LANARKSHIRE, south-western county of Scotland,bounded north by the shires of Dumbarton and Stirling, east by West Lothian, Mid-Lothian and Peeblesshire, south by Dum friesshire and west by the counties of Ayr, Renfrew and Dumbarton. Area, excluding water, is 564,567 acres. It em braces the valley of the Clyde. The shire is divided into three wards, the Upper, comprising all the southern section, or more than half the whole area; the Middle, with Hamilton for its chief town; and the Lower, the smallest, in the north. The highest hills are nearly all on or close to the bor ders of Peeblesshire and Dumfriesshire, and include Culter fell and Lowther hill. The loftiest heights exclusively belonging to Lanarkshire are Green Lowther and Tinto. Here the county includes a small part of the Silurian southern uplands of Scot land, flanked on the north by an Ordovician belt of graptolites and grits, and of conglomerates in which are found the lead work ings of Leadhills. Northward again the Old Red Sandstone occu pies an irregular tract, with contemporary porphyries. The north of the county belongs to the Carboniferous area which includes the important coal-measures extending eastward from Glasgow. Vol canic necks and intensive basalts appear in this area. The principal rivers are the Clyde and its head waters and affluents. There are no large lochs, the few sheets of water in the north mainly feeding the Monkland and the Forth and Clyde Canals. The most famous natural features are the falls of Clyde (q.v.) in the Old Red Sand stone area. Kames and deposits of gravel, sand and boulder clay give evidence of the glacial period.
traces in the camp on Beattock summit near Elvanfoot, in the bridge over the Mouse near Lanark, in the road to the south of Strathaven, in the wall already mentioned and in coins and other relics. After their departure the country which included Lanark shire formed part of the kingdom of Strathclyde, which, in the 7th century, was subdued by Northumbrian Saxons, when great numbers of the Celts migrated into Wales. The county once em braced a portion of Renfrewshire, but this was disjoined in the time of Robert III. The shire was then divided into two wards, the Over (with Lanark as its chief town) and the Nether (with Rutherglen as its capital). The present division into three wards was not effected till the 18th century. Independently of Glasgow, Lanarkshire has not borne any part continuously in the general history of Scotland, but has been the scene of several exciting episodes. Many of Wallace's daring deeds were performed in the county, Queen Mary met her fate at Langside (1568) and the Covenanters received constant support from the people, defeating Claverhouse at Drumclog (1679), but suffering defeat themselves at Bothwell Brig (1679).