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A Treatise on Roads and Pavements (1903)

Advantages Of Good Roads
Advantages Of Good Roads. Good Roads Are So Im Portant In The Financial, Social And Educational Well-being Of A Rural Community That No Enumeration Of Their Advantages Is Likely To Include All The Benefits; But A Brief Consideration Of Some Of The Chief Advantages Of Good Roads Will Be Of ...

Agents Of Destruction Broken Stone
Agents Of Destruction Broken-stone Road. A Broken-stone Road Is A Delicately Balanced Construction, And Is Peculiarly Open To The Destructive Action Of The Traffic And The Weather. A Careful Study Of The Various Agents Of Destruction Is Necessary To A Thorough Understanding Of The Best Methods Of Construction And Maintenance. ...

Amount Of Different Kinds
Amount Of Different Kinds Of Pavements. Table 55 Shows The Number Of Miles And Also The Relative Proportion Of The Different Kinds Of Pavements In The One Hundred And Thirty-five Cities Having A Population Of 30,000 Or Over In June, 1901. Notice That The Fourth Line In The Table Is ...

Amount Of Wear Broken Stone
Amount Of Wear Broken-stone The Amount Of Wear Will Vary Greatly With The Climate, The Amount And Character Of The Traffic, The Nature Of The Stone, And The Method Of Construction. It Has Been Estimated * That In Great Britain 20 Per Cent Of The Wear Was Due To Atmospheric ...

Apportionment Of The Cost
Apportionment Of The Cost - Pavement Economics. There Is Much Discus Sion As To Who In Equity Should Bear The Cost Of The Pavement. There Are Three Distinct Views. 1. A Few Claim That As They Own Neither A Horse Nor A Vehicle And Do Not Use The Pavement, They ...

Art Of Construction Earth
Art Of Construction - Earth Roads. Drainage. Drainage Is The Most Important Matter To Be Considered In The Construction Of Earth Roads, Since No Road, Whether Earth Or Stone, Can Long Remain Good Without It. Drainage Alone Will Often Change A Bad Earth Road To A Good One, While The ...

Artistic Treatment
Artistic Treatment. Engineers Are Accustomed To Study Chiefly Or Only The Economic Side Of Construction, And Are Therefore Likely To Neglect The Artistic Treatment Of The Highway. In The Attempt To Beautify The Roadside, It May Be Necessary To Sacrifice A Little Of Utility To Secure A Pleasing Effect. Masses ...

Asphalt Walks
Asphalt Walks - Sidewalks.asphalt Is Used For Sidewalks Both In The Form Of A Monolithic Sheet And In Blocks Or Tiles, In Much The Same Way As For Carriage-way Pavements, Except That The Foundation Need Not Be So Strong Nor The Wearing Coat So Thick. Sheet Asphalt Foot-way Pavements Are ...

Asphaltic Cement
Asphaltic Cement. The Cementitious Element Of The Wearing Coat Consists Of Commercially Refined Asphalt Mixed With A Softening Or Fluxing Agent. The Asphalt Has Already Been Dis Cussed (see Art. 1). Rial In Use, But At Present All Four Are In More Or Less Common Use. Residuum. " The Best ...

Binder Course
Binder Course - This Is A Layer About 11 Inches Thick Of Broken Stone Cemented Together With Asphaltic Paving Cement (§ 603), And Rolled In Place While Hot. The Purpose Of This Course Is To Bind The Wearing Coat And The Foundation Or Base Together, And To Prevent The Wearing ...

Binding The Road For
Binding The Road For Broken--stone The Interstices Between The Frag Ments Of Stone Should Be Filled With A Fine Material Which Will Act Mechanically To Keep Out The Rain Water And Thereby Keep The Subgrade Dry, And Also To Support The Fragments And Pre Vent Them From Being Broken. And ...

Brick Sidewalks
Brick Sidewalks. Brick Sidewalks Are Very Common, And When Properly Constructed Are Cheap, Durable, And Reasonably Satisfactory. Commonly They Consist Of Ordinary Hard-burned Building Brick Laid Flatwise Upon A Porous Bed Of Sand Or Cinders, Although Occasionally In Heavily Traveled Business Districts The Bricks Are Set On Edge And The ...

Burned Clay Roads
Burned-clay Roads. In The Mississippi Valley, Where Gravel Or Rock Suitable For Ballast Must Be Transported Consid Erable Distances, The Railroads Have Been Experimenting In Recent Years With Burned-clay Ballast, And It Has Frequently Been Proposed To Use That Material Instead Of Crushed Stone For Building Wagon Roads. Almost Any ...

