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Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building : A General Reference Work (1912)

000 X 7 3
(3,000 X 7) + (3,000 X 17.5) + (1,500x 28)—(6,000 X 28) Or F,"— 7 = — 7,500 The Minus Sign Means That Is A Push, Hence The Member 24 Is Under Compression Of 7,500 Pounds, A Result Agreeing With That Previously Found. 2. It Is Required To Find The ...

111scellaneous
111scellaneous Cerlents. Slag Cements Are Those Formed By An Admixture Of Slaked Lime With Ground Blast-furnace Slag. The Slag Used Has Approximately The Composition Of An Hydraulic Cement, Being Composed Mainly Of Silica And Alumina, And Lacking A Proper Proportion Of Lime To Render It Active As A Cement. In ...

3 V
V, = - 3,080 V, =-f4,070 V„" = -3,250 Ans. -• V, = - 3,620 V„ =+3,530 V„ = -3,790 V, = - 4,160 =- +2,990 4,330 V, = - 4,700 Lir„ = +2,450 V,„' = - 4,870 V, = - 5,240 = + 1,910 V„"= 0 +6,690 V„ 1,370 ...

7
(7- T — 3 X X X 12,000 = 31,500 Pounds; 3 6 X 0.7854 X (4 X 7,500 = 19,880 Pounds ; 1 3 T 6 X X X 15,000 = 33,750 Pounds. Since Is The Least Of These Three Values, The Strength Of The Joint Depends On The ...

Abcda
Abcda And The Arrowheads On Cd And Da Must Point As Shown. Cd (1.25 Inches = 7,500 Pounds) Represents The Force Exerted On Joint (2) By 24; Since It Acts Toward The Joint The Force Is A Push And Member 2 T Is In Compression. Da (0.43 Inches = 2,580 ...

Analysis Of Trusses
Analysis Of Trusses; " Riethod Of Joints." 18. Trusses. A Truss Is A Frame Work Used Principally To Support Loads As In Roofs And Bridges. Fig. 16, 25, 26 And 27 Represent Several Forms Of Trusses. The Separate Bars Or Rods, 12, 23, Etc. (fig. 16) Are Called Members Of ...

Analysis Of Trusses Continued
Analysis Of Trusses (continued) ; Method Of Sections. 38. Forces In Tension And Compression Members. As Ex Plained In " Strength Of Materials " If A Member Is Subjected To Forces, Any Two Adjacent Parts Of It Exert Forces Upon Each Other Which Hold The Parts Together. Figs. 38 (a) ...

Artificial Stones
Artificial Stones. Brick Is An Artificial Stone Made By Submitting Clay, Which Has Been Suitably Prepared And Moulded Into Shape, To A Temperature Of Sufficient Intensity To Convert It Into A Semi-vitrified State. The Quality Of The Brick Depends Upon The Kind Of Clay Used And Upon The Care Bestowed ...

Ashlar Masonry
Ashlar Masonry. Ashlar Masonry Consists Of Blocks Of Stone Cut To Regular Figures, Generally Rectangular, And Built In Courses Of Uniform Height Or Rise, Which Is Seldom Less Than A Foot. Size Of The Stones. In Order That The Stones May Not Be Liable To Be Broken Across, No Stone ...

Beams Stiffness Of Rods
Stiffness Of Rods, Beams, And Shafts. The Preceding Discussions Have Related To The Strength Of Materials. We Shall Now Consider Principally The Elongation, Oy Rods, Deflection, Of Beams, And Twist Of Shafts. 95. Coefficient Of Elasticity. • According To Hooke's Law (art. 9, P. 7), The Elongations Of A Rod ...

Bridge Abutments
Bridge Abutments. Form. There Are Four Forms Of Abutment In Use, They Are Named According To Their Form As The Straight Abutment, The Wing Abutment, The U Abutment And The T Abutment. The Form To Be Adopted For Any Particular Case Will Depend Upon The Location—whether The Banks Are Low ...

Bridge Piers
Bridge Piers. The Thickness Of A Pier For Simply Supporting The Weight Of The Superstructure Need Be But Very Little At The Top, Care Being Taken To Secure A Sufficient Bearing At The Foundation. Piers Should Be Thick Enough, However, To Resist Shocks And Lateral Strains, Not Only From A ...

Cementing Materials
Cementing Materials. Composition. All The Cementing Materials Employed In Build Ings Are Produced By The Burning Of Natural Or Artificial Mixtures Of Limestone With Clay Or Siliceous Material. The Active Substances In This Process And The Ones Which Are Necessary For The Production Of A Cement, Are The Burned Lime, ...

