MERRIAM, CLINTON HART (1855- ), American biologist, born in New York on Dec. 5, 1855, was educated at Yale and Columbia universities. In 1872 he accompanied the Hay den surveys in Utah, Idaho, Montana and Wyoming as naturalist; in 1875 he was assistant to the U.S. fish commission at Woods Hole, Mass. ; in 1876 be collected marine invertebrates in the Bay of Fundy; in 1881 he visited the Bermudas; in 1881 and 1882 he studied the life of the St. Lawrence river; and in 1883 he sailed to the Arctic seal fisheries as surgeon on the ship "Proteus." In 1885 he took charge of the newly-established division of orni thology and mammalogy in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, later called the U.S. biological survey in 1896. He had charge of the Death Valley expedition in 189o-91 and served as Bering sea commissioner to investigate seal fisheries off the Pribilof islands in 1891. In 1910 he became a research associate of the Smith sonian institution and conducted biological and ethnological inves tigations under the E. H. Harriman trust fund. He was also chair man of the U.S. geographic board, 1917-25. In later years he devoted himself to the distribution, linguistics and mythology of Pacific coast Indians. He first described many genera and species
of North American mammals and plants and has published over 400 scientific papers.
Among his books are: Birds of Connecticut (1877) ; Mammals of the Adirondacks (1882-84) ; Biological Survey of San Francisco Mountain Region and Desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona (189o) ; Biological Reconnaissance of Idaho (1891) ; Geographic Distribution of Life in North America (1892) ; Distribution of Trees and Shrubs in the Deserts and Desert Ranges (1893) ; Laws of Temperate Controls of the Geographic Distribution of Terrestrial Animals and Plants (1894) ; Monographic Revision of the Pocket Gophers (1895) ; Revision of the American Shrews (1895) ; Life Zones and Crop Zones of the United States (1898) ; Biological Survey of Mt. Shasta (1899) ; Indian Popu lation of California (19o5) ; Totemism in California (Ica) ; The Dawn of the World (Iwo) ; Review of the Grizzly and Brown Bears of America (1917) ; Baird the Naturalist (1924) ; William Healey Dall (1927).