MARCH, the third month of the modern calendar, containing 31 days. It was the Romans' first month until the adoption of the Julian calendar, 46 B.C., and it continued to be the beginning of the legal year in England until the 18th century. In France it was reckoned the first month of the year until 1564, when, by an edict of Charles IX., January was decreed to be thenceforth the first month. Scotland followed the example of France in 1599; but in England the change did not take place before 1752. The Romans called the month Martins, from Mars, the god of war. The Anglo Saxons called March Hlyd-monath, "loud or stormy month," or Lencten-monath, "lengthening month," in allusion to the fact that the days then rapidly become longer. There is an old saying, common to both England and Scotland, representing March as borrowing three days from April; the last three days of March being called the "borrowing" or the "borrowed days." In music, the march is the familiar type of composition used to accompany and stimulate the marching of soldiers. For this
purpose it is naturally strongly rhythmic in character, being generally written in common time, with the principal accents vigorously marked by the drum. The pace may be either brisk, as in a quick march, or slow, as in a funeral march. In the matter of structure, a trio, or alternative section in a more melodious vein, is generally provided by way of contrast to the main tune. Apart from actual military marches, the form has had attraction in all times for eminent composers, who have left many memor able examples. Such are the Dead March in Saul (Handel), Bee thoven's funeral marches (pianoforte sonata in A flat and Eroica symphony), many by Schubert, Mendelssohn's Wedding March (Midsummer Night's Dream music), Chopin's Marche Funebre (B flat minor sonata), several by Wagner (Tannhouser, Lohen grin, Huldigungsmarsch and Kaisermarsch), Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance series, many by the "March King" among band masters, John P. Sousa, e.g., Stars and Stripes Forever, etc.