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# Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building : A General Reference Work (1912)

Ab Cd
Ab Cd Show The Elevation Of The Corner On Which A Gore Piece Is Re Quired. H 7' E In Plan Is A Section Through C D, And E F G H Is A Section Through X I, All Projected From The Elevation As Shown. The Profile 1 7 Can ...

Alternating Current Circuits
Alternating-current Circuits It Is Not Within The Province Of This Chapter To Treat The Various Alternating-current Phenomena, But Simply To Outline The Modifications Which Should Be Made In Designing And Calculating Electric Light Wiring, In Order To Make Proper Allowance For These Phenomena. The Most Marked Difference Between Alternating And ...

Approxi Mate Blanks For
Approxi Mate Blanks For Curved Mouldings Hammered By Machine The Principles Employed In Averaging The Profile For A Moulding To Be Rolled Or Hammered By Machine Do Not Differ To Any Material Extent From Those Used In The Case Of Mouldings Hammered By Hand. Fig. 351 Shows The General Method ...

Arc Lamps
Arc Lamps The Electric Arc. Suppose Two Carbon Rods Are Connected In An Electric Circuit, And The Circuit Closed By Touching The Tips Of These Rods Together; On Separating The Carbons Again The Circuit Will Not Be Broken, Provided The Space Between The Carbons Be Not Too Great, But Will ...

Circuits
Circuits. The Possible Combinations Of The Various Parts Into Complete Circuits Are So Varied That It Would Be Impossible To Describe Them All; In Fact, Almost Every One Is To A Certain Extent A Special Problem. It Is, However, Possible To Give Typical Circuits The Underlying Principles Of Which Can ...

Cm X
Cm X V D— 4 Formulæ Are Frequently Given For Calculating Sizes Of Conductors, Etc., Where The Load, Instead Of Being Given In Amperes, Is Stated In Lamps Or In Horse-power. It Is Usually Advisable, However, To Reduce The Load To Amperes, As The Efficiency Of Lamps And Motors Is ...

Concealed Knob And Tube
Concealed Knob And Tube Wiring This Method Of Wiring Is Still Allowed By The National Electric Code, Although Many Vigorous Attempts Have Been Made To Have It Abolished. Each Of These Attempts Has Met With The Strongest Opposition From Contractors And Central Stations, Particularly In Small Towns And Villages, The ...

Cornice Work
Cornice Work There Is No Trade In The Building Line To-day Which Has Made Such Rapid Progress As That Of Sheet-metal Cornice, Or Architectural Sheet Metal Work. It Is Not Very Long Since The General Scope Of This Branch Of Craftsmanship Merely Represented A Tin-shop Business On A Large Scale. ...

Corrugated Iron Roofing And
Corrugated Iron Roofing And Siding Corrugated Iron Is Used For Roofs And Sides Of Buildings. It Is Usually Laid Directly Upon The Purlins In Roofs Constructed As Shown In Figs. 230 And 231, The Former Being Constructed To Receive Sidings Of Corrugated Iron, While In The Latter Figure The Side ...

Cut Out Panels Outlet Boxes
Outlet-boxes, Cut-out Panels, And Other Accessories Outlet-boxes. Before The Introduction Of Iron Conduits, Outlet Boxes Were Considered Unnecessary, And With A Few Exceptions Were Not Used, The Conduits Being Brought To The Outlet And Cut Off After The Walls And Ceilings Were Plastered. With The Introduction Of Iron Con Duits, ...

Development Of Blanks For
Development Of Blanks For Curved Mouldings Our First Attention Will Be Given To The Methods Of Construction, It Being Necessary That We Know The Methods Of Construction Before The Blank Can Be Laid Out. For Example, In Fig. 337 Is A Part Elevation Of A Dormer Window, With A Semicircular ...

Development Of Patterns For
Development Of Patterns For A Hipped Skylight The Following Illustrations And Text Will Explain The Princi Ples Involved In Developing The Patterns For The Ventilator, Curb, Hip Bar, Common Bar, Jack Bar, And Cross B A R Or Clip, In A Hipped Skylight. These Princi Ples Are Also Applicable To ...

