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18th And 19th Centuries
Modern Architecture, 18th And 19th Centuries. This Article Deals With The Development Of Archi Tecture In Europe And America During The Last Two Centuries Prior To The General Use Of Skeleton Construction And Design Characteris Tic Of It. (see Architecture.) Certain European Developments During The 18th Century Are Also Treated ...

1viorellis Methods
1viorelli's Methods Morelli Found Art Criticism Uninspired, Unscientific And Prac Tically Worthless. To Be Of Any Real Value He Held That Historical, Documentary And Traditional Knowledge Respecting Works Of Art Was Only Of Secondary Importance As Compared With The Evidence To Be Derived From The Study Of The Pictures Themselves. ...

2 Miltiades
2. Miltiades (died C. 488 B.c.), The Victor Of Marathon (q.v.), Was Another Son Of Cimon. On The Death Of Stesagoras, He Was Sent To The Chersonese ( ? About 518-516) By Hippias—no Doubt To Support Hegesistratus At Sigeum (see Peisistratus). He Entrapped And Imprisoned The Chief Men Of The ...

Albert Abraham Michelson
Michelson, Albert Abraham American Physicist, Was Born In Strelno, Germany, Dec. 19, 1852. His Parents Moved To San Francisco, Calif., Where He Studied In The Public Schools. He Graduated From The U.s. Naval Academy In 1873, And Was Instructor In Physics And Chemistry There (1875 79). He Was Then For ...

Alexander Danilovich Menshikov
Menshikov, Alexander Danilovich, Prince (1663 ?—1729), Russian Statesman, Was Born Not Earlier Than 166o Nor Later Than 1663. At The Age Of Twenty He Was Gaining His Live Lihood In The Streets Of Moscow As A Vendor Of Meat-pies. Fran Cois Lefort, Peter's First Favourite, Took Him Into His Service ...

Alexander Montgomerie
Montgomerie, Alexander (c. 1550–c. 161o), Scottish Poet, Son Of Hugh Montgomerie Of Hessilhead, Ayrshire, Spent Some Part Of His Youth In Argyleshire And Afterwards Lived For A Time At Compston Castle, In Galloway. He Was In The Service Of The Regent Morton; Thereafter, On The Regent's Demission Of Office In ...

Alice I849 I922 Meynell
Meynell, Alice (i849--i922), British Poet. By Her Marriage In 1877 Alice Thompson Became Alice Meynell. She Had The Fortune To Find Herself In That Mid-victorian Era Which Still Held Freshly To Its Heritage From Keats And Shelley, From Wordsworth And Coleridge. It Felt Its Heart Torn By The Griefs Of ...

Analysis Of Strain
Analysis Of Strain Displacements.-13. In The Analysis Of Strain, Or Distortion, The Assumption Of Continuity Is Again Fundamental. Disregarding All Questions Of Molecular Structure, We Imagine Our Ideal Material To Occupy Every Point Within A Certain Continuous Surface (or Within A Volume Contained By Continuous Surfaces, When The Body Considered ...

Analysis Of Stress
Analysis Of Stress The Notion Of Stress.-4. Let Us Imagine, In The First Place, That A Heavy Cube (a) Of The Structureless Material Rests With Its Bottom Face Horizontal And In Contact With A Similar Cube (b). To Maintain Equilibrium, An Action Must Be Exerted At The Sur Face Of ...

Anatomy Of Muscular System
Muscular System, Anatomy Of (see Also Mus Cle, Structure Of). Here Only The Voluntary Muscles, Under The Control Of The Will, Are Considered. The Voluntary Muscles Form The Red Flesh Of An Animal, And Are The Structures By Which One Part Of The Body Is Moved At Will Upon Another. ...

Andre Massena
Massena, Andre, Duke Of Rivoli, Prince Of Essling (1756-1817), The Greatest Of Napoleon's Marshals, Son Of A Small Wine Merchant, It Is Said Of Jewish Origin, Was Born At Nice On May 6, 1756. He Began Life As A Cabin Boy, But In 1775 Enlisted In The Royal-italien Regiment. He ...

