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oil, paint, lbs, gal, varnish, wood, zinc, lead, shingles and color

PAINTING Introductory. The first thing a man wishes to know when he contemplates painting a house, is the cost. This will obviously depend on the Bost of labor, of materials, and the kind of materials chosen. The outside of a house is painted, either in whole or in part; the interior may be painted or varnished. Some houses have their walls partly covered with shingles; these shingles are sometimes painted, and sometimes—in fact, often—left unpainted; but what is called the trim— that is, the boarding about the eaves, windows, doors, the base-board, and corner-pieces—is painted. Shingles, either wall or roof, are often stained with a creosote stain consisting of a coloring matter dissolved or suspended in a liquid called creosote, which is applied for the purpose of preserving them; and though instances can be cited in which wall shingles that were never stained are still doing good service although believed to be now two hundred and fifty years old, yet the use of creosote will undoubtedly prolong the life of modern, sawn shingles, as it is noxious to insect life and a powerful deterrent of natural decay. The color of unpainted new shingles is generally disliked; but after four or five years wall-shingles take on a beautiful, soft color. The question of staining shingles is a matter of taste.

Most houses are exteriorly painted with paint based on white lead or zinc. Some idea of the cost may perhaps be gained from the following considerations: White lead is sold either ground with a little oil to a thick paste, or— less commonly—in the dry state.

A mixture of 100 pounds of dry white lead with 5 gallons of linseed oil, makes 6i gallons of paint, weighing 21.3 lbs. per gal.

Approximate figures are: 15 lbs. paste lead and 6.3 lbs. oil equals 1 gal. (1 gal. oil equals 7.7 lbs.); 14 lbs. dry lead and 71 lbs. oil equals 1 gal.

A mixture of 100 pounds of white zinc and 8i gal. oil, makes 101 gal. of paint; 12 lbs. zinc and 1 gal. oil make 1.3 gal., or 9.5 lbs. zinc and 5.7 lbs. oil make 1 gal. white zinc paint weighing 15.2 lbs. Dark-colored paints made from iron oxides, ochers, and the like, weigh 12to 14 pounds per gallon; but exact figures cannot be given, as the raw materials differ greatly.

Here should be noted the difference between the priming coat and the succeeding ones. A priming coat is the first coat applied to the clean wooden surface; it differs from the other coats in containing more oil, because the wood will soak up the oil and leave the coloring matter of the paint on the outside.

To make the paint for the priming coat, take a gallon of the paint already described and mix with it a gallon of raw linseed oil. Paint thus made is, of course, lower in price; it is also much thinner; but such is the absorbent power of the wood, that the priming paint does not cover as much surface as the succeeding coats per gallon. A gallon of this thin priming coat covers 300 to 400 sq. ft., while a gallon of second or third-coat paint, well brushed out, will cover about twice this surface; this is because the surface for all but the first coat is hard and non-absorbent. Priming coats are used for both outside and inside work, as will be described later.

The dark-colored paints are usually cheaper than those made from lead and zinc, and if made of good materials are not inferior in durability; the extraordinary claims made by the zinc and lead manu facturers are to be received with much doubt. Some of the dark colored paints are the most durable that can be applied on wood. The chief cost of painting is, however, that of labor, which varies according to locality and other conditions, seldom being less than twice that of materials.

For light-colored paints, it is better to use raw linseed oil to which pale japan dryer may be added, as described later; for dark colors, either this or boiled oil, boiled oil being darker in color. The cost is practically the same; also the durability.

On inside work may be used either oil or enamel paint, as described later, the former being the cheaper, the latter the handsomer and slightly more durable; or the wood may be finished in its natural color, by varnishing it either with an oleo-resinous varnish or with shellac varnish. The oleo-resinous varnishes darken the wood very appreciably, while white shellac varnish keeps it more nearly in its natural color; although the latter does not prevent the natural darken ing action of light, it may retard it. Shellac varnish is the more expen sive finish of the two, if well applied. What is sometimes called oil finish generally consists in the application of a cheap varnish called hard oil, which is usually made of common rosin, linseed oil, and ben zine. Its only merit is that it is cheap.

It would indeed

be possible to apply neither paint nor varnish, but merely to saturate the wood with oil, and this would be truly an oil finish; it would, however, make the wood dark and dingy, and would readily retain dirt, and is a practice seldom followed except sometimes on floors—especially kitchen floors—and sink shelves. These are at frequent intervals oiled with a mixture of equal parts boiled oil and turpentine.

It is the purpose of this Instruction Paper to describe only good and approved methods. It will readily be understood, and will certainly be observed in practice, that these methods may be abbre viated by the omission of some details that are here specified as desir able. For instance, it is difficult to get interior finish sandpapered or rubbed between coats, even if so contracted; but this is the right practice. Two coats of varnish often have to serve in the place of four. No one, however, needs to be told these things. The methods herein described are not luxurious or extravagant; they are, on fairly good houses, truly economical; and we are not considering temporary structures.

It is not uncommon to find part of a house, as the living moms, finished in varnish, and the kitchen and pantry painted with oil paints, which are lighter in color and more easily renewed. The sleeping moms, on the other hand, are often finished in enamel paints, because color effects are desired to harmonize with the furnishings; and bathrooms are almost always done in enamel for sanitary con siderations. The taste and inclination of the owner are to be con sulted in regard to all these matters.