach To The Problem Was Through The 11-day Embryo Preserved In Flemming's Fluid And Stained With Iron-hematoxylin. The Next Step Involved A Comparative Study Of Embryos Of This Same ...

Is Photogenin Used Up
Is Photogenin Used Up In Light-production With Photophelein? The Exceedingly Small Concentration Of Light Substances Which Give Visible Light Suggests That One Or Both Are Of Enzyme Nature, As Dubois Supposes. There Are Two Ways Of Testing This Question. One Is To Determine Whether A Small Concentration Of Photogenin Can ...

Jaws And Teeth
Jaws And Teeth.' The Mouth Parts Of The Barracuda Deserve Attention Both For Them Selves And Because They Do Not Seem To Have Been Adequately Described. The Mouth Is Very Large, Being In Length Nearly Half Of The Head And Having A Large Gape. Together With This, The Projecting Lower ...

Length Of The Period
Length Of The Period Of Gestation. It Is Impossible To State This Either From Observation Or Direct Experi Ment. It Being Impracticable, At The Time This Research Was Carried On At The Beaufort Laboratory, To Isolate The Fish In Pairs, Direct Observa Tion Of The Period Of Incubation Was Not ...

Leptodactylime
Leptodactylime. Leptodartylus Albilabris (ginther). Figure 1. Ten From The Junction Of The Arecibo And Tanama Rivers, Porto Rico, On June 9, 1915. As Considerable Variation In Color Is Noticeable, 5 Examples Have Been Selected As An Illustration Of The Dorsal Aspect. Two Adults Show A Strongly Contrasted Color-pattern Above, Largely ...

Limulus
Limulus. The Study Of The Skeletal Muscle Of Limu/us Was Undertaken With Two Chief Objects In View: (1) To Attempt Further To Test My Conclusion Suggested By A Series Of Earlier Studies On The Intercalated Disks Of Vertebrate Cardiac Muscle, Namely, That These Disks Are Properly Interpreted As "irreversible Con ...

Literature
Literature. Discussion. The Value Of The Data Derived From The Study Of The Limulus Muscle Depends In Degree Upon The Extent To Which They May Legitimately Serve As A Basis For Generalization With Respect To Vertebrate Muscle. In The Relative Simplicity Of Its Striations The Limulus Muscle Seems More Like ...

Location Of Luminous Material
Location Of Luminous Material When A Noctiluca Is Giving A Bright, Constant Glow—for Instance, When Treated With N/2000 To N/4000 Hci—it Is Fairly Easy To Observe The Light Under A Microscope In A Dark Room. The Chief Luminescence Comes From The Main Mass Of Protoplasm Near The Mouth-groove And Around ...

Locomotion
Locomotion. Like Most Of The Comatulids Hitherto Studied, Tropiometra Is Exceed Ingly Sluggish. So Far As My Observations Go, It Never Swims. Dropped Or Suspended In Deep Water, It Makes Only The Most Feeble Arm-move Ments And, Unless Artificially Prevented, It Sinks Rapidly To The Bottom. When, As A Result ...

Loggerhead Key
Loggerhead Key. This Is The Largest Of The Tortugas Group And Also The Highest Above Sea-level And According To Tradition It Had In Earlier Times The Largest Stand Of Trees. Old Fishermen (and The Report Was Current In The Times Of The Older Light-house Keepers) State That 75 Or 80 ...

Loss Of Weight In
Loss Of Weight In Starving Cassiopea. Eight Freshly Caught Normal Cassiopeas Having Different Body-weights Were Subjected To Starvation By Placing Them In Filtered Sea-water. The Filtration Was Effected With All The Precautions Adopted By Mayer (1914) And The Water (4,500 C.c.) In The Vessel Was Changed Once Every Day. The ...

Luciferin And Luciferase
Luciferin And Luciferase. The Light From The Natural Secretion Of Cypridina Lasts For Some Time In Sea-water And Then Disappears, And No Amount Of Shaking Will Cause It To Appear Again. If We Add To This Natural Secretion An Extract Of Cypridina Heated To Boiling, A Brilliant Light Again Results; ...

Manner Of Breathing
Manner Of Breathing. In The Preceding Section, Reference Has Several Times Been Made And Attention Has Been Called To The Figures Of The Breathing Valves. These Structures Are Developed To Such A Degree In The Barracuda, That The Fish Is Enabled To Breathe With Its Mouth Open Or At Most ...

Marine Ecology
Marine Ecology. The Submerged Plants Growing About The Tortugas Are Not Many, Since Marine Algae Most Abound On Rocky Shores And Rocks Are Conspic Uously Lacking In The Tortugas Physiography. Of The Higher Plants Several Interesting Spermatophytes Are Very Abundant, Viz : (1) Thalassia Testudinum Koenig And Sims, Which Occurs ...