Andrew 1545 1622 Melville
Melville, Andrew (1545-1622), Scottish Scholar, Theologian And Religious Reformer, Was Born At Baldovy Near Mont Rose, On Aug. 1, 1545. His Father Fell At The Battle Of Pinkie (1547). The, Boy Was Educated At The Grammar School Of Mont Rose, After Leaving Which He Learned Greek From Pierre De Mar ...

Andrew William Mellon
Mellon, Andrew William Ameri Can Banker And Public Official, Was Born In Pittsburgh, Pa., On March 24, 1855, And Was Educated At Western University (now University Of Pittsburgh). He Entered The Banking House Of Thomas Mellon And Sons, Which Later Developed Into The Mellon National Bank, The Union Trust Company ...

Animated Cartoons
Animated Cartoons The Figure May Be Dispensed With And The Slit Itself Placed Very Close To The Film. In Fig. 6, Pl. Xiii, Is Shown An Example Of A Motion Picture Positive Film With The Accompanying Photographic Sound Track Record At One Edge. (c. E. K. M.; Na. L.) Projection ...

Anne Marie Louise Dor
Piontpensier, Anne Marie Louise D'or Leans, Duchesse De (1627-1693), French Was Born At The Louvre On May 29, 1627. Her Father Was Gaston Of Orleans, "monsieur," The Brother Of Louis Xiii. Her Mother Was Marie De Bourbon, Heiress Of The Montpensier Family. "la Grande Mademoiselle" Was Encouraged To Look Forward ...

Anne Montmorency
Montmorency, Anne, Duc De (1493-1567), Con Stable Of France, Was Born At Chantilly, And Was Brought Up With The Future King Francis I., Whom He Followed Into Italy In 1515, Distinguishing Himself Especially At Marignano. In 1516 He Be Came Governor Of Novara; In 1520 He Was Present At The ...

Antonio De 1490 1552 Mendoza
Mendoza, Antonio De (1490-1552), First Spanish Viceroy Of New Spain (mexico), Was Born Probably In 149o, At Alcala La Real, Near Granada, The Second Son Of Ingo Lopez De Mendoza, Captain-general Of The Christian Forces Investing Granada. At The Age Of 45, After Military And Administrative Experience In The Wars ...

Antonio Moro
Moro, Antonio (c. 1512-1575), Otherwise Known As Sir Anthony More, The Eminent Portrait-painter, Was Born At Utrecht In 1512, According To Some, But In 1525 According To Karl Van Mander In His Het Leven Der Schilders. He Studied His Art Under Jan Schoreel And After Making A Professional Visit To ...

Application Of The Theory
Application Of The Theory To Real Materials Scope Of The Theory.-37. The Theory Of Elasticity, And Hence The Solutions Which It Provides, Are Based Upon Three Main Assump Tions, Namely: (a) That The Material, And Therefore The Displacement, Are "con Tinuous " ; (b) That "hooke's Law" Is Satisfied; (c) ...

Applied Mathematics
Applied Mathematics Selection Of Topics.—the Selection Of The Topics Of Mathe Matical Inquiry Among The Infinite Variety Open To It Has Been Guided By The Useful Applications, And Indeed The Abstract Theory Has Only Recently Been Disentangled From The Empirical Elements Connected With These Applications. For Example, The Application Of ...

Army Medical Service
Medical Service, Army. An Army Medical Service (fr., Service De Sante; Ger., Sanitdtsdienst; It., Servizio Sanitario; Jap., Eisei Kimmu) Is An Indispensable Technical Branch Of The Military Organisation. On Its Efficiency The Man-power Of An Army To A Great Extent Depends. Its Duties Include The Care Of Sick And Wounded, ...

Arrangement And Planning
Arrangement And Planning The Method Of Housing And Arranging Picture Collections Has Changed With Changes In The Purpose They Are Intended To Serve. Broadly, Until The Last Quarter Of The Nineteenth Century, Pictures Were Treated Mainly As Material For The Decoration Of Walls: And The Ideal Picture Gallery Was Regarded ...

Artamon Sergeyevich Matveyev
Matveyev, Artamon Sergeyevich (d. 1682), Russian Statesman And Reformer, Was One Of The Greatest Of The Precursors Of Peter The Great. His Parentage And The Date Of His Birth Are Uncertain. In 1671 The Tsar Alexius And Arta Mon Were Already On Intimate Terms, And On The Retirement Of Orduin-nashchokin, ...

