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# Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building : A General Reference Work (1912)

1 Freehand Drawing
Freehand Drawing, 1. The Value Of Freehand Drawing To An Architect. Out Side Of Its General Educational Value Freehand Drawing Is As Abso. Lutely Essential To The Trained Architect As It Is To The Professional Painter. It Is Obviously Necessary For The Representation Of All Except The Most Geometric Forms ...

Shades And Shadows, 1. The Drawings Of Which An Architect Makes Use Can Be Divided Into Two General Kinds: Those For Designing The Building And Illustrating To The Client Its Scheme And Appearance; And "working Drawings" Which, As Their Name Implies, Are The Draw Ings From Which The Building Is ...

1 When
1. When Any Object In Space Is Being Viewed, Rays Of Light Are Reflected From All Points Of Its Visible Surface, And Enter The Eye Of The Observer. These Rays Of Light Are Called Visual Rays. They Strike Upon The Sensitive Membrane, Called The Retina, Of The Eye, And Form ...

Apparent Distortion 114
Apparent Distortion. 114. there Seems To Exist In The Minds Of Some Beginners In The Study Of Perspective, The Idea That The Drawing Of An Object Made In Accordance With Geometrical Rules May Differ Essentially From The Appearance Of The Object In Nature.  Such An Idea Is Erroneous, However. ...

Curves 112
Curves. 112. Perspective Is Essentially A Science Of Straight Lines. If Curved Lines Occur In A Problem, The Simplest Way To Find Their Perspective Is To Refer The Curves To Straight Lines. If The Curve Is Of Simple, Regular Form, Such As A Circle Or An Ellipse, It May Be ...

Doric Order 49
Doric Order. 49. There Are Two Styles Of The Doric Order, The Denticular Order And The Alutular Order. The Difference Between These Two Styles Is Purely Decorative And Will Be Explained In The Course Of This Analysis.  50. The Doric Column, More Elegant Than That Of The Tuscan Order, ...

Elementary Problems
Elementary Problems. To Find The Perspective Of A Point. The Point To Be Situated Behind The Picture Plane, And A" Above The Plane Of The Horizon. The Observer's Eye To Be A" In Front Of The Picture Plane. First Assume Iipp And Vii (§ 40). These Lines May Be Drawn ...

Freehand Drawing Materialsrequired
Freehand Drawing - Materials Required. The Principal Dimensions In Inches Are Indicated On The Model' Plate. All Dimensions And Proportions Should However Be Determined By The Eye Alone. Measurements May Be Used As A Test After The Squares Are Laid In. The Figures On The Left Should Be Executed First, ...

Freehand Perspective
Freehand Perspective. To. The Horizon Line Or Eye Level This, As The Name Implies, Is An Imaginary Horizontal Line On A Level With The Eye. It Is Of Great Importance In Representation, As All Objects Appear To Change Their Shape As They Are Seen Above Or Below The Horizon Line. ...

Intercolumniation 107
Intercolumniation. 107. Intercolumniation Is The Spacing Of Columns In The Clear, Especially Of Columns Arranged In The Form Of A Colonnade. When A Figured Dimension Refers To The Spacing It Is Invariably One Diameter Less Than The Distance From Center To Center Of Columns. 108. Superposition Has Reference To The ...

Lines Of Measures 55
Lines Of Measures. 55. Any Line Which Lies In The Picture Plane Will Be Its Own Perspective, And Show The True Length Of The Line (24 It). Such A Line Is Called A Line Of Measures. In The Last Problem,. The Line Ae, Being In The Picture Plane, Was A ...

Method Of The Revolved
Method Of The Revolved Plan. To Find The Perspective Of A Rectangular Block Resting Upon A Horizontal Plane 1" Below The Level Of The Eye, And Turned So That The Long Side Of The Block Makes An Angle Of 30° With The Picture Plane. The Block Is Shown In Plan ...

Note
Note. As A General Ride, It Is Well To Assume The Station Point On A Vertical Line Half Way Between Two Lines Dropped From The Extreme Edges Of The Diagram, As Indicated. This Is Not Necessary, But, As Will Be Explained Later, It Usually Insures A More Pleasing Perspective Projection. ...

Note_2
Note. - This Is True Of All Lines In An Object Which Are Parallel To The Picture Plane. Thus, The Perspective Of Any Line Which Is Parallel To The Picture Plane, Will Actually Be Parallel To The Line Itself ; And The Perspectives Of The Elements Of A System Of ...

Note_3
Note:  The Vanishing Point For The Base Of The Isosceles Triangle Always Becomes The Measure Point For The Side Of The Isosceles Triangle Which Does Not Lie In Hpp. 96. All Lines Belonging To The Same System Will Have The Same Measure Point. Thus, If The Line Be, Which ...

Note_4
Note.  In Accordance With The Construction Shown In Fig. 26, Spv Will Always Lie Between The Vanishing Point'of A System And Its Measure Point. 99. The Measure Point Of Any System Of Lines Is Usually De Noted By A Small Letter M With An Index Corresponding To Its Re ...

Note_5
Note. - The True Length Of Any Line-which Extends In Front Of The Picture Plane Will Be Shorter Than The Perspective, Of The Line. 105. Having Determined The Perspective Of Any Line, As Drep, Its True Length May Be Determined By Drawing Measure Lines Through D" And Cr. The Distance ...