Center Of Gravity And
Center Of Gravity And Tioment Of Inertia. It Wilt Be Shown Later That The Strength Of A Beam Depends Partly On The Form Of Its Cross-section. The Following Discussion Relates Principally To Cross-sections Of Beams, And The Results Reached (like Shear And Bending Moment) Will Be Made Use Of Later ...

Centering For Arches
Centering For Arches. No Arch Becomes Self-supporting Until Keyed Up, That Is, Until The Crown Or Keystone Course Is Laid. Until That Time The Arch Ring, Which Should Be Built Up Simultaneously From Both Abutments, Has To Be Supported By Frames Called Centers. These Consist Of A Series Of Ribs ...

Classification Of The Stones
Classification Of The Stones. All The Stones Used In Building Are Divided Into Three Classes According To The Finish Of The Surface, Viz.: 1. Rough Stones That Are Used As They Come From The Quarry. 2. Stones Roughly Squared And Dressed. 3. Stones Accurately Squared And Finely Dressed. Unsquared Stones. ...

Clay Puddle
Clay Puddle. Clay Puddle Is A Mass Of Clay And Sand Worked Into A Plastic Condition With Water. It Is Used For Filling Coffer-dams, For Making Embankments And Reservoirs Water-tight, And For Protecting Masonry Against The Penetration Of Water From Behind. Quality Of Clay. The Clays Best Suited For Puddle ...

Composition Of Non Concurrent Forces
Composition Of Non-concurrent Forces. 30. Graphical Composition. As In Composition Of Concurrent Systems, We First Compound Any Two Of The Forces By Means Of The Triangle Law (art. 9), Then Compound The Resultant Of These Two Forces With The Third, Then Compound The Resultant Of The First Three With The ...

Concrete Steel Masonry
Concrete Steel Masonry. Concrete In The Form Of Blocks Made At A Factory, And Concrete Formed In Place And Reinforced By Steel Rods And Bars Of Differing Shapes Is Being Substituted In Many Situations For Stone And Brick Masonry. For The Construction Of Bridges And Floors It Is Extensively Employed. ...

Concrete With Steel Bemis
Concrete With Steel Bemis. The Foundation Is Prepared By First Laying A Bed Of Concrete To A Depth Of From 4 To 12 Inches And Then Placing Upon It A Row Of I-beams At Right Angles To The Face Of The Wall. In The Case Of Heavy Piers, The Beams ...

Concurrent Forces In Equilibrium
Concurrent Forces In Equilibrium. 15. Condition Of Equilibrium Defined. By Condition Of Equilibrium Of A System Of Forces Is Meant A Relation Which They Must Fulfill In Order That They May Be In Equilibrium Or A Relation Which They Fulfill When They Are In Equilibrium. In Order That Any System ...

Culverts
Culverts. Culverts Are Employed For Conveying Under A Railroad, Highway, Or Canal The Small Streams Crossed. They May Be Of Stone, Brick, Con Crete, Earthenware, Or Iron Pipe Or Any Of These In Combination. Two General Forms Of Masonry Culverts Are In Use, The Box And The Arch. Box Culverts. ...

Definition Of Terms Used
Definition Of Terms Used In Stone Cutting. Axed : Dressed To A Plane Surface With An Axe. Boasted Or Chiselled : Having Face Wrought With A Chisel Or Narrow Tool. Broached : Dressed With A "punch" After Being Droved. Bush Hammered : Dressed With A Bush Hammer. Crandalled : Wrought ...

Definitions Of Parts Of
Definitions Of Parts Of Arches. Abutment: The Outer Wall That Supports The Arch, And Which Connects It To The Adjacent Banks. Arch Sheeting : The Voussoirs Which Do Not Show At The End Of The Arch. Camber Is A Slight Rise Of An Arch, As To Inch Per Foot Of ...

Definitions Of The Terms
Definitions Of The Terms Used In Masonry. Abutment: (1) That Portion Of The Masonry Of A Bridge Or Dam Upon Which The Ends Rest, And Which Connects The Superstruc Ture With The Adjacent Banks. (2) A Structure That Receives The Lateral Thrust Of An Arch. Arris: The External Angle Or ...

Description Of Arches
Description Of Arches. Be Finished Before The Next Is Commenced; Also That Each Course Be Bonded Throughout The Length Of The Arch, ‘and That The Ring Joint Should Be Of A Regular Thickness. For If One Ring Is Built With A Thin Joint And Another With A Thick One The ...