Arthur Meighen
Meighen, Arthur (1874— ), Canadian Statesman, Was Born At Anderson, In The County Of Perth, Ontario, On June 16, 1874, The Son Of Joseph And Mary Meighen. He Was Educated At St. Mary's Collegiate Institute And At Toronto University, And Became A Barrister-at-law. He Married In 1904 Jessie Isabel Cox, ...

Asia
Asia: Archaeology. (r. C. An.) History.—mongolia Has Been The Source Of Many Invasions And Raids Into China, The Most Noted Being The Mongol Conquest In The 13th Century. The Manchus Extended Their Power Over The Country And Made It Part Of The Chinese Empire. The Mongols Took Advantage Of The ...

Ass Chilognatha B Sub Ca
B. Sub-ca,ass Chilognatha. Integument Strengthened By Deposition Of Salts Of Lime. Hairs, When Present, Occur Singly, Not In Tufts. Sexually Modified Limbs In The Male On The 7th Seg Ment Or At The Hind End Of The Body. I. Opisth.andria. Male Has Sex Ually Modified Limbs (one Or Two Pairs) ...

Assumption Of Moses
Moses, Assumption Of, An Extra-canonical Apocalyp Tic Work Of The Old Testament. (see Apocalyptic Literature.) It Is A Prophecy Of The Future Relating To Israel, Put Into The Mouth Of Moses, And Addressed To Joshua Just Before The Great Lawgiver Died. Founded Upon The Book Of Deuteronomy, It Con Tains ...

Assyrian Influence
Assyrian Influence Assyrian Empire.—meanwhile Mesopotamia Continued To Be Crossed And Re-crossed By The Endless Marches Of The Assyrian Kings (such As Adad-nirari, Shalmaneser I. And His Son), Build Ing And Rebuilding The Assyrian Empire (see Babylonia And Assyria), And Eventually Pushing Their Conquests Towards Asia Minor At The Expense Of ...

August Ferdinand Mobius
Mobius, August Ferdinand Ger Man Astronomer And Mathematician, Was Born At Schulpforta On Nov. 17, 179o. At Leipzig, Gottingen And Halle He Studied For Four Years, And In 1815 Became Professor Of Astronomy At Leip Zig, Being Chosen Director Of The University Observatory, Which Was Erected (1818-1821) Under His Superintendence. ...

Baron 1868 1930 Alfred Moritz
Alfred Moritz Mond, Baron (1868-1930), British Politician, Was Born At Farnworth, Near Widnes, Lancs. On Oct. 23, 1868, The Son Of The Famous Chemist Ludwig Mond (q.v.). He Was Educated At Cheltenham And St. John's College, Cambridge, And Afterwards At Edinburgh Univer Sity. In 1894 He Was Called To The ...

Baron De La Brede
Baron De La Brede Et De (1689-1755), French Philosophical Historian, Was Born At The Château Of La Brede, Near Bordeaux, In January 1689. His Mother Was Marie Francoise De Penel, The Heiress Of A Gascon-english Family. She Had Brought La Brede As A Dowry To His Father, Jacques De Secondat, ...

Baron Munchausen
Munchausen, Baron. This Name Is Famous In Literary History On Account Of The Amusingly Mendacious Stories Known As The Adventures Of Baron Munchausen. In 1785 A Shilling Book Of 49 Pages Was Published In London, Called Baron Munchausen's Narrative Of His Marvellous Travels And Campaigns In Russia. No Copy Is ...

Baron Munchausen_2
Munchausen, Baron. This Name Is Famous In Literary History On Account Of The Amusingly Mendacious Stories Known As The Adventures Of Baron Munchausen. In 1785 A Shilling Book Of 49 Pages Was Published In London, Called Baron Munchausen's Narrative Of His Marvellous Travels And Campaigns In Russia. No Copy Is ...

Bartolome 1821 1906 Mitre
Mitre, Bartolome (1821-1906), Argentine States Man, Soldier, Author, Journalist And President Of The Republic, Was Born In Buenos Aires On July 26, 1821, The Son Of An Argentine Army Officer. While Still A Youth His Political Views Caused Him To Seek Refuge In Montevideo, And He Spent The Next 15 ...

