The negro population, 3.5% in the year 1930, rather large for a northern and western State, is largely the result of an exodus of coloured people from the South in 1878-80 at a time when their condition was an unusually hard one ; an exodus which turned mainly toward Kansas. The white population was 91.6% Ameri can-born in 1930. The west third of the State has a comparatively scant population, because of its aridity. In the '7os, after a suc cession of wet seasons, and again in the '8os, settlement was pushed far westward, beyond the limits of safe agriculture, but hundreds of settlers—and indeed many entire communities- were literally starved out by the recurrence of droughts. Irriga tion has made a surer future for limited areas, however, and the introduction of drought-resisting crops and the substitution of dairy and livestock interests in the place of agriculture have brightened the outlook in the western counties and created addi tional possibilities of progress.
school system has as its head a superintendent of public instruc tion ; the schools of each county are under a county superintend ent ; and each district has a board of directors known as a school board. In rural districts the school board consists of three mem bers; in cities it has six members.
The total population in 1932 between the ages of five and 17 years, inclusive, was 478,10o. Of this number, or 87.9%, were enrolled in the public schools. For the same year there were 30,483 pupils enrolled in private and parochial schools. The dis tribution of the public school enrolment was 322,918 in the kindergarten and elementary grades and 98,436 in secondary schools. The average number of days attended per pupil enrolled had increased from 119.5 in 1910 to 156.7 in 1932. The per capita expenditure, based on population from the ages of five to 17, in clusive, increased from $56.71 in 1920 to $69.91 in 1932. The total expenditure for the year 1931-32 was $33,426,000.
Of higher educational institutions, the State supports the Uni versity of Kansas at Lawrence (1866) ; an agricultural college at Manhattan (1863, aided by the U.S. Government), to which are attached agricultural experiment stations at Hays, Garden City, Colby and Tribune; State teachers' colleges at Emporia (1875), Hays (1902), and Pittsburg (1903) ; Western university, for ne groes, at Kansas City; and the Kansas vocational school at Tope ka. In 1899 the State university established a school of medicine in Kansas City.
In addition to the State schools, various flourishing private or denominational institutions are maintained. Those institutions recognized by the U.S. office of education as universities or col leges, in 1935, were : Kansas Wesleyan university at Salina ; Baker university at Baldwin City; Washburn college at Topeka; South western college at Winfield ; College of Emporia at Emporia ; Bethany college at Lindsborg; St. Mary college at Leavenworth; Ottawa university at Ottawa ; Sterling college at Sterling ; St. Benedict's college at Atchison; McPherson college at McPherson; Bethel college at Newton; Friends university at Wichita; and the Municipal university of Wichita at Wichita. There are also ten junior colleges, chiefly operated as parts of public school systems, and a number of small business and professional schools. Haskell institute (1884), near Lawrence, is maintained by the United States Government as a school for Indians which is very successful.