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Mechanism
Mechanism Is The General Name For A Theory Which Holds That Natural Phenomena Can Be And Should Be Explained By Reference To Matter And Motion And Their Laws. The Term, How Ever, Is Used In Rather Different Senses In Different Contexts, Ac Cording To The Nature Of The Other View ...

Mechanization In Mountain Warfare
Mechanization In Mountain Warfare With Nations Which May Have To Wage War In Mountainous Coun Tries, And Especially With Colonial Empires, Such As The British And The French, Military Organisation Is Complicated By The Ter Rain, For Obviously Mechanized Weapons Are More Suited For War Fare On The Plains, And ...

Mechitharists
Mechitharists, A Congregation Of Armenian Monks In Communion With The Church Of Rome. The Founder, Mechithar, Was Born At Sebaste In Armenia, 1676. He Formally Joined The Latin Church, And In 1701, With Sixteen Companions, He Formed A Definitely Religious Institute Of Which He Became The Superior. Their Uniat Propaganda ...

Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg, A Territory In Northern Germany, On The Baltic Sea, Formerly Divided Into Two—mecklenburg-schwerin And Mecklenburg-strelitz : These Were Reunited In Jan., 1934. Mecklenburg-schwerin Is Bounded N. By The Baltic Sea, W. By Ratzeburg And Schleswig-holstein, S. By Brandenburg And Hanover, And E. By Pomerania And Mecklenburg-strelitz, And Possesses Three ...

Medea
Medea, A Famous Sorceress, Daughter Of Aeetes, King Of Colchis (gr. Miheea). She Fell In Love With Jason The Argonaut, And Exacted A Terrible Revenge For His Faithlessness (see Argo Nauts And Jason). After The Murder Of Jason's Second Wife And The Death Of Her Own Children, She Fled From ...

Mederic Louis Elie 1750 1819
Moreau De Saint Mery, Mederic Louis Elie (1750-1819), French Politician, Was Born At Fort De France, In The Island Of Martinique, On Jan. 28, 1750. He Came To Paris At The Age Of 19, And Became An Avocat At The Parlement Of Paris. He Returned To Martinique To Practise Law, ...

Medford
Medford, A City Of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, U.s.a., On The Mystic River, 5 M. N. By W. Of Boston. It Is Served By The Boston And Maine Railroad. The Population Was 39.038 In 192o (22% Foreign-born White), 47,627 In 1925 (state Census), And Was 59,714 In 1930 (by Federal Census). ...

Media
Media, The Ancient Name Of The North-western Part Of Iran, The Country Of The Medes, Corresponding To The Modern Provinces Of Azerbaijan, Ardelan, Irak Ajemi, And Parts Of Kurdistan. It Is Separated From Armenia And The Lowlands On The Tigris (as Syria) By The Mighty Ranges Of The Zagrus (mountains ...

Mediation
Mediation, In International Law The Intervention Of A Third Power, On The Invitation Or With The Consent Of Two Other Powers, For The Purpose Of Arranging Differences Before An Appeal To Arms Or After War Has Broken Out. In Either Case The Mediating Power Negotiates On Behalf Of The Parties ...

Medical Articles
Medical Articles. Under The General Subject Of Medicine Several Subdivisions Are Included, Viz., Anatomy, Pharma Cology And Therapeutics, Pathology, Midwifery And Diseases Of Women, Surgery, Medicine, Public Health, Tropical Medicine, Veterinary Medicine. In Each Instance A General Article Is Given In Which The Scope Of The Subject Is Presented, But ...

Medical Education
Medical Education. A Sound General Education Is Necessary For The Medical As For All Other Learned Professions. In Great Britain Before Admission To A Course Of Training A Boy Or Girl Is Required To Show In An Examination Of Matriculation, Character And Standard That He Or She Has Acquired A ...

Medical Jurisprudence
Medical Jurisprudence Deals With The Relation Ships Of Law And Medicine. A Registered Medical Practitioner Is One Whose Name Appears On The Register Kept By The General Medical Council Established Under The Medical Acts Of 1858 To 1886 To Set Up Standards Of Professional Knowledge, To Keep A Register Of ...

