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The Normal Life by Edward Thomas Devine (1915)

Accidents
Accidents Another Problem Still Unsolved, But Now Receiv Ing Very Active Consideration, Is That Of Compensa Tion For Deaths And Injuries To Workmen In The Course Of Their Occupation. To A Far Greater Extent Than Was Just Or Reasonable We Have In The Past Thrown The Cost And Hardships Of ...

Birth
Birth Ante-natal Care Involves, As We Have Seen, Clinics And Home Visiting. It Involves Also Hospital Ac Commodation For Complicated Cases Of Pregnancy, And Advance Supervision Of Preparations For Con Finement, Whether Under The Care Of Physicians Or Midwives. The Training Of Midwives And Official Recognition Of Their Calling Seem ...

Child Labor Laws
Child Labor Laws One Aid To Keeping Children In School Is To Keep Them Out Of The Factories And Shops And Mines And Mills By The Uncompromising Hand Of Law, State And Federal. Another Is To Make School So Attrac Tive That Nothing Else Can Compete With It In In ...

Children At Work
Children At Work And Yet, Even Now, The Census Investigators Of 1910 Found Nearly Two Million Children Engaged In "gainful Occupations," More Than One In Six Of The Children Between Ten And Sixteen Years Of Age; So Many, As Mr. Lewis W. Hine Puts It, With The Vivid Ness Of ...

Civic Nurture
Civic Nurture Hygienic Training For Health, Then, And Economic Education For Efficiency, Are The First Two Planks In A Policy Of Social Education. The Third Is Civic Cul Ture, Training In Self-government And Aid In Ap Preciating The Nature Of Social Relations—social Obligations, Social Rights And Duties—the Social Life In ...

Contributions Of Society
Contributions Of Society Under Normal Conditions, However, The Wisest Housewife, With An Adequate Income, Is Apt To Be Thwarted In Her Attempts To Provide Intelligently For Her Household Unless Society Does Some Intelli Gent Planning On Its Own Account. Even In The Daily Marketing There Is Scope For Social Coopera ...

Crime
Crime Homes Are Destroyed, Or Heavily Burdened, When Their Adult Members Commit Criminal Acts. We Have Besought Clemency In Judgment And Oppor Tunity For Reform On Behalf Of Juvenile Delinquents, Nor Should We Be Harsher In Judging The Moral Qual Ity Of Adult Offenders. Literal Observance Of The Injunction Not ...

Dependence Or Old Age
Dependence Or Old Age The First And Most Obvious Social Problem Con Nected With Old Age Is That Of Support. Old Age Dependence Ranks In Importance With The Care Of The Sick And Of Widows With Dependent Children, Far Exceeding The Problem Of Orphanage Or Unemployment. In 1910 There Were ...

Dependent Children
Dependent Children Among Our Thirty-one Million Children* There Are A Few—something Like One Hundred And Fifty Thousand—for Whom Society Has A Greater Responsi Bility Than For The Others, A Different Kind Of Re Sponsibility, Because Their Parents Are Dead Or Unable To Provide For Them Or Unfit To Do So, ...

Disease
Disease The High Death-rate Of Early Infancy From Con Genital Causes And Intestinal Infections Is Followed, As We Have Seen, By A Relatively Low Death-rate In The Years From Five To Twenty, Though Health Has Remained A Prime Object Of Solicitude At Every Period Of Life. From This Point On ...

Divorce And Desertion
Divorce And Desertion Disease And Crime And Bad Habits Are Abnormali Ties Which Even In Their Milder Forms Interfere With Normal Home Life. They May Go So Far As To De Stroy It Altogether, Or At Least To Mutilate It By Re Moving One Or The Other Or Both Of ...

Economic Efficiency
Economic Efficiency The Discovery And Cure Of Physical Defects And A Hygienic Culture And Discipline Have Characterized The Progress Of Education In The Past Decades. The Next Is To See The Transformation Of The Curriculum In The Direction Of Elasticity, With More Recognition Of Actual Existing Conditions. A More Complete ...

Education For Adaptability
Education For Adaptability Education For Efficiency Is Not To Be Identified With A Narrowly Specialized "vocational" Educa Tion. Too Narrowly Specialized Training May Have Precisely The Opposite Result, Creating Inefficiency Instead Of Efficiency. Processes In Any Vocation May Be Completely Revolutionized Within A Few Years, Or The Vocation Itself May ...

