MADIUN, a residency of East Java, Dutch East Indies (Dutch, Madioen). It is bounded on the north by Surabaya and Semarang, east by Kediri, west by Surakarta, and south by the Indian ocean; area 5,884 sq. kilometres; pop. 1,909,801 Europeans and Eurasians). It consists of very fertile plains in the north and centre. To the east and west are high mountain ranges, including Mt. Liman (8,335 ft.) and Mt. Lawu (10,777 ft.). There is some hilly ground in the south, also the Plain of Pajitan, and a difficult coast without a harbour. The principal river is the Madiun, which flows from the centre of the residency northwards to join the Solo, and there is a small river in the south, the Pajitan. Madiun, the capital (pop. 41,872, 1,681 Euro peans and Eurasians), has large railway workshops and fine irriga tion works; it is on the banks of the Madiun river. Other towns are Ponorogo, pop. 21,680, Ngawi, Mejajon, Batong, Magetan and Pajitan. Rice, maize, sugar-cane, cassava, coffee, coca, chinchona, coconuts, ground-nuts and the usual native fruits and vegetables are grown, and the principal crops are rice and sugar cane ; teak is obtained from the forests. The main railway line
from Batavia to Surabaya runs from west to east, touching Madiun. The central districts have good roads, and there is a good road in the south of Pajitan to Ponorogo and Madiun. The people are almost entirely Javanese. Madiun became a Dutch residency after the rebellion of 1825-30.