Medical Legislation
Medical Legislation, Though Of Great Antiquity, Has Only Recently Taken A Prominent Place In The Statute Books Of Civilized Countries. In The Last 20 Years, Statutes Have Been Passed In Many Countries Creating Or Reorganizing The Central Public Health Authority. The Ministry Of Health For England And Wales Created By ...

Medical And Surgical Societies
Medical And Surgical Societies. The First Meeting Of The Congres Medical International Was Held At Paris In 1867 ; A Bulletin Has Been Issued Annually Since 1868, And The First Surgical Congress Was Held In Paris In 1885. The First Congres Periodique Internat. D'ophthalmologie Took Place At Brussels In 1857. ...

Medici
Medici, The Name Of A Famous Italian Family. Legend De Clared That The House Was Founded By Perseus, And That Benvenuto Cellini's Bronze Perseus Holding On High The Head Of Medusa Was Executed And Placed In The Loggia Dei Lanzi At Florence To Sym Bolize The Victory Of The Medici ...

Medicine
Medicine (see Also Medicine, General ; Medical Re Search), The Department Of Knowledge And Practice Dealing With Disease And Its Treatment In Man And Domestic Animals. In A More Limited Sense It Implies That Branch Of The Whole Which Is Contrasted With Surgery. Medicine Regards The Normal In Health As ...

Mediolanum
Mediolanum, The Chief Ancient City In Gallia Transpa Dana (mod. Milan, Q.v.), Italy. The Name Is Celtic. The Romans Defeated The Insubres In 225-222 B.c., And Stormed Mediolanum Itself In The Latter Year. Its Inhabitants Rebelled In The Hanni Balic War, But Were Reduced To Obedience In 196 B.c. In ...

Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean Is All That Remains Of A Great Ocean Which At An Early Geological Epoch En Circled Half The Globe Along A Line Of Latitude. This Ocean, Already Diminished In Area, Retreated After Oligocene Times From The Iranian Plateau, Turkistan, Asia Minor And The Region Of The ...

Meerschaum
Meerschaum, A German Word Designating A Soft White Mineral Sometimes Found Floating On The Black Sea, And Rather Suggestive Of Sea-foam (meerschaum), Whence Also The French Name For The Same Substance, Ecume De Mer. It Was Termed By E. F. Glocker Sepiolite, In Allusion To Its Remote Resemblance To The ...

Meerut
Meerut, A City, District And Division Of British India, In The United Provinces. The City (pop. [1931], 136,709), Lies South Of The Cantonments, And Although Dating Back To The Days Of The Buddhist Emperor Asoka (c. 250 B.c.) Meerut Owes Its Modern Importance To Its Selection By The British Government ...

Meeting
Meeting. Public Meetings May Be Either Those Of Statutory Bodies Or Assemblies Of Persons Called Together For Social, Political Or Other Purposes. In The Case Of Statutory Bodies, By-laws Usu Ally Fix The Quorum Necessary To Constitute A Legal Meeting. That Of Limited Companies May Be Either By Reference To ...

Megalopolis
Megalopolis, An Ancient City Of Arcadia, Greece, In A Plain About 20 M. S.w. Of Tegea, On Both Banks Of The Helisson, About 21 M. Above Its Junction With The Alpheus. It Was Founded By The Theban General Epaminondas In 370 B.c., As A Bulwark For The Southern Arcadians Against ...

Megara
Megara, An Ancient Greek Town On The Saronic Gulf, Be Tween Attica And Corinth. Its District, 111e-yapts Or Rl Meyapuci, Is Bounded By Attica, Boeotia, Corinth, And The Two Gulfs, Mount Geraneia Extending Across The Country From East To West, Forms A Barrier Between Continental Greece And The Peloponnesus. The ...

Megarian School Of Philosophy
Megarian School Of Philosophy. This School Was Founded By Euclides Of Megara, One Of The Pupils Of Socrates. Two Main Elements Went To Make Up The Megarian Doctrine. Like The Cynics And The Cyrenaics, Euclides Started From The Socratic Principle That Virtue Is Knowledge. But Into Combination With This He ...