Elementary Conditions Of Social
Elementary Conditions Of Social Education The Features, Then, Of Social Education Are Civic Or Social Nurture, Economic Efficiency, And Physical Well-being. Consider Some Of The Very Elementary Corollaries. First There Must Be Room For All The Children; And The Seats Must Be Where The Children Are. There Should Not Be ...

Family Responsibility
Family Responsibility Family Solidarity Also Is An Ideal For Which Future Ages Will Have Need, As Past Ages Have Needed It. Covert And Indirect Assaults On The Family Are A Part Of Much Revolutionary Propaganda, But In Creasingly In This Country Economic Revolution Is Trying To Free Itself From Old-world ...

Full Maturity
Full Maturity All Periods Of A Normal Life Are Good. As The Tale Of Life Now Runs We May Put The Twenty Years Of Full Maturity, And Therefore Of Greatest Useful Ness, From Say Forty-five To Five And Sixty. For One Who Has A Zest In Life And Believes In ...

Health
Health Early Adolescence Under Normal Conditions Sees The Health Problem Almost Solved, If The Death-rate Be Taken As An Index. Deaths From Disease In The Years Between Ten And Fifteen Are Comparatively Rare. In New York, For Example, In 1910, One Death Occurred From All Causes In Every Four Hun ...

Home Manufacture
Home Manufacture Industry Is Good, And Family Life In The Home Is Good, But Under Modern Urban Conditions They Do Not Belong Together. In The Old Days, Before The Industrial Revolution Of The Eighteenth Century, In Dustry Was Ordinarily Carried On In The Home. There Were No Factories Or Factory ...

How Jobs Are Found
How Jobs Are Found In Industry Boys And Girls Who Leave School To Go To Work As Soon As The Law Allows Are Not Likely To Be More Fortunate In Their Choice Of An Occupation Than Young Men And Women In Professional Schools. Usually There Is Not Much "choice" Involved. ...

Illiteracy
Illiteracy The Results Of This Increase In School Attendance Are Seen In The Figures For Illiteracy. (persons Seem To Have Been Reported As " Illiterate " At The Last Census If They Could Not Write Their Names.) Among Children Ten To Fourteen Years Old, The Age Group Which Has Had ...

Infancy
Infancy We May Now Assume That The Child Whose Career We Are Following Is Properly Registered And Launched Into Infancy. The Fundamental Problem In This Stage Is To Keep The Delicate Things Alive. The Mere Business Of Being A Baby, It Has Been Said, Ought To Be Classed As An ...

Intemperance
Intemperance Let Us Now Turn To The Pathological Aspects Of Adult Life In The Home. Among The Vicious Habits Which Impair Or Destroy Normal Family Life None Other Compares In Devasta Tion With The Appetite For Strong Drink. Alcoholism Is No Doubt Sometimes An Inherited Taint, The Outcropping Of A ...

Introduction To The Normal
Introduction To The Normal Life The General Theme Of The Series Of Lectures Intro Duced By This Course Is Social Construction. I Accept The Faith Which The Phrase Implies: The Faith That We Build The Social Structure; That It Is Not External Or Mechanical, But Human, Spiritual, Influenced By Our ...

Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile Delinquency One Of The Most Important Of All Social Problems In Connection With Adolescence Is That Of Delin Quency. A Certain Amount, Given A Proper Setting, Safeguards, And Antecedents, Is Altogether Normal. What Middle-aged Citizen Does Not Look Back To Adolescent Escapades Which Would Have Come With In The ...

Life
Life After The Child Has Begun Its Ante-natal Life, Of Healthy Parents, United Under The Sanction Of So Ciety, The Next Stage Is Comparatively Simple. The Normal Outcome Is The Birth Of A Living Child; And So Powerfully Does Nature Work Toward This End That A Very Moderate Amount Of ...

Mental Defect
Mental Defect From The Baby's Standpoint We Found Reasons For Advocating The Segregation And Continued Custodial Care Of The Mentally Defective, Who, If At Large, Might Become Their Fathers And Mothers. If By Some Bluebird Magic We Could Conjure The Unborn Babies Into A Council, We May Be Sure That, ...

