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Classification of the Stones

class, joints, squared and dressed


All the stones used in building are divided into three classes according to the finish of the surface, viz.: 1. Rough stones that are used as they come from the quarry. 2. Stones roughly squared and dressed. 3. Stones accurately squared and finely dressed.

Unsquared Stones. This class covers all stones which are used as they come from the quarry without other preparation than the removal of very acute angles and excessive projections from the general figure.

Squared Stones. This class covers all stones that are roughly squared and roughly dressed on beds and joints. The dressing is usually done with the face hammer or axe, or in soft stones with the tooth hammer. In gneiss, hard limestones, etc., it may be necessary to use the point. The distinction between this class and the third lies in the degree of closeness of the joints. Where the dressing on the joints is such that the distance between the general planes of the surfaces of adjoining stones is one-half inch or more, the stones prop erly belong to this class.

Three subdivisions of this class may be made, depending on the character of the face of the stones.

(a) Quarry-faced or Rock-faced stones are those whose faces are left untouched as they come from the quarry.

(b) Pitched-faced stones are those on which the arris is clearly defined by a line beyond which the rock is cut away by the pitching chisel, so as to give edges that are approximately true.

(c) Drafted 'stones are those on which the face is surrounded by a chisel draft, the space inside the draft being left rough. Ordinarily, however, this is done only on stones in which the cutting of the joints is such as to exclude them from this class.

In ordering stones of this class the specifications should always state the width of the bed and end joints which are expected, and also how far the surface of the face may project beyond the plane of the edge. In practice the projection varies between 1 inch and 6 inches. It should also be specified whether or not the faces are to be drafted.

Cut Stones. This class covers all squared stones with smoothly dressed beds and joints. As a rule, all the edges of cut stones are drafted, and between the drafts the stone is smoothly dressed. The face, however, is often left rough where construction is massive. The stones of this class are frequently termed "dimension" stone or "dimension" work.