Material
Material The Material Consists Of A Series Of 26 Loggerhead-turtle Embryos Ranging From The Second To The Thirty-second Day Of Incubation. It Was Collected In The Summer Of 1914 During A Visit To The Laboratory Of Marine Biology Of The Carnegie Institution Of Washington, Located On Loggerhead Key, Florida. I ...

Means By Which Insects
Means By Which Insects May Reach The Station. There Are Four Conceivable Ways In Which Insects May Reach Rebecca Shoal Light-station. First By Boat, For Many Are Brought In Provisions And Other Stores. Several Species Of Larder Pests, Including Two Weevils And A Flour Beetle, Two Species Of Moths, One ...

Method
Method. The Method Of Analysis Followed Is That Advised By The U. S. Depart Ment Of Agriculture, Bureau Of Chemistry, Bulletin No. 107 (revised), With Slight Modifications, As Tin Was Not Sought. The Sample Was Incinerated In A Muffle At A Low Red Heat, Not High Enough To Fuse The ...

Method Of Transfer Of
Method Of Transfer Of The Eggs. On This Interesting Point Nothing Definite Is Known. In 1858 Green, And In The Following Year Wyman (1859), Reported The Finding Of Eggs Of Two Species In The Mouth Of An Oral Incubating Catfish Of Guiana. From This They Concluded That The Eggs Were ...

Methods Of Obtaining Insects
Methods Of Obtaining Insects Which Visited The Station. On June 26 An Insect Net 5 Feet In Diameter And 6 Feet Deep Was So Suspended From The Balcony Railing Beneath The Lantern That Any Wind From The Northeast, East, Or Southeast Would Spread It; But The Hope That Insects Might ...

Middle Key
Middle Key. Next To Sand Key, Going East, Is Middle Key, The Smallest Of The Dry Tortugas Islands. It Is Little More Than An Oval Patch Of Sand, About 80 Feet Long By 50 Feet Wide. Millspaugh States That Lansing Found No Vegetation On Middle Key Whatever And That It ...

Nerve Conduction In Cassiopea Xamachana
Nerve-conduction In Cassiopea Xamachana. It Is The Author's Privilege To Acknowledge His Indebtedness To Kind Friends For Advice And Aid: To Professor George A. Hulett, Of Prince Ton University, For Having Had Prepared In His Laboratory The Con Ductivity Water Used In This Research; To Professor J. F. Mcclendon, Of ...

Nerve Conduction In Diluted And
Nerve-conduction In Diluted And In Centrated Sea-water. Ring-shaped Strips Of Subumbrella Tissue Of The Scyphomedusa Cassiopea Xamachana Were Deprived Of Marginal Sense-organs And Placed In Concentrated Sea-water In Order To Determine The Effect Of Concentration Of Electrolytes Upon Their Rate Of Nerve-conduction. These Results, Combined With Those Previously Obtained' With ...

New Apparatus For Electrometric
New Apparatus For Electrometric Determination Of Hydrogen-ion Concentration And For Gas Analysis. The Hydrogen Electrodes Were Each Made Of A Gold Disk (later Covered With A Thin Layer Of Palladium Black) Welded To A Platinum Wire Sealed Through The Glass. There Seems To Be Only One Way To Do This. ...

Nomenclature
Nomenclature.. The Generic Term Sphyrcena Means Hammer, According To Jordan And Evermann (1896), And Hence The Barracuda Is A Hammer-fish —a Total Misnomer Since It Resembles Nothing So Little As A Hammer, As Was Noted So Long Ago As 1554 By Salviani. This Erroneous Derivation And Interpretation Seem To Have ...

Older Embryos From 13
Older Embryos; From 13 To 32 Days. The 13-day Embryo Is Essentially Like The One Of 12 Days (figs. 1, 2, And 3, Plate 6), Except That Relatively Fewer Germ-cells Remain In The Gut And More Are Found Within The Gonads. In The 16-day Embryo (11 Mm. In Length, From ...

On Changes In The
On Changes In The Sea And Their Relation To Organisms. The Sea And Air Form The Circulating Media For The Living Organisms Of The World, And Although The Air Circulates So Rapidly That No Correlation Between Local Faunas And Floras And Local Composition Of The Air Has Been Found, The ...

On The Chemical Precipitation
On The Chemical Precipitation Of Caco, In Seawater * The Question Of The Solubility Of Calcite And Aragonite In Sea-water Is A Matter Of Interest In Relation To The Geology Of Limestone And Dolo Mite. Murray And Hjort Maintain That Sea-water Is So Complicated A Mixture That The Solubility Of ...

Opportunities For Breeding Of
Opportunities For Breeding Of Mosquitoes At Rebecca Shoal Obviously, In Order To Draw Correct Conclusions Concerning The Occurrence Of Mosquitoes And Flies At An Isolated Point, It Is Essential That Breeding-places There Be Under Control. It Was Found That The Only Fresh Water Available To Mosquitoes At The Rebecca Shoal ...