Parallel Or One Point Perspective
Parallel Or One-point Perspective. 79. When The Diagram Of An Object Is Placed With One Of Its Principal Systems Of Horizontal Lines Parallel To The Picture Plane, It Is Said To Be In Parallel Perspective. This Is Illustrated In Fig. 24, By The Rectangular Block There Shown. One System Of ...

Perspective Drawing
Perspective Drawing. The View To Be Shown Is Indicated By The Diagram. The Station Point Is To Be At Inches In Front Of The Picture 'plane. The Position Of Spv Is Given. The Perspective Projection Is To Rest Upon A Horizontal Plane -2 Inches Below The Level Of The Eye. ...

Shadows Of Lines. 26. Problem Ii. To Find The Shadow Of A Given Line On A Given Plane. A Straight Line Is Made Up Of A Series Of Points. Rays Of Light Passing Through All Of These Points Would Form A Plane Of Light. The Intersection Of This Plane Of ...

Shadows Of Solids. 42. The Methods For Finding The Shadows Of Solids Vary With The Nature Of The Given Solid. The Shadows Of Solids Which Are Bounded By Plane Surfaces, None Of Which Are Parallel, Or Perpendicular, To The Co-ordinate Planes, Can In General, Be Found Only By Finding The ...

Short Methods Of Construction
Short Methods Of Construction. 83. The Following Problems Illustrate Short And Convenient Methods Of Construction For Determining The Shadows Of Lines, Stir. Faces And Solids, In The Positions In Which They Commonly Occur In Architectural Drawings. These Methods Here Worked Out With Regard To The Co-ordinate Planes Apply Also To ...

Superposition Of The Orders
Superposition Of The Orders. Floor, Raised On Three Steps, Is Composed Of An Arcade Crowned By An Entablature To Which May Be Applied The Details Of The Tuscan Order. Above This Entablature Is A Tuscan Or A Doric Order With Arches Whose Axes Correspond To Those Of The Lower Arches. ...

The Corinthian Order 82
The Corinthian Order. 82 The Corinthian Is An Elaborately Formal And Dignified Order, And All The Details Which Enter Into Its Composition Will Bear Analyzing With The Greatest Possible Care. 83. The Corinthian Capital (plate Xvii) Is In Form Similar To A Cylindrical Vase Covered By An Abacus With Hollowed ...

The Ionic Order
The Ionic Order.  65. The Ionic Order Is Distinguished Principally By The Form Of Its Capital, Of Which The Spiral Scrolls, Called Volutes (plate X) Are The Most Ingiortant And Determining Characteristic. 66. The Abacus Of The Ionic Capital Is Square; It 'projects Six Parts From The Lower Face ...

The Planes Of Projection
The Planes Of Projection. 26. Two Planes Of Projection At Right Angles To One Another, One Vertical And The Other Horizontal, Are Used In Making A Per Spective. In Fig. 7 These Two Planes Are Shown In Oblique Pro Jection. The Vertical Plane Is The Picture Plane (§ 6 And ...

The Roman Orders
The Roman Orders. Introduction. This Section On The Roman Orders Is Largely An Adaptation And Simplification Of A Work Published In 1870, Entitled "an Analysis Of The Five Orders" By F. Laureys, Architect. And Professor At The Royal Academy And Industrial School Of Brussels. Professor Laureys Has Taken The Standard ...

Tuscan Order 39
Tuscan Order. 39. Although It Has Been Deemed Best To Restrict This Text Book To A Consideration Of The Three Roman Orders Termed The Doric, Ionic And Corinthian, The Simpler Tuscan Order Is Shown Sufficiently In Detail To Enable The Student To Use It In The Exer Cises As Required. ...

Use Of Auxiliary Planes
Use Of Auxiliary Planes. 72. In Finding Shadows On Some Of The Double-curved Sur Faces Of Revolution, Such As The Surface Of .the Spherical Hollow, The Scotia And The Torus, We Can Make Use Of Auxiliary Planes To Advantage, When The Plane Of The Line Whose Shadow Is To Be ...

Use Of Planes Of
Use Of Planes Of Light Perpendicular To The Co-ordinate Planes. 79. Another Method Often Necessary And Convenient In Casting The Shadows Of Double Curved Surfaces Is The Use Of Planes Of Lightperpendiettlar To The Co-ordinate Planes. These Auxiliary Planes Of Light Are Passed Through The Given Object. They Will Cut ...

Vanishing Point Diagram 76
Vanishing Point Diagram. 76. The Somewhat Symmetrical Figure Formed By The Vanish Ing Traces Of All The Planes In The Object, Together With All Vanishing Points, Hpp, And The Vertical And Horizontal Tions Of The Station Point, Is Called The Vanishing Point Diagram Of The Object. 77. Having Found The ...

Vanishing Points Of Oblique
Vanishing Points Of Oblique Lines. 66. The Perspective Of The House In The Last Problem Was Completely Drawn, Using Only The Vanishing Points For The Two Principal Systems Of Horizontal Lines. By This Method It Is Pos Sible To Find .the Perspective Projection Of Any Object. But It Is Often ...