Drop In Alternating Current Lines
Drop In Alternating-current Lines When Alternating Currents First Came Into Use, When Transmission Distances Were Short And The Only Loads Carried Were Lamps, The Ques Tion Of Drop Or Loss Of Voltage In The Transmitting Line Was A Simple One, And The Same Methods As For Direct Current Could Without ...

Exterior Plastering
Exterior Plastering Although Exterior Plaster Surfacing For Dwellings Has Been In Use In Europe For Many Years, It Has But Recently Met With Favor In This Country. In Italy, Plaster, Or Stucco, Applied In Large, Unbroken Expanses Upon A Stone Or Brick Building, Has Long Been A Favorite Method Of ...

Flat Sea M Roofing
Flat-sea M Roofing The First Step Necessary In Preparing The Plates For Flat Seam Roofing Is To Notch Or Cut Off The Four Corners Of The Plate As Shown In Fig. 199 Which Shows The Plate As It Is Taken From The Box, The Shaded Corners A A A A ...

Floor Finishing
Floor Finishing The Primary Trouble With Floors Is That People Walk On Them. If They Did Not, There Would Be No Trouble At All. Four Coats Of Varnish, Or Even Paint, Having An Aggregate Thickness Of Less Than One One Hundredth Of An Inch, Will Not Last Indefinitely Under The ...

Glazing
Glazing House Painters Are Usually Expected To Understand The Art Of Setting Window-glass; It Is Not Difficult To Learn. Glass Is Classified As Sheet Or Cylinder Glass And Plate Glass. Sheet Glass Is Made, At The Glass Works, By Blowing A Quantity Of Glass, First, Into A Hollow Globe; Then, ...

History And Development
History And Development The History Of Electric Lighting As A Commercial Proposition Begins With The Invention Of The Gramme Dynamo, By Z. J. Gramme, In 1870, Together With The Introduction Of The Jablochkoff Candle Or Light, Which Was First Announced To The Public In 1876, And Which Formed A Feature ...

House Painting
House Painting Inside Work. All Window And Door Frames, Whether They Are To Be Finished With Paint Or Varnish, Should Receive A Good Coat Of Paint Made With Some Cheap Pigment, Such As Iron Oxide, And Boiled Oil, Applied To The Back Of The Frame, Before They Are Brought From ...

Illumination
Illumination Illumination May Be Defined As The Quality And Quantity Of Light Which Aids In The Discrimination Of Outline And The Perception Of Color. Not Only The Quantity, But The Quality Of The Light, As Well As The Arrangement Of The Units, Must Be Considered In A Complete Study Of ...

Incandescent Lamps
Incandescent Lamps The Incandescent Lamp Is By Far The Most Common Type Of Lamp Used, And The Principle Of Its Operation Is As Follows: If A Current I Is Sent Through A Conductor Whose Resistance Is R, For A Time T, The Conductor Is Heated, And The Heat Generated = ...

Intensity Constants For Arc
Intensity Constants For Arc Lamps 5-ampere, Enclosed, Direct-current Arc On 110-volt Circuit; Clear Inner, Opal Outer Globe; No Reflector; Large Room; Light Ceiling; Medium Walls; Height From 9 To 14 Feet .50 Arrangement Of Lamps. An Arrangement Of Lamps Giving A Uniform Illumination Cannot Be Well Applied To Residences On ...

Interior Plastering
Interior Plastering The Installation Of Interior Plastering Marks The Division Between The Completion Of The Rough Work On The Residence, And The Very Beginning Of The Placing Of The Finish That Is To Follow. The Plastering Cannot Be Started Until The Walls And Ceilings Have Been Lathed, And The Ceilings ...

Joints
Joints. When Making A Joint, Care Should Be Taken To Have A Firm, Clean Connection, Both Mechanically And Electrically, And This Must Always Be Soldered To Prevent Corrosion. The Insulation Should Be Stripped Off The Ends Of The Wires To Be Joined, For A Distance Of About 2 Inches, And ...

K L G
K L G. A Line Traced Through The Points Thus Obtained, As Shown By X Y Z, Will Be The Pattern For The Heads. Where A Hip Ridge Is Re Quired To Miter With The Apron Of A Deck Moulding, As Shown In Fig. 329, In Which B Repre Sents ...

