LIE, JONAS LAURITZ EDEMIL Nor wegian novelist, was born on Nov. 6, 1833, close to Hougsund (Eker), near Drammen. In 1838, his father being appointed sheriff of Tromso, the family removed to that Arctic town. Here Lie gained acquaintance with the wild seafaring life which he was afterwards to describe. He studied at Christiania (Oslo), where Ibsen and Bjornson were among his fellow-students. On completing his studies he began to practise as a solicitor at Kongsvinger. In 1860 he married his cousin, Thomasine Lie, who collaborated with him in his works. In 1866 he published his first book, a volume of poems. Financial embarrassment drove him to Christiania to try his luck as a man of letters. As a journalist he had no success, but in 1870 he published a melancholy little romance, Den Fremsynte (Eng. trans., The Visionary, 1894), which made him famous. Lie proceeded to Rome, and published Tales in 1871 and Tremasteren "Fr emtiden" (Eng. trans., The Barque "Future," Chicago, 1879), a novel, in 1872. Lodsen og hans Hustru (The Pilot and his Wife, 1874) placed him at the head of Norwegian novelists, and brought him a small government stipend. Lie spent the next few years partly
in Dresden, partly in Stuttgart. He then returned to Norway for a short time, and there wrote some novels of contemporary Norwegian life. But he was back in Germany very soon. From 1882 to 1891 he made Paris his headquarters. His later years were spent in Norway, and he died at Christiania on July 5, 1908. Two of the most successful of his numerous novels were The Commodore's Daughters (1886) and Niobe both of which were included in the International library. In 1891-1892 he wrote, under the influence of the new romantic impulse, twenty four folk-tales, printed in two volumes entitled Trold. Some of these were translated by R. N. Bain in Weird Tales (1893), illus trated by L. Housman. His Samlede V aerker were published at Copenhagen in 14 vols. (1902-1904). As a novelist Jonas Lie stands with those minute and unobtrusive painters of contempo rary manners who defy arrangement in this or that school. He is with Mrs. Gaskell or Ferdinand Fabre; he is not entirely without relation with that old-fashioned favourite of the public, Fredrika Bremer.