Oxidase And Catalase
Oxidase And Catalase. Many Enzymes Are Found In Bacteria In A Condition Which Defies Extraction Except By Means Of The Buchner Press, And It Is Difficult To Obtain Luminous Bacteria In Sufficient Quantity For This Method. The Oxidases Seem To Be Contained In These Bacteria In This Endoenzyme Condition. All ...

Parasites
Parasites. From What Has Been Said As To The Food And Manner Of Feeding Of The Big Barracuda, It Is To Be Expected That It Would Be The Host Of All Sorts Of Entozoa, Parasitic Helminth Worms, But Strange To Say Such Is Not The Case. Having Myself Paid No ...

Percentage Of Nitrogen In
Percentage Of Nitrogen In The Solids. Despite The Fact Of The Uniform Distribution Of Water And Probably Of Salts In The Body, The Nitrogen-contents Of These Three Parts Are Different. Table 3 Shows That The Nitrogen-content Is Highest In The Velar Lobes, Where The Cellular Elements Are Most Abundant, While ...

Percentage Of Nitrogen In_2
Percentage Of Nitrogen In The Solids. As In The Case Of The Normal Cassiopea, The Nitrogen-content Is Highest In The Smaller Animals And Tends To Decrease With Increasing Body Weight. The Value Of The Nitrogen Is, However, Much Higher In The Starved Cassiopea Than In The Normal Cassiopea Of Similar ...

Photogenin And Photophelein
Photogenin And Photophelein. Unlike The Firefly, Cypridina, And Pholas Dactylus, It Is Impossible To Separate The Luminous Juice Of Cavernularia Into Two Substances, Photogenin And Photophelein (luciferase And Luciferin), One Destroyed By Boiling, The Other Not, Which Will Give Light When Mixed. We Can Not, For Instance, Cause Light To ...

Photogenin And Photophelein_2
Photogenin And Photophelein. As We Have Just Seen, The Light Of A Mass Of Bacteria Disappears Almost Instantly If They Are Broken Up By Any Of The Usual Cytolytic Agents. This Result Is No Doubt Due To The Fact That They Continually Burn Their Light-producing Substances As Soon As They ...

Photophelein And Photogenin
Photophelein And Photogenin. I Conclude, Therefore, That Dubois's Luciferase, A Thermolabile Sub Stance In Luminous Cells, Is The Light-producing Body. It Gives Light In Contact With Many Substances Not Necessarily Oxidizable And An Espe Cially Bright Light With A Thermostabile Substance (dubois's Luciferin) Found In High Concentration Throughout The Body ...

Physiological
Physiological. Perhaps The Best-known Of All The Investigators Of Electric Fishes Is Dubois-reymond. The Founder Of Electro-physiology, He Has Ex Haustively Covered The Subject Of Electrical Currents In Muscle, Nerves, And Electrical Organs, Carrying On, In The Early Eighties, A Prolonged Dispute With Hering (w) And Hermann (58. 59) Concerning ...

Pomacentridal
Pomacentridal Mictospathstion Wrestles (prey). Plate 4, Lg. 1. Head 2.7; 3.4 In Total Length. Depth 1.7; 2.5 In Total. Eye 2.5; Snout 3. Dorsal Xii, 15; Anal Ii, 13. Scales 3-25+6-10. Mouth Small; Max Illary Reaching To Nostril. Upper Teeth Small, Movable; Lower Teeth Twice As Large And More Or ...

Potassium Cyanide
Potassium Cyanide. Potassium Cyanide Has No Inhibiting Effect Upon The Light-production Of Cavernularia Juice. Even In M/40 Concentration The Light Is Still Bright After 90 Minutes, A Result Agreeing With All Other Experiments On Luminous Organisms (bacteria, Firefly, Cypridina, Noctiluea). Summary Of Results From Cavernularia. 1. The Light Of Cavernularia ...

Preservatives And Anesthetics
Preservatives And Anesthetics. The Addition Of Preservatives (anesthetics), As Chloroform, Ether, Benzol, And Thymol, Is To Hasten The Spontaneous Destruction Of The Photophelein And To Preserve The Photogenin. Ether Is Especially Destructive To The Photophelein, Whereas Photo Genin Will Give Light After Saturation With Ether For 22 Days. Tables 4 ...

Production Influence Of Sense Organs
Influence Of Sense-organs On The Rate Of General Metabolism As Measured By Co, Production. The Results Of The Experiments Recorded In The Two Preceding Sections Show That The Nerve-centers Exert A Decided Influence On The Rate Of Metabolic Activities When Measured By Two Different Standards. It Seems Apparent Also That, ...