Legislation.—The manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors except for medical, scientific and mechanical needs were prohibited by a constitutional amendment in 1880. The Murray liquor law of 1881, for the enforcement of the amendment, was declared constitutional by the State supreme court in 1883. At many ses sions of the legislature its enemies vainly attempted its repeal. The enforcement of the law varied enormously according to the locality. In 1906-7 a fresh crusade to enforce the law was begun by the attorney general, who brought ouster suits against the mayors of Wichita, Junction city, Pittsburg and Leaven worth for not enforcing the law and for replacing it with the "fine" system, which was merely an irregular licence. In 1907 the attorney general's office turned its attention to outside brewing companies doing business in the State, and secured in junctions against the continuance of such operations within the State and the appointment of receivers of their property. The provisions of the law permitting the sale of whisky for medicinal, scientific or mechanical purposes were repealed by a law of 1909 prohibiting the sale, manufacture or barter of spirituous, malt, vinous or any other intoxicating liquors within the State. The severity of this law was ascribed to efforts of the liquor interests to render it objectionable; however, State prohibition continued to exist until strengthened by the 18th (Prohibition) amendment to the Federal Constitution.
An eight-hour labour law was passed in 1891, and was upheld by the State supreme court. In 1909 a law was passed requiring that any corporation acting as a common carrier in the State must receive the permission of the State board of railway com missioners for the issue of stocks, bonds or other evidences of indebtedness. An exception to the general trend of legislation at that time was the "blue sky" law for the regulation of invest ment companies, passed in 1911 and amended in detail in 1913 and 1915. It prohibited the sale in the State of stock not approved by a board consisting of the secretary of State, the attorney general and the State bank commissioner, and thus prevented the floating of worthless securities. It has been ex tensively copied by other States. In 1919 a general strike in the coalfields suspended production and threatened a coal famine in the midst of an exceptionally severe winter. Governor Allen took over the coal mines and operated them with volunteer labour. A law of 1920 creating a court of industrial relations was later held unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. Normally Re publican, Kansas voted for Wilson in 1912 and 1916 and elected Democratic governors for single terms in 1913, 1923, and 1931. In the last case, Gov. H. H. Woodring, by a determined attack on the gas rates, roused a strong opposition. Roosevelt carried the State's electoral vote in 1932, but Alfred M. Landon, a Republi can petroleum producer, was elected governor. He was chosen Republican candidate for the presidency in 1936, but was de feated in the presidential election. The depression and the drought hit the State hard, sharply reducing agricultural income and forc ing 30,00o farms out of cultivation. An income tax amendment (1933) and law (1934) put the principle of graduation only par tially into effect. The voters refused to repeal State prohibition but, in 1935, restored capital punishment for murder in the first degree; the latter had been abolished by law in 1907.
W. E. Connelly, A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans (1918) ; L. W. Spring, Kansas (1885, rev. ed., 1907) ; C. R. Green, Early Days in Kansas (Olathe, Kan., 1912-13) ; A. T. Andreas, History of Kansas (1883, compiled mainly by J. C. Hebbard) ; D. W. Wilder's Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1875 and later) ; Charles Robinson, The Kansas Conflict (1892) ; Eli Thayer, The Kansas Crusade (1889) ; W. E. Connelly, Kansas Territorial Governors (1900) ; W. E. Miller, The Peopling of Kansas (Columbus, 0., 1906), a doctoral dissertation of Columbia university; the Proceedings of the Kansas State Historical Society (Topeka, 1891 seq.), full of valuable material; Kansas: a Cyclopaedia of State History (Chicago, 1912). See also W. C. Webb, Republican Election Methods in Kansas, General Election of 1892, and Legislative Investigations (Topeka, 1893) ; C. L. Becker, "Kansas," in Turner Essays in American History (Iwo) ; William 0. Lynch, "Popular Sovereignty and the Colonization of Kansas from 1854-60," in the Mississippi Valley Historical Review (May 1919) ; "Report of the Special Committee Appointed to Investigate the Trouble in Kansas" (34th Cong.,_ist sess.: House Reports, no. 200). (A. CA.) KANSAS CITY, the largest city of Kansas, U.S.A., and the county seat of Wyandotte county, on the eastern boundary of the State, at the confluence of the Kansas (Kaw) river with the Mis souri, adjoining Kansas City, Mo., from which it is separated only by the State line. It is on Federal highways 4o, 5o, 71 and 73E ; has a well-equipped commercial airport ; and is served by the Chicago Great Western, the Missouri Pacific, the Rock Island, the Santa Fe and the Union Pacific railways, and by several inter urban electric and motor-bus lines. The population in 1920 was 101,177 and in 1930 121,857, an increase of 20,680 or 20.4% over the figures for the preceding decade. The city occupies 20.46 sq.m., in rectangular shape (about 3m. by 7m.), rising from the level bottom-land between the two rivers (altitude 72oft.) to bluffs 947ft. above sea-level, where the principal residential districts are located. It has a waterfront of 8.5m., and is the western terminus of the present program of improvements on the inland waterways system. The stock-yards, which are the centre of its economic life, lie on the State line, with about 62% of their area on the Kansas side. A massive steel and concrete viaduct, 1 gym. long, spans the Kaw valley, and connects the bluffs of the two cities. There are 3ooac. in the public parks; 25m. of connecting boulevards, and 5om. more planned; and 24 small playgrounds scattered through the city. A fine court-house of limestone, with a Greek portico upheld by columns over 7ft. in diameter and 48ft. high, was completed in 1927. The municipal memorial building, a tribute to the men who have lost their lives in the wars of the country, contains an auditorium seating 4,000, a chapel, a memorial hall, a banquet hall and a kitchen, and is so arranged that a parade can pass through the auditorium. In the city adopted a comprehensive city plan and zoning ordinance, prepared by a volunteer commission, which will shape its develop ment for 4o years. Building permits in the five years 1931-35 represented values aggregating $4,236,000. The assessed valua tion of property for was $94,517,165.