Lathing
Lathing Wood Laths. Wood Laths Are Put Up In Bundles Of 100 Laths; And Are Nailed Upon The Studdings Of The Wooden Frame, With A Space Of One-quarter Inch Between Them. This Distance Is Sufficient To Allow For Lath Shrinkage Or Swelling, And Still Provide A Firm Clinch For The ...

Laying Corrugated Roofing
Laying Corrugated Roofing When Laying Corrugated Iron On Wood Sheathing Use Galvanized Iron Nails And Lead Washers. The Advantage In Using Lead Washers Is That They Make A Tight Joint And Prevent Leaking And Rusting At The Nail Hole; The Washer Being Soft It Easily Shapes Itself To Any Curve. ...

Laying Corrugated Siding
Laying Corrugated Siding Before Putting On Any Corrugated Siding Or Clapboarding, As Shown In Fig. 248, A Finish Is Usually Made At The Eaves By Means Of A Hanging Gutter Or A Plain Cornice, Shown In Fig. 249, Which Is Fastened To The Projecting Wooden Or Iron Rafters. This Method ...

Metal Lath
Metal Lath The Best Lath For Exterior Plastering Is Probably The No. 19 Clinton Wire Cloth. The Wire Is Sufficiently Large To Be Durable, And The Mesh Sufficiently Open To Allow The Mortar To Press Through And Completely Fill And Close In Over The Back Of The Wire, Thus Protecting ...

Method Employed For Obtaining
Method Employed For Obtaining Patterns The Principles Applied To Cylinder Developments As Explained In The Tinsmithing And Sheet Metal Work Courses, Under The Heading Of "parallel-line Developments," Are Also Applicable For Obtaining The Patterns For Any Moulding Where All Members Run Parallel; For It Makes No Difference What Profile Is ...

Method Of Planning A
Method Of Planning A Wiring Installation The First Step In Planning A Wiring Installation, Is To Gather All The Data Which Will Affect Either Directly Or Indirectly The System Of Wiring And The Manner In Which The Conductors Are To Be Installed. These Data Will Include: Kind Of Building; Construction ...

Methods Of Wiring
Methods Of Wiring. If The Building Is Completed Before The Wiring Is Done, The Concealed Method Described Above Cannot Be Used, And It Is Neces Sary To Run The Wires Along The Walls Supported By Staples, Where They Will Be Least Conspicuous. Fig. 2 Shows Ordinary Double Pointed Tacks, Fig. ...

Offices Lighting Of Public
Lighting Of Public Halls, Offices, Etc. Lighting Of Public Halls And Other Large Interiors Differs From The Illumination Of Residences In That There Is Usually Less Reflected Light, And, Again, The Distance Of The Light Sources From The Plane Of Illumi Nation Is Generally Greater If An Artistic Arrangement Of ...

Other Forms Of Metal
Other Forms Of Metal Roofing There Is Another Form Of Roofing Known As Metal Slates And Shin Gles, Pressed In Various Geometrical Designs With Water-tight Lock Attach Ments So That No Solder Is Required In Laying The Roof. Fig. 189 Shows The General Shape Of These Metal Shingles Which Are ...

Outfit
Outfit. The Three Essential Parts Of The Electric Bell Outfit Are The Bell Push, Which Furnishes A Means Of Opening And Closing The Circuit At Will, The Battery, Which Furnishes The Current For Operating The Bell, And The Bell Itself. Before Discussing The Combination Of These Pieces Of Apparatus In ...

Overhead Linework The Advantages Of Overhead Linework As Compared With Under Ground Iinework Are That It Is Much Less Expensive; It Is More Readily And More Quickly Installed; And It Can Be More Readily Inspected And Repaired. Its Principal Disadvantages Are That It Is Not So Permanent As Underground Linework; ...

Painters Supplies
Painters' Supplies Pigments And Vehicles. Paint Is A Mixture Of A Finely-divided Solid Substance With A Liquid Which, When Spread On A Solid Surface With A Brush Or Otherwise, Will Adhere And In A Short Time Form—by Evaporation, Or More Commonly By Oxidation—a Somewhat Hard And Tough Film. The Finely ...

