Among the libraries of Portugal the Biblioteca Nacional at Lisbon (1796) naturally takes the first place. In 1841 it was largely increased from the monastic collections, and now has 800,000 vols. of printed books, largely on theology, canon law, history and Portuguese and Spanish literature, 16,000 mss., and 40,000 'coins and medals. The Academia das Sciencias (1779), in the suppressed convent of the Ordem Terceira da Penitencia, in 1836 acquired the library of that convent (30,00o vols.) which has since been kept apart. The Archivo Nacional was brought here in The Biblioteca Publica Municipal at Oporto, founded during the siege of 1833, and till 1874 styled the Real Biblioteca do Porto, is one of the largest in Portugal (about 300,00o vols.). The regent gave to the town the libraries of the suppressed convents in the northern provinces. The important Camoens collection is de scribed in a printed catalogue (I88o), and the mss. by H. da Cunha Rivara (1850-7o). The University Library of Coimbra (1591) 300,00o vols., the Instituto Juridico, Coimbra (1912) 53,000 vols., and the Biblioteca Provincial, Cadiz 40,000 vols., may be mentioned.
Much interest in libraries has not been shown in Latin America Most of the libraries which exist are national or legislative libraries.
town libraries throughout Brazil.
The Biblioteca Nacional at Santiago (1813) is the chief library in Chile. It possesses about 23 2,00o volumes. There is also a uni versity library at Santiago (40,000 vols.) and the Biblioteca Publica at Valparaiso (50,000 vols.).
The Biblioteca Nacional at Lima was founded by a decree of the liberator, San Martin, in 182o, from those of the university of San Marcos and of several monasteries, and books presented by the liberator; it is rich in the history of Peru.
Belgium.—The national library of Belgium is the Bibliotheque Royale at Brussels, based on the Bibliotheque des ducs de Bour gogne, the library of the Austrian sovereigns of the Low Coun tries in 1772. In 1794 a number of volumes were transferred to Paris, the majority being returned in 1815; in 1795 the remainder were formed into a public library under the care of La Serna San tander, who was also town librarian, and who was followed by van Hulthem. At the end of the administration of van Hulthem a large part of the precious collections of the Bollandists was acquired. In 183o the Bibliotheque de Bourgogne was added to the State archives. Van Hulthem died in 1832; his private library (catalogue printed 1836), mostly relating to Belgian history, was purchased in 1837, and, having been added to the Bibliotheque de Bourgogne and the Bibliotheque de la Ville (open since formed the Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique. The printed volumes now number over 800,000, with 31,200 mss., 34,600 maps, 1,267, 70o prints and 8o,000 coins and medals. There are printed cata logues of special collections of mss., of accessions, etc. There is no free legal deposit of books in Belgium; the Government pur chases new books from the publishers and deposits them in the Royal library. The financial crisis after 1918 led to proposals, by a governmental committee of economics, to divide the foreign accessions of the library among those of various ministries; but in 1928 the scheme had been severely animadverted on and seemed unlikely to be pressed. There are libraries attached to most of the departments of the Government. Other important libraries are the Bibliotheque Collective des Societes Savantes (1906), with a union catalogue on cards, and the Bibliotheque du Conservatoire Royal de Musique (1832) with 31,00o volumes. The popular or communal libraries of Brussels (1842) and of the suburbs are distributed through the schools. At Antwerp the town library (1505) has now 50o,000 volumes. The valuable col lection of books in the Musee Plantin-Moretus (1640) should also be mentioned. It contains 427 mss. and 20,000 printed books, comprising the works issued by the Plantin family and many 15th century books, besides the archives of the firm.