Meiji Tenno
Meiji Tenno (mutsu Hito), Tenno, Or Emperor Of Japan (1852-1912), Was Born On Nov. 3, 1852, Succeeded His Father, Komei Tenno, The Former Emperor, In Jan. 1867, And Was Crowned At Osaka On Oct. 31, 1868. The Country Was Then In A Ferment Owing To The Concessions Which Had Been ...

Meir
Meir, Jewish Rabbi Of The 2nd Century, Was Born In Asia Minor And According To Legend Was A Descendant Of The Family Of Nero. He Was The Most Notable Of The Disciples Of Aqiba (q.v.), And After The Hadrianic Repressions Of A.d. 135 Was Instrumental In Refounding The Palestinian Schools ...

Meissen
Meissen. The Mark Of Meissen Was Originally A District Centring Round The Castle Of Meissen Or Misnia On The Middle Elbe, Which Was Built About 92o By The German King Henry I., The Fowler, As A Defence Against The Slays. After The Death Of Gero, Margrave Of The Saxon East ...

Meissen_2
Meissen, A Town Of Germany, In The Land Of Saxony, On Both Banks Of The Elbe, 15 M. N.w. From Dresden, On The Railway To Leipzig Via Dobeln. Pop. (1933) 46,998. Meissen Was Founded About 920 By Henry The Fowler And From 968 To 1581 Was The Seat Of A ...

Meistersinger
Meistersinger, The Name Given To The German Lyric Poets Belonging To The Artisan And Trading Classes In The I4th, 15th And I6th Centuries. They Professed To Carry On The Tra Ditions Of The Mediaeval Minnesingers (q.v.), Regarding As The Founders Of Their Gild 12 Of The Greater Poets Of The ...

Meithei
Meithei, The Principal Tribe Inhabiting The Valley Of Mani Pur In Assam ; Probably Of Mixed Origin And Related To The Kuki And Naga Tribes, The Ao In Particular, Also Probably To The Syn Tengs And Kacharis. They Have A Culture Probably Shan In Origin, Though Never Buddhist, And Hinduized ...

Mekong Or Me Nam
Mekong Or Me Nam Kong (pronounced Kawng), Some Times Known As The Cambodia River, The Great River _ Of Indo China, Having Its Origin In The Tibetan Highlands. It Is One Of The Longest Rivers In Asia. It Is About 2,800 M. In Length, Of Which 1,200 Flow Through Portions ...

Melanesia
Melanesia, One Of The Three Great Divisions Of The Oceanic Islands In The Central And Western Pacific. It Embraces The New British Archipelago, North-east Of New Guinea, The Louisiade, Solomon, Santa Cruz, New Hebrides And Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji And Intervening Small Groups. The Name (gr. Oas, Black, And ...

Melbourne
Melbourne, The Capital Of Victoria, Australia, And From 1901-1927 The Seat Of The Commonwealth Government, Situated On Port Phillip In About The Central South Of The State, Forms, With Sydney, One Of The Leading Cities Of The Commonwealth And Of The Southern Hemisphere. Its Growth From A Small Settlement, Made ...

Melds
Melds (mod. Milo), An Island Of The Aegean Sea, At The S.w. Corner Of The Cyclades Group, 75 M. Due E. From The Coast Of Laconia ; About 14 M. From E. To W., 8 M. From N. To S ; Area About 52 Sq.m. The Greater Portion Is Rugged ...

Meletius Of Antioch
Meletius Of Antioch (d. 381), Catholic Bishop And Saint, Was Born At Melitene In Lesser Armenia Of Wealthy And Noble Parents. He First Appears (c. 357) As A Supporter Of Acacius, Bishop Of Caesarea, The Leader Of That Party In The Episcopate Which Supported The Homoean Formula By Which The ...

Melilla
Melilla, Chief Town Of A Spanish Military Circumscription And The Seat Of An Important Garrison, On The North-east Coast Of Morocco, South Of Cape Tres Forcas And 135 M. E.s.e. Of Ceuta. The Old Town Is Built On A Huge Rock Connected With The Main Land By A Rocky Isthmus. ...