Painting
Painting Introductory. The First Thing A Man Wishes To Know When He Contemplates Painting A House, Is The Cost. This Will Obviously Depend On The Bost Of Labor, Of Materials, And The Kind Of Materials Chosen. The Outside Of A House Is Painted, Either In Whole Or In Part; The ...

Painting Structural Metal
Painting Structural Metal Steel Is A More Perishable Material Than Wood, And More Difficult To Paint. Without Regular Expenditure For Maintenance, Wooden Bridges Last Longer Than Steel Ones; There Are Wooden Roof Beams A Thousand Years Old; And Iron Roofs Are So Short-lived That They Are Used Only Over Furnaces ...

Plaster Materials
Plaster Materials Plaster Is Principally Composed Of Lime, Sand, Hair, And Water. Lime Is Obtained In Different Sections Of The Country From Calcined Limestone, The Carbonic Acid And Moisture Contained In The Stone Being Driven Off By The Burning Process. The Whole Theory Of Plaster Ing Is Based Upon The ...

Plastering
Plastering Interior Plastering Is Now Applied Either In Two Or In Three Coat Ings. Three Coats Are Always Necessary On Metal Or Wire Lath, The First Coat Being Required To Stiffen The Body Of The Material Sufficiently To Allow Thorough Working Of The Remaining Coats. Even Upon Wood Laths, Three ...

Power Distribution
Power Distribution The Question Of Power Distribution For Electric Lamps And Other Appliances Is Taken Up Fully In The Section On That Subject, Therefore It Will Be Treated Very Briefly Here. The Systems May Be Divided Into: 1. Series Distribution Systems. 2. Multiple-series Or Series-multiple Systems. 3. Multiple Or Parallel ...

Practical Miter Cutting
Practical Miter Cutting Under This Heading Come The Practical Shop Problems. The Prob Lems Which Will Follow Should Be Drawn To Any Desired Scale By The Student, Developed, And Bent From Stiff Cardboard To Prove The Accu Racy Of The Pattern. If The Student Cannot Use The Small Brake In ...

Principles Employed For Obtaining
Principles Employed For Obtaining Approxi Mate Blanks For Curved Mouldings Hammered By Hand The Governing Principles Underlying All Such Operations Are The Same As Every Sheet-metal Worker Uses In The Laying Out Of The Simple Patterns In Haring Ware. In Other Words, One Who Understands How To Lay Out The ...

Putting On The Plaster
Putting On The Plaster Exterior Plaster Requires Three-coat Work. The First Or Scratch Coat Is Indispensable When Metal Or Wire Lath Is Used, But Almost Equally Important Over Wood Lath. This First Coat Should Be Scratched Or Roughened While Drying, And Must Be Thoroughly Dry Before The Second Coat Is ...

R R E E
R: R (e E') E' . And Assuming That The Reading Of The Voltmeter With The Insulation Resistance Connected Is 5, We Have: R (30-5) A 100,000 Ohms. 5 If The Test Shows An Excessive Amount Of Leakage, Or A Ground Or Short Circuit, The Location Of The Trouble May ...

Roof Mensuration
Roof Mensuration While Some Mechanics Understand Thoroughly The Methods Of Laying The Various Kinds Of Roofing, There Are Some, However, Who Do Not Understand How To Figure From Architects' Or Scale Drawings The Amount Of Material Required To Cover A Given Surface In A Flat, Irregular Shaped, Or Hipped Roof. ...

Roofing
Roofing A Good Metal Covering On A Roof Is As Important As A Good Foun Dation. There Are Various Materials Used For This Purpose Such As Terne Plate Or What Is Commonly Called Roofing Tin. The Rigid Body, Or The Base Of Roofing Tin, Consists Of Thin Sheets Of Steel ...

Skylight Work
Skylight Work Where Formerly Skylights Were Constructed From Wrought Iron Or Wood, To-day In All The Large Cities They Are Being Made Of Galvanized Sheet Iron And Copper. Sheet Metal Skylights, Having By Their Peculiar Construction Lightness And Strength, Are Superior To Iron And Wooden Lights; Superior To Iron Lights, ...