By a law of Oct. 17, 1921, communes may singly or in conjunc tion establish public libraries, and if complying with certain con ditions receive State subsidies.
The "Union des villes et communes beiges" at Brussels is plan ning a national scheme of federation and mutual lending between public libraries ; and similar associations at Louvain, Antwerp, Bruges, Ermeton, near Namur (for the Walloon districts) are sim ilarly engaged. Rural circulating libraries are brought by the law of 1921 under the same control as those of the communes. (See J. van Meel, Bibliotheques publiques, 192.) Holland.—Information on Dutch libraries can be obtained from J. D. C. von Dukkum and G. A. Evers, Nederlandsche Bib lioteekgids, 2nd ed., The national library of Holland is the Koninklijke Bibliotheek at The Hague (1798). The library of the princes of Orange was then united with those of the defunct Government bodies to form the national Bibliotheek. In 1805 the present name was adopted; and since 1815 it has become the national library. In 1848 the Baron W. Y. H. van Westreenen van Tiellandt bequeathed his library and antiquities to be preserved in his former residence as a branch of the royal library. There are now about one million printed books and over 6,000 mss. Books are lent all over the
country. The library is the richest in the world in books on chess, Dutch incunabula, Elzevirs and in Spinozana. In 1800-11 a printed catalogue was issued, and since 1866 a yearly list of additions.
The next largest library is that of the Academia Lugduno Batavia, which dates from the foundation of the University of Leyden in 1575. Valuable additions include those from the li braries of Golius, Joseph Scaliger, Isaac Voss, Ruhnken and Hem sterhuis. The library of the Society of Netherland Literature, placed here in 1877, Legatum Warnerianum of oriental mss., and the collection of maps bequeathed in 187o by J. J. Bodel Nyen huis, are noteworthy. Published catalogues are : books and mss., 1716; supplements of books added in 1814-47, and of mss., 1850; and oriental mss., 1851-77. The Bibliotheek der Rijks Universi teit (1575) at Leyden contains about 800,000 vols. and 3,400 oriental mss., many of value.
The University library at Utrecht (292,500 vols.) is based on conventual collections brought together in 1581. The public library thus formed was soon enriched by books bequeathed by Hub. Buchelius and Ev. Pollio, and was transferred to the uni versity on its foundation in 1636. Among the mss. is the famous "Utrecht Psalter," which contains the oldest text of the Athan asian creed. Printed catalogues are of printed books of 1834 (supplement 1845, index from 1845-55, and additions 1856-1870), and of mss., 1887. Titles of accessions are printed.
The University library at Amsterdam is based on a 15th century collection. Since 1877 the collection has been known as the Uni versity library, and in 1881 it was removed to a building modelled on the British Museum library. It includes the best mediaeval collection in Holland, and the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana of Hebraica (3o,000 vols., catalogue 1875). The libraries of the Dutch Geographical and other societies are preserved here. The library contains about 800,000 volumes. There are popular sub scription libraries with reading-rooms in all parts of Holland, and in Rotterdam there is a society for the encouragement of social culture which has a large library. At The Hague, Leyden, Haarlem, Dordrecht and other towns popular libraries have been estab lished, but ecclesiastical divisions hamper free development. Dutch librarians are organized in a professional body.
The library of the Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen at Batavia contains books printed in Netherlandish India, or relating to the Indian archipelago.
Denmark.—Owing largely to so many Scandinavian librarians having been trained and employed in American libraries, a greater approach has been made to Anglo-American library ideals in Nor way, Sweden and Denmark than anywhere else on the continent of Europe.