Melody
Melody Is The Organization Of Successive Musical Sounds In Respect Of Pitch (gr. I.lexcooia, A Choral Song, From Aixos, Tune, And Cphii, Song). In Its Most Primitive State It Already Re Quires Rhythm (q.v.) ; But It Can Develop Freely Without The Aid Of Harmony, Which Removes It Into A ...

Melrose
Melrose, A Police Burgh And Parish Of Roxburghshire, Scotland. Pop. (1931), 2,052. It Lies On The Right Bank Of The Tweed, 37+ M. S.e. Of Edinburgh, By The L.n.e. Railway. The Name Is Derived From The Celtic Maol Ros, "bare Moor," And The Town Figures In Sir Walter Scott's Abbot ...

Melun
Melun, A Town Of Northern France, Capital Of The Department Of Seine-et-marne, Situated North Of The Forest Of Fontainebleau, 28 M. S.s.e. Of Paris By Rail. Pop. (1931) 14,305. In Caesar's Gallic Wars Melun (melodunum) Was Taken By His Lieutenant Labienus, With A View To Attacking Lutetia By The Right ...

Memel
Memel, A Town Of Lithuania, 91 M. By Rail N.n.e. Of Konigsberg On The Bank Of The Sound Through Which The Kurische Haff And The River Nemunas Or Niemen (called Memel In Its Lower Course) Connect With The Baltic. Pop. Mainly German. The Entrance To The Harbour Is Protected By ...

Memnon
Memnon, In Greek Mythology, Son Of Tithonus (q.v.) And Eos (dawn), King Of The Aethiopians. Although Mentioned In Hesiod And The Odyssey, He Is Rather A Post-homeric Hero. After The Death Of Hector He Went To Assist His Uncle Priam Against The Greeks. He Performed Prodigies Of Valour, But Was ...

Memory
Memory. The Term "memory" Denotes The Mental Proc Esses Whereby Past Experience Is Recalled To Present Conscious Ness. Used Strictly It Denotes An Individual's Recall Of His Own Life Story. His Memory Knowledge Is What He Can Recall Of Events Which Happened To Him In The Past. The Knowledge Is ...

Memphis
Memphis, The Capital Of Egypt Through Most Of Its Early History, Now Represented By The Rubbish Mounds At Bedreshen On The W. Bank Of The Nile 14 M. S. Of Cairo. As The Chief Seat Of The Worship Of Ptah, The Artisan God (hephaestus), Memphis Must Have Existed From A ...

Memphis_2
Memphis, The Largest City Of Tennessee, U.s.a., A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Shelby County; On The Mississippi River, In The South-west Corner Of The State. It Is On Federal High Ways 51, 61, 7o, 72 And 78, And Is Served By The Frisco, The Illi Nois ...

Menai Strait
Menai Strait, A Channel Of The Irish Sea, Separating Anglesey From Carnarvonshire, North Wales, Extending 14 M. From Beaumaris To Abermenai, And Varying In Breadth From 200 Yd. To 2 M. It Is Famous For The Suspension And Tubular Bridges Which Cross It. The Suspension Bridge Carries The Holyhead Road ...

Menam
Menam, The Chief River Highway Of Siam, On Whose Yearly Rise And Fall Depends The Rice Crop Of Lower Siam. Rising In The State Of Nan, Upon The Mountain Mass Of Doi Luang, It Is Known As The Nam Ngob, After A Village Of That Name. As The Nam Nan, ...

Menasseh Ben Israel
Menasseh Ben Israel (c. 1604-1657), Jewish Leader, Was Born In Lisbon About 1604, And Was Brought Up In Amsterdam. His Family Had Suffered Under The Inquisition, But Found An Asylum First In La Rochelle And Later In Holland. Here Menasseh Rose To Eminence As Rabbi, Author And Printer. He Established ...

Mencius
Mencius, The Latinized Form Of M5.ng-tsze, "mr. Mang," Or "mang The Philosopher" (fl. 3rd Cent. B.c.), A Chinese Moral Teacher Whose Name Stands Second Only To That Of Confucius. His Statue Or Spirit-tablet (as The Case May Be) Has Occupied, In The Temples Of The Sage, Since Our 11th Century, ...