Bartolome Esteban 1617 1682 Murillo
Murillo, Bartolome Esteban (1617-1682), Spanish Painter, Son Of Gaspar Esteban Murillo And Maria Perez, Was Born At Seville In 1617, And Baptized On Jan. 1, 1618. His Parents (the Father An Artisan Of A Humble Class), Placed Him Under The Painter Juan De Castillo, Who Was An Imitator Of The ...

Bartolomeo Montagna
Montagna, Bartolomeo Italian Painter, The Most Eminent Master Of The School Of Vicenza. He Was A Brescian By Birth. Vasari Classes Him Among The Pupils Of Andrea Mantegna, But Although There Can Be Little Doubt Of The Influence Of The Great Paduan Master On His Style, He More Prob Ably ...

Batesian And Mullerian Mimicry
Batesian And Mullerian Mimicry It Is Obvious That This Resemblance Between The Butterflies Of Distasteful Groups Is, As Bates Recognized, A Different Thing From The Mimicry He Sought To Explain By His Hypothesis—the Likeness Of A Harmless Or Palatable Species To A Formidable Or Nauseous One Which Advertises Its Qualities ...

Battle Of 45 Munda
Munda, Battle Of (45 B.c.). Whilst Caesar Was Campaigning In Africa, Pompey's Cause Was Revived In Spain By His Sons Gnaeus And Sextus Who Had Recruited A Large Army. From Africa Caesar Returned To Rome, And Towards The End Of 46 B.c. Once Again Proceeded To Spain Where He Suffered ...

Battle Of 45 Munda_2
Munda, Battle Of (45 B.c.). Whilst Caesar Was Campaigning In Africa, Pompey's Cause Was Revived In Spain By His Sons Gnaeus And Sextus Who Had Recruited A Large Army. From Africa Caesar Returned To Rome, And Towards The End Of 46 B.c. Once Again Proceeded To Spain Where He Suffered ...

Battle Of Monitor And
"monitor" And "merrimac," Battle Of, A Naval Engagement Which Was Fought Early In The American Civil War, Notable As The First Conflict Between Iron-clad Vessels. In The Spring Of 1861 The Federals Set Fire To Several War Vessels In The Gosport Navy Yard On The Elizabeth River (va.) And Abandoned ...

Battle Of Monmouth Court
Monmouth Court House, Battle Of. The Battle Of Monmouth Court House Was Fought (june 28, 1778) Between The Americans Under Gen. Washington And The British Commanded By Sir Henry Clinton, Who Having Evacuated Phila Delphia (june 18) Was Marching Through New Jersey To Sandy Hook. Washington Had Decided That For ...

Battles Of The Masurian
Masurian Lakes, Battles Of The, 1914 And 1915. (see Tannenberg.) It Was The Lake Barrier Which Had Proved The Undoing Of The Russians In Their Advance Into East Prussia, And Twice Again Was It To Bring About Their Defeat When The Germans In Their Turn Assumed The Offensive. Jilinsky Had ...

Boiler
Boiler, A Process Of Power Gen Eration Which Uses Mercury Instead Of Water In A Boiler. The Boiling Point Of Mercury As Compared With Water Is Given Below. It Will Be Seen That With Mercury Saturated Vapour Can Be Obtained With Low Pressures And With Much Higher Temperatures Than Is ...

Bustion Engines
Bustion Engines.) Mechanical Efficiency Is The Ratio Of Work Output Of The Engine To The Work Developed Within The Engine Cylin Ders. The Difference Is Accounted For By The Friction And Pumping Losses Within The Engine Itself. Of The Various Friction Losses, The Piston Friction Is The Largest. Con Siderable ...

Cal Education Medicallegislation
Cal Education ; Medical Legislation ; Medical Jurispru Dence And Medical Research, Authoritative Articles Are Pre Sented On Alimentary System, Diseases Of; Anaemia; Chil Dren, Diseases Of; Diabetes; Diagnosis; Diphtheria; En Cephalitis Lethargica ; Epilepsy ; Epileptic Fit ; Gout; Heart, Diseases Of ; Hydrophobia ; Influenza ; Insanity ; ...