Minimum Wage
Minimum Wage Society Has Gone So Far In Regulating Working Conditions As To Take An Official And Controlling In Terest In Fixing The Age At Which The Youth May Be Gin Work, The Hours During Which Women May Work, The Light And Air And Sanitary Conditions To Which Workers Are ...

Old Age
Old Age Unmistakable Old Age, So Long Denied, Comes At Last To Its Own: Not In Ugly, Tragic Mask, But Gentle; Not Hastening Or Loitering. With A Touch Of Humor, Of Philosophy, With A Sense Of Life's Irony And A Knowledge Of Its Loving Kindness, Old Age Comes At The ...

Parentage
Parentage There Are Three Distinct Sets Of Problems Involved In This One Of A Normal Beginning Of Life, According As They Center About (i) Parentage, (2) The Period Before Birth, And (3) The Life Of The Infant In The First Year Or Two After Birth. Heredity Is A Fact Of ...

Permanent Registration
Permanent Registration Taking Our Population As It Is, The First Serious Task Of Social Construction Is To Make It Possible To Know More About It. Our National Count We Make Once In Ten Years, With Supplementary Studies From Time To Time Car Ried Out By The Permanent Census Bureau Which ...

Physical
Physical Coming More Directly To Some Of The Social Prob Lems Of Childhood Centering In The School, It Is Nec Essary To Discover And Remedy The Physical Defects Of Children. Some Of These Are Due To Neglect Of The Pre-natal, Natal, Or Post-natal Problems Of In Fancy, To Overworked And ...

Positive Influences On Home
Positive Influences On Home Life Before Our Discussion Runs, As It Inevitably Must, Into The Destructive Influences Menacing Normal Home Life, It Is Expedient To Emphasize Once More The Positive Resources For Creating An Affirmative Home Life, That We May Not Draw The Mistaken In Ference From These Discussions, That ...

Prolongation Of Old Age
Prolongation Of Old Age The Prolongation Of Life As A Whole Follows Nat Urally The Prolongation Of Childhood And Of The Working Period Of Life, But There Are Special In Fluences At Work Independently To The Same End. Science Has Been Baffled By An Increase In The Dis Eases Of ...

Prolongation Of Working Life
Prolongation Of Working Life The Prolongation Of The Working Life Is A Social Ideal, Quite Comparable In Definiteness And In The Strength Of Its Appeal To That Prolongation Of Child Hood Which Education And Physiology Alike De Mand. The One Is Indeed The Natural Corollary Of The Other. Childhood Is ...

Remedial Measures
Remedial Measures To Bring About Some Sort Of Adjustment At Such Times Some Immediate Relief Measures Are Neces Sary. One Of Them Is An Expansion Of The Work Of The Ordinary Relief Agencies. Prompt And Liberal Relief In Cases Of Actual Distress Is Appropriate At All Times, But Especially In ...

School Attendance
School Attendance It Was To Emphasize The Importance Of Continuing The Period Devoted To Education Past Childhood, Into And Through Adolescence, That I Refrained In Discussing The Education Of Children From Reference To Compulsory School Attendance And Child-labor Laws. That Children Should Go To School Needs In America No Argument. ...

Seasonal Trades
Seasonal Trades Among The Conspicuously Seasonal Industries, Some Are Necessarily Of This Character, And It Is Difficult To See How They Can Be Made More Regular. Canning And Preserving, For Instance, To Consider Only Certain Manufacturing Pursuits, Must Be Done When The Fruits And Vegetables Are Ripe. It Is Not ...

Standard Of Life
Standard Of Life What Kind Of Homes They Shall Be—whether Normal Or Abnormal—depends Largely Upon Our Standard Of Living: That Spiritual Atmosphere, That Indefinable Force, Compounded Of Income And What We Buy With It, Ideals And Tastes And The Environ Ment Provided By Our Fellows, Which Is Something More Than ...

The Adult Population
The Adult Population The First Time You Look At The Chart Of The Popu Lation Of This Country By Ages You Will Be Surprised. What Will Puzzle You Is That There Are More Chil Dren Two Years Old Than One, And That There Are About As Many Alive At Twenty, ...

The Beginning Of Life
The Beginning Of Life The Normal Life Of Man Falls Obviously Into Seven Natural Divisions: Before Birth, Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence, Early Maturity, Full Maturity, And Old Age. It Is The Poet's Number, But Not Precisely His Boundaries, For We Are Concerned Less With Those External Signs Of Man's Development Which ...

