GLAZING House painters are usually expected to understand the art of setting window-glass; it is not difficult to learn. Glass is classified as sheet or cylinder glass and plate glass. Sheet glass is made, at the glass works, by blowing a quantity of glass, first, into a hollow globe; then, by more blowing and manipulation, this is stretched out into a hollow cylinder perhaps a foot in diameter and five feet long; this cylinder (whence the name "cylinder glass") is cut open, and, after reheating, is flattened out into a sheet, whence the name "sheet glass;" after annealing, it is cut up into convenient sizes. It is made of two thicknesses—single thick, which is about one-sixteenth of an inch; and double thick, one-eighth of an inch; but it does not run perfectly uniform. All sheet glass contains streaks, bubbles, and specks of dirt, and is more or less irregular or wavy in its surface; and in respect to this it is graded as first, second, and third quality; in American glass these grades are usually marked "AA," "A," and "B;" and anything poorer than "B" is called stock sheets. Foreign glass is not thus marked, each maker having his own arbitrary marks. Single-thick glass is used for sizes not greater than about 28 by 34 inches; double thick, up to 40 by 60. For larger sizes, plate glass only is used; but of course either plate or double-thick can be used for small sizes, if desired.
Plate glass is cast in plates; the liquid glass is poured out on an iron table, about 15 feet wide and 25 feet long, and smoothed down to a uniform thickness of half or five-eighths of an inch by passing a roller over it, like rolling pie-crust; after this it is ground down with sand, emery, and polishing powder to a quarter or five-sixteenths of an inch in thickness. It is therefore much more costly than sheet glass, but is also more perfect.
Crystal is a very thin plate glass, about one-eighth of an inch thick, and is used where ordinary plate is too heavy, as in movable sash. It is the finest of all window glass. There are two grades of plate glass, known as glazing (for windows) and silvering (for mirrors), the latter being the best. In the first place, the sash is prepared for the glass. It must receive a priming coat; if it is to be painted, it is primed with white lead and boiled linseed oil, the mixture having very little or no turpentine added; if it is to be varnished, it is primed with boiled oil alone. If it is not primed, the putty will not stick; the wood will draw the oil out of the putty and leave it crumbly. Next, the glass is fitted
to the sash. It is cut either with a glass-cutter's diamond or with a wheel cutter, the latter being a little sharp-edged steel wheel set in a handle. If well made, the wheels may be bought separate and are replaceable. The wheel cutters are generally used on sheet glass; but plate glass is cut only with a diamond, which makes a deeper cut. The wheels are kept wet with kerosene; the workman has a little bottle or cup of kerosene on the bench, and dips the wheel in it.
The glass be,i,ng cut to the right size, a layer of putty is spread, with the putty-knife, along the recess in the sash where the glass is to rest. This is called bedding the glass, and should always be done. It is not uncommonly omitted with pine sash; but it absolutely must be done with all hardwood sash, metal or metal-lined sash, and for all plate and crystal glass; and it ought to be done in all cases. Then the glass is gently pressed into place, after which it is fastened with glaziers' points, which are triangular bits of metal. No. 2 points are used on single-thick, and No. 1, which are larger, are used on double-thick glass; they are put in 9 to 12 inches apart. They are driven, not with a hammer, but with the thin side of a two-inch chisel, the flat side of which lies on the glass, the edge of the chisel away from the surface so as to avoid scratching it. The chisel is also useful for adjusting the position of the pane; if it is smaller than the sash, it is so placed that when the sash is in its natural upright position the pane of glass will rest with its lower edge bearing on the wood. The points are com monly of zinc, which bends easily; and when the pane is properly placed, if there is on one side a space between it and the wood, the chisel is held over this crack, and with its edge an indentation or crimp is made in the little triangular zinc point which has already been driven; this crimp prevents the glass from sliding back against. the wood. This is the reason zinc is used for the points; it will bend. Steel points are sometimes used for plate glass, because their greater strength, the glass being heavy. To drive through the sheet metal of metal-covered sash, steel slugs are used; these are about inch thick, about x inch long, and inch wide at the wide end, triangular, and sharp-pointed.