DROP IN ALTERNATING-CURRENT LINES When alternating currents first came into use, when transmission distances were short and the only loads carried were lamps, the ques tion of drop or loss of voltage in the transmitting line was a simple one, and the same methods as for direct current could without serious error be employed in dealing with it. The conditions existing in alternating practice to-day—longer distances, polyphase circuits, and loads made up partly or wholly of induction motors—render this question less simple; and direct-current methods applied to it do not lead to satisfactory results. Any treatment of this or of any engineering subject, if it is to benefit the majority of engineers, must not involve groping through long equations or complex diagrams in search of practical results. The results, if any, must be in avail able and convenient form. In what follows, the endeavor has b'en made to so treat the subject of drop in alternating-current lines that if the reader be grounded in the theory the brief space devoted to it will suffice; but if he do not comprehend or care to follow the simple theory involved, he may nevertheless turn the results to his practical advantage.
Calculation of Drop. Most of the matter heretofore published on the subject of drop treats only of the inter-relation of the E. M. F.'s involved, and, so far as the writer knows, there have not appeared in convenient form the data necessary for accurately calculating this quantity. Table X (page 47) and the chart (page 46) include, in a form suitable for the engineer's pocketbook, everything necessary for calculating the drop of alternating-current lines.
The chart is simply an extension of the vector diagram (Fig. 40). giving the relations of the E. M. F.'s of line, load and generator. In Fig. 40, E is the generator E. M. F.; e, the E. M. F. impressed upon the load; c, that component of E which overcomes the back E. M. F. due to the impedance of the line. The component c is made up of two components at right angles to each other. One is a, the component overcoming the IR or back E. M. F. due to resistance of the line.
The other is b, the component overcoming the reactance E. M. F. or back E. M. F. due to the alternating field set up around the wire by the current in the wire. The drop is the difference between E and e. It is d, the radial distance between two circular arcs, one of which is drawn with a radius e, and the other with a radius E.
The chart is made by striking a succession of circular arcs with 0 as a center.
The radius of the smallest circle cor responds to e, the E. M. F. of the load, which is taken as 100 per cent.
The radii of the suc ceeding circles in crease by 1 per cent of that of the small est circle; and, as the radius of the last or largest cir cle is 140 per cent of that of the smallest, the chart answers for drops up to 40 per cent of the E. M. F. delivered.
The terms resistance volts, resistance E. M. F., reactance volts, and reactance E. M. F., refer, of course, to the voltages for overcom ing the back E. M. F.'s due to resistance and reactance respectively. The figures given in the table under the heading "Resistance-Volts for One Ampere, etc." are simply the resistances of 2,000 feet of the various sizes of wire. The values given under the heading "React ance-Volts, etc.," are, a part of them, calculated from tables published some time ago by Messrs. Houston and Kennelly. The remainder were obtained by using Maxwell's formula.
The explanation given in the table accompanying the chart (Table X) is thought to be a sufficient guide to its use, but a few examples may be of value.
Problem. Power to be delivered, 250 K.W.; E. M. F. to be delivered, 2,000 volts; distance of transmission, 10,000 feet; size of wire, No. 0; distance between wires, 18 inches; power factor of load, .8; frequency, 7,200 alterna tions per minute. Find the line loss and drop.
Remembering that the power factor is that fraction by which the apparent power of volt-amperes must be multiplied to give the true power, the apparent power to be delivered is 250 K.W.