FREEHAND DRAWING - MATERIALS REQUIRED.
The principal dimensions in inches are indicated on the model' plate. All dimensions and proportions should however be determined by the eye alone. Measurements may be used as a test after the squares are laid in. The figures on the left should be executed first, in order to avoid rubbing by the hand and sleeve.
Figs. 1, 2,.3, 4, 5 are motives from Egyptian painted decoration. Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5 are all derived from or suggested by patterns pro duced by plaiting or wearing. The borders of Fig. 3 are derived from bundles of reeds bound together.
As all the figures are large and simple, they should be executed with a rather wide line drawn with the F pencil. Draw the construc tion lines on this and on all other plates where they are necessary, so lightly that they can be perfectly erased without leaving any indenta tion in the paper. After the construction lines are drawn out in Figs. 4 and 5, strengthen the lines of the pattern. In erasing, much of the pattern will be removed. This time go over each line with a single stroke of the solid ink pencil. Do not turn the paper in drawing diagonal and vertical lines. They are given especially to train the hand to execute such lines. By turning the paper the exercise be comes one of draWing horizontal lines, which are the least difficult.
Fig. 6 is the skeleton of a very common type of ornament con sisting of curved lines radiating from a point at the base, on either side of a central axis.
Fig. 1 is the basis of a large class of ornament founded on the lines of organic growth, called scrolls or meanders.
Fig. 2 is an Egyptian border consisting of alternate flower and bud forms of the lotus, the most typical and universal of all the Egyp tian decorative units. The outline of the flower displays the Egyp tian feeling for subtlety and refinement of curve. Observe how the short rounded curve of the base passes into a long subtle curve which becomes almost straight and terminates in a short full turn at the end.
Fig. 3 is a simple form of the guilloche (pronounced gheeyoche), a motive which first becomes common in Assyrian decoration and is afterward incorporated into all the succeeding styles.
Fig. 4 is the skeleton of a border motive where the units are dis posed on either side of the long axis of the border.
Figs. 5 and 7 are varieties of the Greek anthemcum or honey suckle pattern, one of the most subtle and perfect of all ornamental forms. Observe in Fig. 5 the quality of the curves—the contrast of full rounded parts with long curves almost straight which characterize the Egyptian lotus. Note in both examples that there is a regular ratio of increase both in the size of the lobes and in the spaces between each, from the lowest one up to the center. It is invariably the rule that each lobe shall. be continued to the base without touching its neighbor.
Fig. 6 is an Egyptian " all-over " or repeating pattern painted on wall surfaces. It is made up of continuous circles filled with lotus forms and the intervening spaces with buds.
This plate is to contain nine outline drawings illustrating Rules 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20. The drawings may be made and cor rected on the slate and then copied on to the paper or they may be drawn directly on the paper. They may be from the models or from simple geometric objects such as boxes, blocks, cups, pans, plates, spools, flower pots, bottles, etc.
thos, was used to hold oil, Fig. 2, the Kantheros, is one form of the drinking cup, and Fig. 3, the Hydria, for pouring water.
The drawing of these vases includes a great variety of beautiful curves. They are to be executed entirely in outline, and both con tours and bands of ornament and the relative sizes of each are to be preserved.
CalcUlate the heights so that the bases shall each be one inch from above the border line and the upper point of Fig. 3 about one inch below the border line. In sketching them in, first place a con struction line to represent the central axis. Across this, sketch the outlines of the horizontal bands and then sketch the contours, follow ing the general directions given in Sections 21 and 25. Remember that lines are to be drawn lightly and corrections made by new lines and not by erasures. Use the arm movement as much as possible in drawing the curves. Before executing the examination paper, prac tice drawing each vase entirely without corrections of the lines.