Care Of The Surface
Care Of The Surface. The Most Important Work In Maintaining An Earth Road Is To Keep The Surface Smooth So That The Rain Water Will Flow Quickly Into The Side Ditches. If The Surface Of The Roadway Is Properly Formed And Kept Smooth, The Water Will Be Shed Into The ...

Catch Basins
Catch Basins. The Catch Basin Is A Pit To Receive The Drainage From The Surface Of The Street, In Which Is Deposited The Sand And Other Solid Matter, And From Which The Water Is Discharged Into The Sewer Or Storm-water Drain. A Catch Basin Should Fulfill The Following Conditions: (1). ...

Causes Of Failures Of
Causes Of Failures Of Asphalt Pavements. Asphalt Pavements Have Frequently Failed; But When It Is Remembered That The Industry Is New And Has Been Rapidly Developed, And That There Was No Precedent, And That Therefore The Proportions And The Methods Of Mixing And Laying Had To Be Determined By Actual ...

Cement Sidewalks
Cement Sidewalks. This Is The Term Usually Applied To An Artificial-stone Walk Composed Of A Hydraulic-cement Con Crete Base And A Cement-mortar Top. Such A Construction Is Sometimes Called A Concrete Walk, And Sometimes A Granolithic Walk. Numerous Patents Have From Time To Time Been Issued For Various Details Of ...

Characteristics And Distribution Of
Characteristics And Distribution Of Road-build Ing Rocks. Experience In France And Massachusetts Has Shown That The Results Of The Impact And Abrasion Test Agree Reasonably Well With The Relative Values Of The Stones As Determined By Actual Wear In The Road. The Different Stones Are Arranged In Table 17 Sub ...

Characteristics Of Different Gravels
Characteristics Of Different Gravels. Any Gravel Which Stands Vertical In The Bank, Showing No Signs Of Slipping When Thawing Out In The Spring. Requiring The Use Of The Pick To Dislodge It, And Falling In Large Chunks Or Solid Masses, Is Suffi Ciently Clean And Free From Clay For Use ...

Chemical Composition
Chemical Composition. Asphalt Is Not A Mineral Of Definite Chemical Composition. Generally, It Is A Compound Con Sisting Of Various Hydro-carbons, Which Can Be Separated From Each Other Only With Great Difficulty. Its Chemical Composition When Pure Is: Carbon, 80 To 88 Per Cent; Oxygen, 0.5 To 10 Per Cent; ...

City Bicycle Ways
City Bicycle Ways. The Wheel Being Recognized As A Proper Conveyance And As Entitled To The Use Of The Street Under Reasonable Restrictions, The Question Arises As To What Portion Of The Street The Wheelman Shall Use And Whether Any Special Construction Is Required For Their Accommodation. In Business Districts ...

Coal Tar Pavements
Coal-tar Pavements. Numerous Attempts Have Been Made To Construct A Pavement By The Use Of Coal Tar As A Cementing Material In Place Of Asphalt Or In Conjunction With It. This Form Of Pavement Was Laid Somewhat Extensively In Washington, D. C., From 1872 To 1887. The Earlier Pavements Were ...

Cobble Stone Pavement
Cobble-stone Pavement. A Cobble-stone Pavement Consists Of Cobble Stones Or Small Bowlders Placed Side By Side Upon A Bed Of Sand Or Upon The Natural Soil. Fig. 136 Shows A Transverse Section Of Such A Pavement. The Earliest Pavements In Many Of The Older Amer Ican Cities Were Of This ...

Combined Concrete Curb And
Combined Concrete Curb And Gutter. In Recent Years The Construction Of Combined Concrete Curb And Gutter Built In Place Has Become Very General In The Smaller Cities, And In Resi Dence Districts Of Larger Cities. Such Construction Is Cheap, Dur Able, Efficient, And Good In Appearance. It Is Very Popular ...

Construction
Construction - The Asphaltic Rock Is Quarried, And Then Crushed To About Egg Size By Toothed Rollers. These Pieces Are First Reduced To Powder And Then Sifted To Uniform Fineness. The Powder Is Dropped Through A Hopper Into A Revolving Cylinder Like A Coffee Roaster, Which Is About 61 Feet ...