Mendelism
Mendelism Is The Scientific Theory Relating To The Distribu Tive Mechanism Of Organic Inheritance, Promulgated In 1866 By The Abbot G. J. Mendel, To Interpret Certain Phenomena Revealed By The Experimental Breeding Of Plants. Born In A Peasant Family In 1822, Johann Gregor Mendel Became A Monk And Eventually Abbot ...

Mendicant Movement And Orders
Mendicant Movement And Orders. The Facts Concerning The Rise Of The Orders Of Mendicant Friars Are Related In The Articles On The Several Orders (franciscans, Do Minicans, Carmelites, Augustinian Hermits) . The Striking Phenomenon In Connection With The Beginnings Of The Mendicant Orders Is The Rapidity With Which The Movement ...

Mendoza
Mendoza, A Province Of Western Argentina, Bounded North By San Juan, East By San Luis And The Territory Of La Pampa, South By The Territories Of La Pampa And Neuquen, And West By The Republic Of Chile. Area, 56,502 Sq.m.; Pop. (1914), (1933, Estimate), 459,634. The Andes Form The Western ...

Mendoza_2
Mendoza, A City Of Argentina, Capital Of Mendoza Prov Ince, 632 M. By Rail W.n.w. Of Buenos Aires. Pop. (193o Est.), 76,780. It Stands On A Plain Near The Foot Of A Secondary Andean Range Called The Sierra De Los Paramillos, At An Elevation Of 2,32o Feet. The Surrounding District ...

Menelek Ii Sahala Mariem
Menelek Ii. (sahala Mariem) (1844-1913), Emperor Of Abyssinia, Officially Negus Negusti (king Of Kings) Of Ethiopia, Son Of Haeli Melicoth, King Of Shoa, Was Born In 1844, And Claimed To Be A Direct Descendant Of Solomon By The Queen Of Sheba. Men Elek Was The Real Creator Of The Modern ...

Mengtze
Mengtze, A City Of South China In The South-east Of The Province Of Yunnan (23° 24' N., 103° 2 2' E.), Situated In A Fertile And Well Cultivated Basin On The High Plateau, 4,30o Feet Above Sea-level, And Enjoying A Climate Which, Tempered By The High Altitude, Is Equable And ...

Meningitis
Meningitis, A Term In Medicine Applied To Inflammation Affecting The Membranes Of The Brain (cerebral Meningitis) Or Spinal Cord (spinal Meningitis) Or Both. Tuberculous Meningitis (or Acute Hydrocephalus) Is A Disease Due To Inflammation Of The Meninges Of The Brain Produced By B. Tuberculosis. It Is Most Common In Children ...

Menno Simons 1492 1559
Menno Simons (1492-1559), Religious Leader, Was Born In 1492 At Witmarsum, Friesland. He Was Ordained Priest, And Was Curate At Pingjum, Near His Native Place When He Began To Read Luther's Tracts, To Study The New Testament And To Question Infant Baptism. The Execution, In 1531, At Leeuwarden, Of The ...

Mennonites
Mennonites, A Body Of Religionists Taking Their Name From Menno Simons (see Below), Who Maintain A Form Of Chris Tianity Which, Discarding The Sacerdotal Idea, Owns No Authority Outside The Bible And The Enlightened Conscience, Limits Bap Tism To The Believer, And Lays Stress On Those Precepts Which Vindicate The ...

Menopause Climacteric
Menopause (climacteric), A Medical Term Meaning Primarily The Cessation Of Menstruation, But Has Come To Connote The Permanent Cessation Of The Monthly Periods That Forms The Most Obvious Sign That The Reproductive Life Of A Woman Has Come To An End. Translated Into Popular Language It Is "the Change Of ...

Menstruation
Menstruation. Normal Menstruation Consists In The Escape Of From 4 To 6 Oz. Of Blood Together With Mucus From The Uterus At Intervals Of 28 Days (more Or Less). Menstrual Blood Does Not Coagulate Under Ordinary Circumstances. The Flow Begins At The Age Of Puberty, The Average Age Of Which ...