Designing The Footing
Designing The Footing. The Term Footing Is Usually Understood As Meaning The Bottom Course Or Courses Of Concrete, Timber, Iron, Or Masonry Employed To Increase The Area Of The Base Of The Walls, Piers, Etc. What Ever The Character Of The Soil, Footings Should Extend Beyond The Fall Of The ...

Designing The Foundation
Designing The Foundation. Load To Be Supported. The First Step Is To Ascertain The Load To Be Supported By The Foundation. This Load Consists Of Three Parts: (1) The Structure Itself, (2) The Movable Loads On The Floors And The Snow On The Roof, And (3) The Part Of The ...

Equilibrium Of Non Concurrent Forces
Equilibrium Of Non-concurrent Forces. 35. Conditions Of Equilibrium Of Non-concurrent Forces Not Parallel May Be Stated In Various Ways; Let Us Consider Four. First: 1. The Algebraic Sums Of The Components Of The Forces Along Each Of Two Lines At Right Angles To Each Other Equal Zero. 2. The Algebraic ...

External Shear And Bending
External Shear And Bending Moment. On Almost Every Cross-section Of A Loaded Beam There Are Three Kinds Of Stress, Namely Tension, Compression And Shear. The First Two Are Often Called Fibre Stresses Because They Act Along The Real Fibres Of A Wooden Beam Or The Imaginary Ones Of Which We ...

Foundations
Foundations. The Foundation Is The Most Critical Part Of A Masonry Structure. The Failures Of Masonry Work Due To Faulty Workmanship Or To An Insufficient Thickness Of The Walls Are Rare In Comparison With Those Due To Defective Foundations. When It Is Necessary, As So Frequently It Is At The ...

Gbchg
Gbchg Is The Polygon For The Joint, And Since Bc Acts Down (see The Polygon) Ch Acts Up And Hg Down. Therefore, Place The Proper Arrowheads On Eh And Hg Near (3), And Record That The Stresses In Those Members Are Compressive And Tensile Respectively. Measuring, We Find That Ch ...

General Rules For Building
General Rules For Building Brick Masonry. 1. Reject All Misshapen And Unsound Bricks. 2. Cleanse The Surface Of Each Brick, And Wet It Thoroughly Before Laying It, In Order That It May Not Absorb The Moisture Of The Mortar Too Quickly. 3. Place The Beds Of The Courses Perpendicular, Or ...

General Rules For Laying
General Rules For Laying All Classes Of Stone Masonry. 1. Build The Masonry, As Far As Possible, In A Series Of Courses, Perpendicular, Or As Nearly So As Possible, To The Direction Of The Pres Sure Which They Have To Bear, And By Breaking Joints Avoid All Long Continuous Joints ...

Ii Concurrent Forces Composition
Ii. Concurrent Forces; Composition And Resolution. 9. Graphical Composition Of Two Concurrent Forces. If Two Forces Are Represented In Magnitude And Direction By Ab And Bc (fig. 3), The Magnitude And Direction Of Their Resultant Is Represented 6y Ac. This Is Known As The "triangle Law." The Line Of Action ...

Manufacture Of Brick
Manufacture Of Brick. The Manufacture Of Brick May Be Classified Under The Following Heads: Excavation Of The Clay, Either By Manual Or Mechanical Power. Preparation Of The Clay Consists In (a) Removing Stones And Me Chanical Impurities; (b) Tempering And Moulding, Which Is Now Done Almost Wholly By Machinery. There ...

Methods Of Finishing The
Methods Of Finishing The Faces Of Cut Stone. In Architecture There Are A Great Many Ways In Which The Faces Of Cut Stone May Be Dressed, But The Following Are Those That Will Be Usually Met In Engineering Work. Rough Pointed. When It Is Necessary To Remove An Inch Or ...

Mortar
Mortar. Ordinary Mortar Is Composed Of Lime And Sand Mixed Into A Paste With Water. When Cement Is Substituted For The Lime, The Mixture Is Called Cement Mortar. Uses. The Use Of Mortar In Masonry Is To Bind Together The Bricks Or Stones, To Afford A Bed Which Prevents Their ...

Pile Foundations
Pile Foundations. Timber Piles Are Generally Round, The Diameter At The Butt Varying From 9 To 18 Inches. They Should Be Straight-grained And As Free From Knots As Possible. The Variety Of Timber Is Usually Selected According To The Character Of The Soil. Where The Piles Will Be Always Under ...

Portland Cement
Portland Cement. Portland Cement Is Produced By Burning, With A Heat Of Suf Ficient Intensity And Duration To Induce Incipient Vitrification, Certain Argillaceous Limestones, Or Calcareous Clays, Or An Artificial Mixture Of Carbonate Of Lime And Clay, And Then Reducing The Burnt Material To Powder By Grinding. Fully 95 Per ...

