Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-15-maryborough-mushet-steel >> Charles Mohun Mohun to Estimate Of Moliere >> Consumption of Milk_P1

Consumption of Milk

condensed, cream, pints, canada, england and ice

Page: 1 2

CONSUMPTION OF MILK Statistics indicate that of the 1,117 million gallons of milk produced (exclusive of that fed to calves, etc.), 888 millions were consumed in the liquid state. This figure ignores the surplus which would be used for manufacturing. On this basis it has been esti mated that the consumption per person in England and Wales is approximately 0.44 pts. per day.

For comparison, the consumption of milk per capita per day in the following countries is given:—Switzerland 1.83 pints, Sweden 1.48 pints, U.S.A., 1.00 pints, France 0.33 pints, and Berlin 0.30 pints.

Milk Products.—Butter and cheese production is largely con fined to the West of England. (See DAIRY FARMING.) Large quantities are imported, butter from Denmark, New Zealand, and Australia. New Zealand and Canada are the chief countries from which cheese supplies are drawn. Cream for sale finds a limited market, and recent legislation entirely prohibits the addition of preservatives to cream.

Ice Cream.—Accurate figures on the manufacture of ice cream are difficult to obtain. The consumption is steadily increasing and the sales in 1923 were quite 5 times greater than those in 1919.

Good ice cream is very nutritious and easily digested. Unlike the United States and Canada, England has no definite legal standard as to composition.

The constituents used are many including fresh milk, condensed or dried milk, butter, cream, eggs, sugar, flavouring chocolate, nuts and fruit, with gelatine, corn-flour and rennet as stabilisers.

The process through which the mix, or unfrozen ice cream, passes are as follows :—Weighing and mixing of ingredients, pas teurising, homogenizing, and standardising to smooth the mixture and form a perfect emulsion, cooling, ageing for 12-72 hours to improve the flavour and then finally freezing and hardening.

Condensed and Dried Milk.—Condensed milk is cow's milk, skimmed or full cream from which a large proportion of water has been evaporated. The varieties known to the trade are sweetened condensed milk, to which cane sugar has been added, unsweetened condensed or evaporated milk, bulk condensed milk, and concen trated milk, such designations referring to the degree of concen tration. Unsweetened varieties are sterilized during the manufac

turing process. In this country the composition, and concentration is limited by the Condensed Milk Regulations (1923), which re quire that all condensed milk imported or sold for human con sumption be contained in a tin or receptacle labelled as prescribed in the regulations. All condensed milk shall contain not less than:— quantities are obtained from the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and the United States.

Dried Casein.—Casein is prepared for food, and industrial purposes. The usual method is by curdling separated milk, either by rennet or by acid; the precipitated casein is then washed and dried. Two distinct types are produced, one for food and medicinal purposes, the other for use in the manufacture of paints, putties, plastic masses, artificial ivory, for waterproofing manufacture, and as a dressing for paper and cloth.

The imports of Casein into Great Britain are largely from New Zealand, France, and Argentina. Considerable progress in the manufacture and export of casein has taken place in New Zealand during the last few years.

Milk is produced on about 7o% of all the farms in the United States, in herds of 1 to 1 oo cows or more. The total number of cows milked varies from year to year but has shown a general tendency to increase. The same is true of the total annual pro duction of milk, which reached 1 oo million million pounds in 193o. The number of milch cows on farms and the total annual produc tion, 1924-37, as estimated by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture: England is the principal market for condensed milk, but con siderable quantities are re-exported. The Netherlands, Denmark, and the United States are the chief sources of supply, to a lesser extent Switzerland and Canada. A small amount is manufactured in this country.

Page: 1 2