Construction The Gravelroad
Construction - The Gravel Road The Subgrade For A Gravel Road Should Be Prepared In Sub Stantially The Same Manner As An Earth Road (see Art. 1, Chapter Iii). Indeed A First-class Earth Road Is The Best Foundation For A Gravel Road. Some Writers Advocate A Tile Each Side Of ...

Cost Coal Tar
Cost Coal-tar Construction. The First Cost Of Coal-tar Pave Ments Has Been Only A Trifle Under The Prevailing Prices For Sheet Asphalt Pavements. In Washington D. C., From 1873 To 1878, 745,305 Square Yards Of Coal-tar Pavements Of Various Kinds Were Laid At Prices Ranging From $1.74 To $3.70 Per ...

Cost Of Concrete
Cost Of Concrete. The Cost Of The Materials Varies With The Locality And The Conditions Of The Markets; And Hence It Is Unwise To Cite Examples Or To Attempt Any Generalizations. When The Prices Are Known Estimates May Be Easily Prepared By The Use Of Tables 36 And 37 Or ...

Cost Of Construction Crushed
Cost Of Construction Crushed Stone Road.the Cost Of Construction Of A Crushed-stone Road Varies Greatly With The Size Of The Job, The Con Ditions Of The Material And Labor Markets, The Specifications Under Which The Work Is Done, Etc.; And Any General Statements Must Be Considered Only As Approximate For ...

Cost Of Earthwork
Cost Of Earthwork. Of Necessity, General Estimates Of The Cost Of Earthwork Can Not Be Very Exact, Since The Cost Will Vary With The Condition Of The Soil, The Wages, The Hours Constituting A Day's Work, The Relative Amount Paid For Supervision, The Effective Ness Of The Supervision, The Facilities ...

Cost Of Maintenance Broken Stone
Cost Of Maintenance Broken-stone Roads. The Cost Of Maintenance Varies Greatly With The Quality And Cost Of The Stone Used, The Amount Of Travel Per Unit Of Width, The Climatic Conditions, The Cost Of Labor, The Length Of Time Considered, And The State In Which The Road Is Maintained; And ...

Cost Of Sheet Asphalt
Cost Of Sheet Asphalt Pavements. Any General Statement Of The Cost Of Any Engineering Construction Can Be Only Approximately True In In Any Particular Case, Owing To Variations In Local Conditions, The Prices Of Material And Labor, Etc.; And Any Accurate Statement Concerning The Cost Of Asphalt Pavements Is Rendered ...

Cost Of Wagon Transportation
Cost Of Wagon Transportation. The Chief Financial Advantage Of Hard Roads Is The Decreased Cost Of Transportation. It Is Proposed To Inquire Briefly Concerning The Cost Of Wagon Transportation With A View Of Determining The Proportion Of This Cost That May Be Saved By Road Improvement. In This Connection, A ...

Country Bicycle Paths
Country Bicycle Paths. As A Rule, Country Cycle Paths Are Chiefly For Pleasure Riding, And The Money Available For Their Construction Is Limited; And Consequently The Severest Economy Must Be Employed. A Country Cycle Path May Be Anything From A Narrow Strip Of Turf Worn Smooth By The Passage Of ...

Cross Section Of Side Hill
Cross Section Of Side-hill Streets. The Arrange Ment Of The Cross Section Of A Street Upon A Side Hill Is A Matter Re Quiring Good Judgment, That Needless Damage May Not Be Done To The Abutting Property Or That The General Appearance Of The Street May Not Be Uselessly Sacrificed. ...

Crushing The Stone
Crushing The Stone. The Introduction Of A Machine For Breaking The Material Greatly Cheapened The Cost Of Broken Stone Roads. The Rock Crusher Was Introduced Into America In 1860, Before Which Time The Stone Was Broken By Hand With Ham Mers On The Side Of The Road. Coincident With The ...

Curbs And Gutters
Curbs And Gutters. A Curb Is A Plank Or Slab Of Stone Set At The Edge Of The Roadway To Protect The Sidewalk Or Tree Space And To Form The Side Of The Gutter. Curbs Are Not Usually Set Except Where The Street Is Paved, But They Greatly Improve The ...

Cushion Layer Brick
Cushion Layer - Brick This Is A Layer Of Sand Between The Foun Dation And The Wearing Course Of Brick, To Secure A Uniform Bearing For The Latter. The Proper Thickness Of This Layer Will Depend Upon The Regularity Of The Upper Surface Of The Concrete Foundation And Also Upon ...