Capacity Measures
Capacity Measures The Approximate Values Of Egyptian Capacities Are Anciently Stated By The Odd Quantities That Certain Vases Held; But As These Were Probably Measured To Some Unknown Point Below The Brim, The Result Cannot Be Exactly Defined. The Standard Vessels, Here Described, Intended For Gauging, Give Better Deter Minations ...

Carburetion And Manifolding
Carburetion And Manifolding The Engine, Properly Lubricated And Cooled, Produces Power By Converting The Chemical Energy Stored In The Fuel Into Mechanical Energy. A System Of Carburetion And Manifolding Functions In Supplying The Proper Mixture Of Air And Fuel, Which Is The Source Of The Engine's Power. Carburetion Is The ...

Cars In Great Britain
Cars In Great Britain The Following Special Table Shows The Number Of Private Cars In Use From 1917 To 1934 Together With The Annual Percentage In• Crease And Number Of Persons Per Car In The United Kingdom. Previous To 1911 The Various Types Of Motor Vehicles In Use Had Not ...

Caving
Caving Sub-level Caving.—this Method Is Suitable For The Large Scale Mining Of Ore That Is Moderately Hard, That Has Fairly Regular Limits And A Capping Which Caves Readily. The Method Is Used Chiefly In The Iron Mines Of The Lake Superior District. Fig. 9 Illustrates The Principles Of The Method. ...

Charles 1776 1835 Mathews
Mathews, Charles (1776-1835), English Actor, Was Born In London On June 28, 1776. His Father Was "a Serious Book Seller," Who Also Officiated As Minister In One Of Lady Hunting Don's Chapels. Mathews Was Educated At Merchant Taylors' School. For Several Years, From 1794 Onwards, Mathews Played In Dublin. In ...

Charles 1821 1868 Meryon
Meryon, Charles (1821-1868), French Etcher, Was Born In Paris On Nov. 24,1821. His Father Was An English Physi Cian, His Mother A French Dancer. Meryon's Childhood Was Spent With His Mother, But She Died When He Was Still Young, And He Entered The French Navy, And In The Corvette "le ...

Charles Auguste Louis Joseph
Morny, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, Duc De (1811-1865), French Statesman, Was The Natural Son Of Hortense Beauharnais (wife Of Louis Bonaparte, And Queen Of Holland) And Charles Joseph, Comte De Flahaut (q.v.), And Therefore Half-brother Of Napoleon Iii. He Was Born In Paris On Oct. 21, 1811, And Was Registered ...

Charles De Sainte Maure Montausier
Montausier, Charles De Sainte-maure, Due De (1610-169o), French Soldier, Was Born On Oct. 6, 161o, Being The Second Son Of Leon De Sainte-maure, Baron De Mon Tausier. His Parents Were Huguenots, And He Was Educated At The Protestant College Of Sedan Under Pierre Du Moulin. He Served Brilliantly At The ...

Charles Forbes Rene De
Montalembert, Charles Forbes Rene De (1810-187o), French Publicist, Historian, And Academician (1851), Was Born On March 15, 181o. Montalembert's Father, Marc Rene, Emigrated, Fought Under Conde, And Subsequently Served In The English Army; He Married Elise Rosee Forbes, And His Eldest Son, Charles, Was Born In London. At The Restoration ...

Charles Horace 1865 1939 Mayo
Mayo, Charles Horace (1865-1939), American Surgeon, Was Born At Rochester, Minn., On July 19, 1865. After Studying At The Rochester High School, Private Schools, North Western University And The Chicago Medical College He Began The Practice Of Surgery At Rochester, Minn., And With His Brother And Father Founded The Mayo ...

Charles Maurras
Maurras, Charles (1868— ), French Writer And Politician, Was Born At Martigues, Provence, Of A Royalist Family. He Began His Journalistic Career As Literary Critic In The Revue Encyclopedique And The Gazette De France. He Then Joined L'ac Tion Francaise Where He Was At First The Only Royalist On The ...

And Of The Prime
Table Of Lord Treasurers Or First Lords Of The Treasury From 1603, And Of The Prime Ministers From 1721 [for The Origin And History Of The Lord Treasurer's Office, See Treas Ury, Exchequer, And Lord High Treasurer. Since The Common Wealth The Office Of Lord Treasurer Has Been Executed By ...