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How Jobs Are Found in Industry

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HOW JOBS ARE FOUND IN INDUSTRY Boys and girls who leave school to go to work as soon as the law allows are not likely to be more fortunate in their choice of an occupation than young men and women in professional schools. Usually there is not much "choice" involved. They "get a job" in any way they can—through a friend or a brother or sister, by answering adver tisements, or by applying in response to a sign Boy Wanted or Girl Wanted, no matter for what.

Miss Van Kleeck tells of a Hungarian woman who had worked for four years in flower shops as the result of a "negative choice," made by eliminat ing other occupations:* Nor was her enthusiasm great for the trade which she had selected. . . . She went into flower making because she knew that in saleswork the hours were always long and $7.00 ' Artificial Flower Makers, p. zoo.

about the maximum wage. She couldn't stand machine operating on account of the noise, and didn't care for dressmaking. She had been watching the newspapers and had seen a great many advertisements for flower makers. Now that she has tried it she thinks it is as good as any other trade. It is better than vest making, for instance, where the girls have to work with men. Still, she says many people think flower making is not a very healthy trade. The doctor had told her that she must leave it if she became anemic.

Even more casual was a Russian girl's choice:* When she left school she decided she would like to get into a department store. So she went up to Sixth Avenue and asked a police man where the different stores were. He pointed them out to her and she applied as cash girl, salesgirl, stock girl, and so on, but nobody wanted her. As she was walking home down Broadway she noticed a sign out for artificial flower makers. She had heard that girls often worked at this trade. So she went in and applied for a "situation" and was told to come the next day.

The interesting experiences of a New York Italian boy in the first three months of his indus trial career were related by Mr. Winthrop D. Lane in THE SURVEY not long ago :f On the last day of last January John Pan ello, aged fifteen years and five months, grad * P. 201. t Vol. 1011X, p. 225, November 23, 1912.

uated from a public grammar school in New York. On the twentieth of February he got his "working papers" from the Board of Health. In school he had been fond of arith metic, and from childhood had wanted to be come a bookkeeper. But the class-room had become irksome to him, and his parents, financially comfortable, had just "taken it for granted" that he would go to work after graduation. He received no answer to his first application for a job—that of office boy in a place where he hoped that he might work up to a position as bookkeeper . . . After three weeks of looking for work he got a job as errand boy for a dyeing and cleaning estab lishment. Five dollars a week were the wages, and tips amounted to a dollar or two extra. At the end of one week the boy who had had the job before came back and John was fired. . . . After a day's hunt he saw a sign, " Boy Wanted," and was taken on by a firm manufacturing ladies' hats. Here he swept the

floor, ran errands, and helped to pack. At the end of two weeks . . . he left because "a feller who had been there four years was getting only $6.00 a week." Before leaving he had been lucky enough to get a promise of a job with a millinery firm. At first his work consisted in "going for stuff to the first floor," then he ran a crimping ma chine, and next was detailed to "get the cord downstairs for the men who make rugs." After a week and a half of this . . . "an other feller said 'come along and learn car pentry," so John got a job at loading and un loading wagons for a firm that made wooden boxes. . . . When he learned that the boss was going to move to Staten Island he decided to quit . . . He had been with the firm two weeks.

During the next three weeks John did five different kinds of work for a manufacturer of jewelry and notions. He was making $4.50, but when a man said, "Come along, I've got an office job for you," he quit. The "office job" consisted in acting as shipping clerk, running errands, answering the telephone, and sweep ing the floor for a manufacturer of artificial flowers. He is still there, getting $5.00 a week. He doesn't think much of the work. " What can I learn there?" he asks.

In consequence of our growing realization of such conditions as these, there has sprung up in the last ten years a whole series of new educational devices which it would be hopeless to attempt to discuss here. It may suggest the various problems in volved to enumerate some terms which President Pearse of the State Normal School at Milwaukee undertook to define at the meeting of the National Education Association* last year: Manual Training.

Industrial Education.

Vocational Education.

Professional Vocational Education. Commercial Vocational Education. Industrial Vocational Education.

• Addresses and Proceedings, 1914, PP. 582-586.

Trade Education.

Occupational Education.

Agricultural Education.

Pre-vocational Education.

Continuation Education.

Non-vocational Continuation Education. Vocational Continuation Education. Continuation Occupational Education. Commercial Continuation Education. Professional Continuation Education. Vocational Guidance.

Vocational guidance is, properly speaking, a feature of work rather than of education, although it is an educator's and not a foreman's function. Dr. Herman Schneider insists that it should ac company work and cannot safely precede it. The Cincinnati plan aims to keep young people until eighteen in touch with those who are interested in getting them properly placed by requiring them to come back to the school authorities for a new authorization every time they change positions. By the two-fold policy of bringing the graduates of the grammar school into contact with a wide range of activities when they are ready to feel their way into industry, and requiring them to justify their plans each time they take a new job until they are eighteen, they avoid the pitfalls which lie in any scheme for fitting boys and girls to particular jobs merely by physical examinations or by the tests and methods of experimental psychology.