MILORAD OVICH, MICHAEL ANDRIJEVICH, COUNT (177o-1825), Russian general, saw service under Suvarov in the wars against Turkey and Poland, and in the campaign of Italy and Switzerland (1799) earned much distinction as a com mander of advanced troops. In 1805, having attained the rank of lieutenant-general, he served under Kutusov in the campaign of Austerlitz. In the Turkish War he distinguished himself at Guir gevo (1807). Promoted general of infantry in 181o, he com manded a corps at Borodino, and subsequently inflicted the defeat of Tarutino (or Winkovo) on Murat, king of Naples (Oct. 18, 1812). His corps was one of those most active in the pursuit of Napoleon's Grande Armee, and in 1813 he led the rear-guard of the Allies after their earlier defeats. He led a Russian-Prussian corps, at Leipzig and in the campaign of 1814. From 1818 to the time of his death he was military governor of St. Petersburg. He perished in the popular outbreak in the capital, on Dec. 26, 1825. MILOS OBRENOVIC I. (178o-186o), prince of Serbia, founder of the ObrenoviC dynasty, was born in 1780 of poor Serbian peasants, and began life as a cattle-drover. Appointed voivode by Karageorge (q.v.) in 1807, Milog distinguished him self both as military leader and administrator, and early became one of the leaders of the Russophil opposition to Karageorge, with whom he had a personal feud, believing him to have poisoned his half-brother. He was one of the few Serb leaders who re mained behind when Karageorge and his followers fled in 1813 (see SERBIA) and obtained from the Turks the post of voivode of Rudnik, in central Serbia, in return for his co-operation in restoring order. His attitude, when a fresh Serbian revolt broke out against the cruelties of the returning Turks, was at first most equivocal; but at last he decided to join the rebels, and on Palm Sunday 1815 proclaimed the new revolt in the church of Takovo.
By diplomatic astuteness and bribery, but chiefly by represent ing himself to the Turks as alone capable of restraining the ex treme Serbian patriots, Milog persuaded them to raise no active opposition to his election in 1817 as supreme prince of Serbia; shortly before he had almost certainly had his old chief and rival Karageorge murdered in his sleep. The Turkish regime was gradu ally relaxed, although the new position remained undefined, until the Hatti-sherif of 1830 recognized Milog as hereditary prince, besides granting the Serbs other concessions.
While preserving the appearance of loyalty to the Porte, Milog actually furthered his own ambitions. He did much for the organization of his country, but more for himself, and so tyran nical were the methods by which he enriched himself as to evoke a rebellion in 1824. His general enemies were assassinated; his officials forced to dust his boots ; and he secured to himself the monopoly of the export of swine to Austria, Serbia's most lucra tive trade. At last his exasperated people forced him in 1835 to grant a democratic constitution which in turn brought on him the disfavour both of the Porte and of Russia. Russia's intrigues with the Serb opposition at last forced Milog to abdicate (1839). His sons Milan and Michael III. (q.v.) ruled Serbia; Milog lived on his estates in Rumania, or in Vienna. He was recalled to the throne in 1859, on the deposition of Prince Alexander KarageorgeviC, but had only just time to show that his ideas remained unchanged. He died on Sept. 27, 1860, in Belgrade.