Preparation Of The Materials
Preparation Of The Materials. Stone Cutting. Dressing The Stones. The Stonecutter Examines The Rough Blocks As They Come From The Quarry In Order To Determine Whether The Blocks Will Work To Better Advantage As A Header, A Stretcher, Or A Cornerstone. Having Decided For Which Purpose The Stone Is Suited, ...

Proportions Of
Proportions Of Flaterials For Concrete. To Manufacture One Cubic Yard Of Concrete The Following Quan Tities Of Materials Are Required: Broken-stone 50% Of Its Bulk Voids 1 Cubic Yard Gravel To Fill Voids In The Stone. . Sand To Fill Voids In The Gravel Cement To Fill Voids In The ...

Repair Of Masonry
Repair Of Masonry. In Effecting Repairs In Masonry, When New Work Is To Be Con Nected With Old, The Mortar Of The Old Must Be Thoroughly Cleaned Off Along The Surface Where The Junction Is To Be Made And The Surface Thoroughly Wet. The Bond And Other Arrangements Will Depend ...

Requisites For Good Building
Requisites For Good Building Stone. The Requisites For Good Building Stone Are Durability, Strength, Cheapness, And Beauty. Durability. The Durability Of Stone Is A Subject Upon Which There Is Very Little Reliable Knowledge. The Durability Will Depend Upon The Chemical Composition, Physical Structure, And The Position In Which The Stone ...

Retaining Walls
Retaining Walls. A Retaining Wall Is A Wall Built For The Purpose Of "retaining" Or Holding Up Earth Or Water. In Engineering Practice Such Walls Attain Frequently Large Proportions, Being Used In The Construction Of Railroads, Docks, Waterworks, Etc. The Form Of Cross-section Varies Considerably According To Cir Cumstances, And ...

Riveted Joints
Riveted Joints. Mo. Kinds Of Joints. A Lap Joint Is One In Which The Plates Or Bars Joined Overlap Each Other, As In Fig. 58, A. A Butt Joint Is One In Which The Plates Or Bars That Are Joined Butt Against Each Other, As In Fig. 58, B. The ...

Rubble Masonry
Rubble Masonry. Masonry Composed Of Unsquared Stones Is Called Rubble. This Class Of Masonry Covers A Wide Range Of Construction, From The Com Monest Kind Of Dry-stone Work To A Class Of Work Composed Of Large Stones Laid In Mortar. It Comprises Two Classes: (1) Uncoursed Rub Ble, In Which ...

Statics
Statics, This Subject, Called Statics, Is A Branch Of Mechanics. It Deals With Principles Relating Especially To Forces Which Act Upon Bodies At Rest, And With Their Useful Applications. There Are Two Quite Different Methods Of Carrying On The Discussions And Computations. In One, The Quantities Under Con Sideration Are ...

Strength Of Beams 56
Strength Of Beams.. 56. Kinds Of Loads Considered. The Loads That Are Applied To A Horizontal Beam Are Usually Vertical, But Sometimes Forces Are Applied Otherwise Than At Right Angles To Beams. Forces Acting On Beams At Right Angles Are Called Transverse Forces; Those Applied Parallel To A Beam Ure ...

Strength Of Columns
Strength Of Columns. A Stick Of Timber, A Bar Of Iron, Etc., When Used To Sustain End Loads Which Act Lengthwise Of The Pieces, Are Called Columns, Posts, Or Struts If They Are So Long That They Would Bend Before Breaking. When They Are So Short That They Would Not ...

Strength Of Materials 91
Strength Of Materials 91 On The Concave Side And Tensile On The Convex. The Value Of The Stress Per Unit-area (unit-stress) On The Fibre At The Concave Side, According To Equation 6, Is Mc ÷. I, Where M Denotes The Bending Moment At The Section (due To The Load On ...

Strength Of Materials Simple
Strength Of Materials - Simple Stress - Materials - Statics - Masonry. Sents A Loaded Post, And Fig. 2 (b) The Upper And Lower Parts. The Upper Part Presses Down On B, And The Lower Part Presses Up On A, As Shown. P Or Q Is The' Compressive Stress In ...

Strength Of Materials Under
Strength Of Materials Under Simple Stress. 13. Materials In Tension. Practically The Only Materials Used Extensively Under Tension Are Timber, Wrought Iron And Steel, And To Some Extent Cast Iron. 14. Timber. A Successful Tension Test Of Wood Is Difficult, As The Specimen Usually Crushes At The Ends When Held ...