Mensuration Of Geometrical Figures
Mensuration Of Geometrical Figures I. Areas Of Plane Rectilinear Figures.—(i.) We Begin With Some Simple Plane Figures. The Square, Rectangle, Parallelogram And Triangle May All Be Regarded As Particular Cases Of The Trapezium (u.s.a. Usage, Trapezoid, The Word "trapezium" Being Generally Dropped), Which Is A Quadrilateral With Two Parallel Sides. ...

Mental Deficiency
Mental Deficiency. Mental Defectiveness, As De Fined By The British Mental Deficiency Act 1927 Is, "a Condition Of Arrested Or Incomplete Development Of Mind Existing Before The Age Of Eighteen Years, Whether Arising From Inherent Causes Or Induced By Disease Or Injury." Mental Deficiency, Which Is Often Inherited As A ...

Mentawei
Mentawei, A Group Of Islands Off The West Coast Of Sumatra, D.e. Indies. They Include Siberut, Sipura And Pageh (pagai), Or Nassau. They Are Volcanic, And Sunken Coral Reefs Render Them Dangerous To Approach. The Islands Generally Are Covered With Thick Forests. There Are A Few Small Rivers In Siberut. ...

Mentone
Mentone (fr. Menton), A Town In The Department Of The Alpes Maritimes In South-east France, On The Shore Of The Medi Terranean, About 15 M. By Rail E. Of Nice. Pop. (1931) 20,055. Mentone Was Probably The Lumone Of The Itineraries, But No Roman Remains Exist. After Having Belonged To ...

Menus
Menus. The Literal Interpretation Of The Word Menu Is "minute Detail," And It Is Used To Denote The Particulars Of The Different Courses Of A Meal. A Menu Should Be Drawn Up For Every Meal, However Simple Or Elaborate, In Order That The Food May Be Well Balanced And That ...

Mephistopheles
Mephistopheles, In The Faust Legend, The Name Of The Evil Spirit In Return For Whose Assistance Faust Signs Away His Soul. The Origin Of The Conception And Name Has Been Much Debated. In Dr. Faust's Hollenzwang "mephistophiel" Is One Of The Seven Great Princes Of Hell; "he Stands Under The ...

Mequinez
Mequinez, A City Of Morocco, Situated 514 Metres Above The Sea, About 7o M. From The West Coast And 36 M. W.s.w. Of Fez, On A Long Spur In A Plain Bounded On The North By The Massif Of Jebel Zerhoun And On The South By The Plateaux Of Mid-atlas ...

Mercantile System
Mercantile System. The Name Given To The Economic Policy Which Developed In Europe At The Close Of The Middle Ages. The Doctrine Of The Mercantile System, Stated In Its Most Extreme Form, Made Wealth And Money Identical, And Re Garded It Therefore As The Great Object Of A Community So ...

Mercerizing
Mercerizing. The Term Applied To A Process Of Treating Cotton And Other Vegetable Fibres With Certain Chemical Reagents, Especially Caustic Soda, Whereby Considerable Improvement In Some Properties Of The Material Is Effected. Caustic Soda Solution Of Over 13.5% Strength (3o°tw) Causes Cotton To Shrink Consider Ably And To Become Stiff ...

Merchant Bankers
Merchant Bankers. Private Banking Firms Which Do Not Conduct An Ordinary Banking Business But Confine Them Selves Chiefly To Acceptance And Loan Issuing. In Most Cases They Have Been Evolved Out Of Merchant Firms Engaged In Foreign Com Mercial Business; Whose Foreign Connections And Activities Caused Large Amounts Of Foreign ...

Mercia
Mercia, One Of The Kingdoms Of Anglo-saxon England. The Original Kingdom Seems To Have Lain In The Upper Basin Of The Trent, Comprising The Greater Part Of Staffordshire, Derbyshire And Nottinghamshire And The Northern Parts Of Warwickshire And Leicestershire. The Name (merce) Seems To Denote Men Of The March, And ...