Destructive Agents
Destructive Agents. Water. Water Is The Natural Enemy Of Good Earth Roads. The Chief Object Of Maintenance Should Be To Keep The Surface Smooth And Properly Crowned So That Rain Will Be Shed Into The Side Ditches. These Should Be Kept Open So That The Water May Be Carried Entirely ...

Distribution Of Gravel
Distribution Of Gravel. The Gravel Beds Of The Glacial Drift Furnish Excellent Road-making Materials. The Glacial Ice Sheet, Often A Mile Or More Thick, Covered New England And Canada And All Of The United States North Of An Irregular Line Start Ing On The Atlantic Coast A Little South Of ...

Drainage At Street Intersection
Drainage At Street Intersection. In Most Cities It Is Customary To Construct Catch Basins At The Corner Of The Curb, Using An Inlet With A Curved Face. This Practice Is Very Objec Tionable. If The Walk Across The Street Is Elevated Above The Pavement, It Is Necessary Either To Carry ...

Earthwork Preparation Ofthe
Earthwork - Preparation Of The Subgrade. The Machinery Employed In Making Exca Vations And Embankments For Pavements Is Practically The Same As That Used In Constructing Earth Roads—see § 135-44. In Making Embankments Great Care Should Be Taken To Com Pact Them Solid—see Shrinkage Of Earthwork (§ 127), Settlement Of ...

Economic Value Of A
Economic Value Of A Gravel Surface. The Value To A Community Of Covering An Earth Road With Gravel Is A Subject The Discussion Of Which Leads Different Persons To Widely Different Conclusions, These Depending Upon The Point Of View And Upon The Data Assumed. The Advantage Of A Gravel Surface ...

Economics Of The Stone
Economics Of The Stone Road. For A Few Remarks On The Advantage Of A Permanently Hard Road Surface, See § 265, Which Statements Concerning Gravel Roads Apply With Equal Force To Stone Roads. There Is A Certain Financial Advantage In A Crushed-stone Road, But Whether Its Construction Will Be True ...

Equestrian Roads
Equestrian Roads. Equestrian Roads Or Saddle Paths Are Ways Designed Especially For Horse-back Riding. Constructing A Wide Bridle Path, It May Be Necessary To Form The Subgrade And Lay Tile As Shown In Fig. 69; But Ordinarily This Is Not Required, One Of The Constructions Described Below Being Sufficient. If ...

Estimated Cost Of Bad
Estimated Cost Of Bad Roads. Most Of The Current Literature On Good-road Economics Greatly Exaggerates The Financial Advantage Of Road Improvement. Three Such Estimates Will Be Examined. Annum. "the Hard Roads Stiffen Up A Horse." The Cost Of Keeping A Horse Shod Is Considerably More With Stone Than With Earth ...

Excavation And Embankment
Excavation And Embankment. Side Slopes. The Angle Of The Slopes Of The Cuts And Fills Is Designated By The Ratio Of The Horizontal To The Vertical Distance. Thus, If The Face Of The Fill Has An Inclination Of 11 Feet Horizontal To 1 Foot Vertical, The Slope Is Designated As ...

Filling Trenches Preparationof
Filling Trenches - Preparation Of The The Back-filling Of Trenches Opened To Lay Water And Gas Pipes, To Make House Connection To Sewers, Etc., So That The Road Surface Shall Be Restored To Its Former Level And Remain So, Is A Matter Of Importance On Both Paved And Un Paved ...

Filling The Joints
Filling The Joints. After The Blocks Have Been Rammed, The Joints Are Swept Full Of Pebbles. For Ordinary Stone Blocks, It Is Usually Specified That The Pebbles Shall Pass A Sieve Having A Finch Mesh And Be Retained By A Finch Mesh. If The Pebbles Are Too Small, They Will ...

Financial Value Of Road
Financial Value Of Road Improvement. It Is Not Possible To Present Any Valuable General Conclusions As To The Saving In Cost Of Transportation Attainable By Any Proposed Road Improvement. For Any Particular Road Where The Traffic Is Principally By " Freighters " As Defined In § 5, It Is Possible ...

Forms Of Construction Broken Stone
Forms Of Construction - Broken-stone With Reference To The Method Of Preparing The Subgrade To Receive The Stone, There Are Two Forms Of Construction—surface Construction And Trench Construction. The Surface Construction Consists Simply In Placing A Layer Of Broken Stone Upon The Former Earth Road And Leaving It To Be ...