The Formation Of Character
The Formation Of Character If Childhood Is For Education, As We All Agree, So Also, Though We May Not Agree, Is Youth. The Period Of Adolescence Should Be Used For Develop Ment, Not For That Anticipation Of The Tasks And Pleasures Of Adult Life Which Means A Waste Of Powers ...

The Future Of The
The Future Of The Home The Typical Home Which Occupied The Center Of Our Attention Just Now Has Wonderfully Changed In Its Outward Physical Aspects In Recent Years. Hos Pitals, Kindergartens, Restaurants, And Factories Have Taken Over On A Large Scale Functions Once Per Formed In The Home. Society Has ...

The Home
The Home Having Discussed Some Of The Social Problems Of Adult Life Centering In Industry, Involved In The Activities Of Men And Women In Earning Their Living, We Have Next To Ask What Conditions Are Needed To Assure A Normal Home Life And What Circumstances— Especially What Modifiable Circumstances—are In ...

The Home And The
The Home And The School Babies Are Chiefly Concerned, If We May Imagine Them As Visualizing Their Own Social Problem, In Remaining Alive. The Stupendous Responsibility For Getting Safely Born And Getting A Start In Life Precludes Much Serious Attention To The Matters Which Are To Vex Them, And Us, ...

The Problems Of Maturity
The Problems Of Maturity The Two Big Universal Normal Interests Of Both Men And Women In The Early Years Of Maturity Are Work And Home. They Are In A Sense Rivals. We Have Been Regaled By The Conceit Of A Wife's Suit For Separation Based On The Alienation Of Affections ...

The Social Task Of
The Social Task Of Education Education May Be Taken As A Very Broad Term For The Entire Conscious Process Of Passing On From One Generation To Another The Accumulated Treas Ures, The Acquired Capacities, Of The Race. So Con Ceived, It Touches Every Age, But Childhood Is Its Special Province—the ...

The Unemployed
The Unemployed It Is The Usual Thing, Then, As Well As The Normal Thing, For American Men In The First Half Of Their Mature Years To Be Employed—sufficiently, At Any Rate, To Be Counted Among The Workers By The Cen Sus Enumerators. Not All Of Them, However, Are Employed Steadily, ...

The Working Day
The Working Day Whether Laws Should Directly Prescribe Maximum Hours Of Labor For Adult Men Is An Open Question. Probably The Prevailing Sentiment Is Against It, On The Ground That Through Trade Unions And Vol Untary Agreements The Long Day Can Be Shortened And The Short Day Maintained. There Are ...

Thrift
Thrift Thrift Is An Old-fashioned But Not An Obsolete Virtue. Children Should Not Support Able-bodied Young Parents, But Able-bodied Young People May Very Properly Support Their Parents Or Grandparents In Old Age. Personal Responsibility For One's Own Well-being Is Not The Most Popular Doctrine In These Days, But It Is ...

Vocational Guidance
Vocational Guidance Specialized Training For A Particular Vocation Is Exceedingly Important, To Supplement This Funda Mental Education In Adaptability, But It Should Not Begin Too Early. Probably It Should Not Begin Be Fore Sixteen. The Child Who Has Had An Undiffer Entiated General Education, As Diversified And Well Rounded As ...

Widowhood
Widowhood Widowhood In Itself Is Not Necessarily A Social Problem. On The Contrary, It Is The Normal Conse Quence Of Marriage, And Must Ordinarily Be The Ex Perience Of Either Husband Or Wife For At Least A Brief Period At The Close Of Life. More Often It Is The Wife ...

Wise Use Of Income
Wise Use Of Income The First Essential To A Normal Standard Of Living Is An Adequate And Regular Income, Earned Prefer Ably By The Male Head Of The Family, Without As Sistance From His Wife Ordinarily, Never With The Aid Of Children; Earned Without Exhausting The Worker's Strength Prematurely Or ...

Working Conditions
Working Conditions Fortunately, However, For All Of Us As Consumers, Most Of Us As Workers Are, After All, At Work Most Of The Time, And Social Construction Concerns Itself Inevitably Even More With The Conditions Of Work Than With Those Of Enforced Idleness. Of Child Labor We Have Already Said ...