MORTIER, EDOUARD ADOLPHE CASIMIR JO SEPH, DUKE OF TREVISO (1768-1835), marshal of France, was born at Cateau Cambresis on Feb. 13, 1768, and entered the army as a sub-lieutenant in 1791. He served in the campaigns of 1792 and 1793 on the north-eastern frontier and in the Nether lands, and subsequently on the Meuse and the Rhine. In the war against his second coalition in 1799 he was promoted successively general of brigade and general of division. Following his conduct of the French occupation of Hanover he was created marshal in 1804. He commanded a corps of the grande armee in the Ulm campaign, distinguishing himself by his brilliant action of Diirren stein; in i8o6 he was again in Hanover and north-western Ger many, and in 1807 he served with the grande armee in the Fried land campaign. In 18o8 he was created duke of Treviso, and he commanded an army corps in Napoleon's campaign for the re capture of Madrid. He won the victory of Ocafia in November
1809. In 1812 and 1813 he commanded the Young Guard, and in the "defensive" campaign of 1814 he rendered brilliant services in command of rearguards and covering detachments. In 1815, after the flight of Louis XVIII., he rejoined Napoleon, but at the opening of the Waterloo campaign he fell ill. After the second restoration he was for a time in disgrace, but in 1819 he was readmitted to the Chamber of Peers. In 183o-1831 he was am bassador of France at St. Petersburg, and in 1834-1835 minister of war and president of the council of ministers. In 1835, while accompanying Louis Philippe to a review, the marshal with eleven other persons was killed by the bomb aimed at the king by Fieschi (July 28, 1835).