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Offices Lighting of Public Halls

light, illumination, lamps, lights, lamp and arc


Lighting of public halls and other large interiors differs from the illumination of residences in that there is usually less reflected light, and, again, the distance of the light sources from the plane of illumi nation is generally greater if an artistic arrangement of the lights is to be brought about. This in turn reduces the direct illumination. The primary object is, however, as in residence lighting, to produce a fairly uniform ground illumination and to superimpose a stronger illumination where necessary. An illumination of .5 foot-candle for the ground illumination may be taken as a minimum.

In the lighting of large rooms it is permissible to use larger light units, such as arc lamps and high candle-power Nernst or incan descent units, while for factory lighting and drafting rooms, where the color of the light is not so essential, the Cooper-Hewitt lamp is being introduced. High candle-power reflector lamps, such as the tungsten lamp, are being used to a large extent for offices and drafting rooms.

The choice of the type of lamp depends on the nature of the work. Where the light must be steady, incandescent or Nernst lamps are to be preferred to the arc or vapor lamps, though the latter are often the more efficient. When arcs are used, they must be care fully shaded so as to diffuse the light, doing away with the strong shadows due to portions of the lamp mechanism, and to reduce the intrinsic brightness. Such shading will be taken up under the head ing "Shades and Reflectors." Arcs are sometimes preferable to incandescent lamps when colored objects are to be illuminated, as in stores and display windows.

In locating lamps for this class of lighting, much depends on the nature of the building and on the degree of economy to be observed. For preliminary determination of the location of groups, or the illumi nation when certain arrangement of the units is assumed, the prin ciples outlined under "Residence Lighting" may be applied. It has

been found that actual measurements show results approximating closely such calculated values.

When arcs are used they should be placed fairly high, twenty to twenty-five feet when used for general illumination and the ceilings are high. They should be supplied with reflectors so as to utilize the light ordinarily thrown upwards. When used for drafting-room work, they should be suspended from twelve to fifteen feet above the floor, and special care must be taken to diffuse the light.

Incandescent lamps may be arranged in groups, either as side lights or mounted on chandeliers, or they may be arranged as a frieze running around the room a few feet below the ceiling. The last named arrangement of lights is one that may be made artistic, but it is uneconomical and when used should serve for the ground illumina tion only. Reflector lights may be used for this style of work and the lights may be entirely concealed from view, the reflecting prop erty of the walls being utilized for distributing the light where needed.

Ceiling lights should preferably be supplied with reflectors, especially when the ceilings are high.

Indirect lighting is employed to some extent. By indirect lighting we mean a system of illumination in which the light sources are concealed and the light from them is reflected to the room by the walls, or ceilings, or other surfaces; or in which the light sources are plated above a diffusing panel. In the latter case the diffusing plate apf ears to be the source of light. In some cases the walls themselves are shaped and constructed so as to form the reflectors for the light uni:s (cove lighting), but in others all of the reflecting surfaces, except the side walls and ceiling, are made portions of the lamp fixtures.

Tables XVI and XVII give data on arc and mercury-vapor lai,,ps for lighting large rooms. Table XVII refers to arc lights as act &ally installed.