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COST OF EARTHWORK. Of necessity, general estimates of the cost of earthwork can not be very exact, since the cost will vary with the condition of the soil, the wages, the hours constituting a day's work, the relative amount paid for supervision, the effective ness of the supervision, the facilities for preventing one part of the crew from interfering with the work of another, the proper adjust ment of the number of shovelers per cart * or of scraper holders to scrapers, etc. The following data have been checked by engineers and contractors of wide experience and are believed to be reason ably reliable.

In the analysis of the cost of earthwork to follow, the price for a man will be assumed to be $1.50 per day of 10 hours, and that for a team and driver $3.50 per day. These are the usual wages paid by contractors, which are the prices to be considered here; for if the work is done under the labor-tax system ordinary estimates will not apply (see § 52-53), and if the farmer hires out to do the work of a teamster he usually demands the ordinary pay for that class of work. These are about the prices that have been estab lished for a number of years in a number of states. Of course wages may be a little more when work is being rushed, or a little less when work is Scarce.

In hard soil requiring an extra team and hence another driver, add one half to the above prices.

per day, which is a cost of about 3 cents per cubic yard; and the manufacturers claim that it can be done for about half this sum.

A contractor in sandy prairie soil with fourteen horses and four men loaded 100 cubic yards per hour as a maximum and 60 as an average, the cost being as follows: 7 two-horse teams at $2.50 each plus 2 drivers at $2.00 each plus 1 operator at $2.00 and 1 at $2.50 —$29.50, which for an average of 600 cubic yards is per, clay equiv alent to 4.9 cents per cubic yard. Ordinarily the cost of depositing earth direct in the embankment with an elevating grader varies from 6f cents to 8i cents, exclusive of interest, depreciation, and administration.