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russia, chinese and urga

ASIA: Archaeology. (R. C. AN.) History.—Mongolia has been the source of many invasions and raids into China, the most noted being the Mongol conquest in the 13th century. The Manchus extended their power over the country and made it part of the Chinese empire. The Mongols took advantage of the Chinese revolution of 1911 to oust the Chinese authorities from Urga and to declare their independence under the Hutukhtu (Living Buddha). This gave Russia her opportunity, and in 1912 she pledged her assistance in maintain ing the independence of the Urga Government in return for special privileges. By an exchange of notes, China acknowledged the autonomy of Mongolia and Russia recognized that the Chi nese were still suzerain. Chinese suzerainty was represented at Urga by a resident-general with deputies in three other places. Upon the collapse of Russia in 1918 the Chinese took steps to increase their power, and in 1919 Hsu Shu-tseng was appointed defence commissioner and coerced the Mongols into cancelling their autonomy. Early in Feb. 1921 Baron Ungern von Stern

berg, leading a force made up of several nationalities and pro fessing antagonism to the "Reds" in Russia, expelled the Chinese from Urga. The Living Buddha now returned, and an independent Mongol Government was proclaimed, with Ungern as chief mili tary adviser. Ungern's troops revolted, he was defeated, cap tured and executed by Red forces (Aug. 1921), and Soviet Rus sia, while recognizing the Urga Government as independent, kept troops there. A treaty (Nov. 5, 1921) provided for Russian influ ence. By the Russo-Chinese treaty of May 31, 1924, Russia recognized Outer Mongolia as a part of China and agreed to withdraw her forces. However, the Mongols continued to claim their independence of China and in Nov. 1924 adopted a consti tution of the soviet type. In recent years frontier incidents be tween Russia and Japan have been numerous. (See MONGOLS.)