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Encyclopedia Britannica

Millennium
Millennium, Literally A Period Of A Thousand Years, (a Pseudo-latin Word Formed On The Analogy Of Biennium, Triennium, From Lat. Mille, A Thousand, And Annus, Year). The Term Is Spe Cially Used Of The Period Of ',coo Years During Which Christ, As Has Been Believed, Would Return To Govern The ...

Millet
Millet, A Name Applied To A Number Of Very Different Species Of Cereals And Grasses Belonging To Distinct Genera And Even Sub Families Of The Gramineae (grasses). They Are Grown In Europe And The United States As Forage And In Asia And Africa As Food Crops. The Four Genera, Chaetochloa ...

Milling Machines
Milling Machines Are A Highly Important Class Of Machine Tool Which Will Perform Almost All The Operations Neces Sary In Metal-cutting, By Means Of Revolving Cutters Past Which The Work Is Fed. Milling Was First Done In The Lathe, The Cutter Being Rotated Between The Centres, While The Slide Traversed ...

Millipede
Millipede, An Animal With A Dis Tinct Head, One Pair Of Feelers (antennae) And A Segmented Body Not Divided Up Into Regions Like That Of Most Arthropods. Each Typical Segment Of The Body Is Provided With Two Pairs Of Walking Legs (fig. 5). The Millipedes Form In The Phylum Arthropoda ...

Milovan 86 Milovanovic
Milovanovic, Milovan 86 Serbian Statesman And Diplomatist, Was Born At Belgrade On March 2, 1863, And Was Educated There And In Paris, Where He Was The First Serb To Take His Degree As Doctor Of Law And Was Awarded A Gold Medal For His Thesis. On Returning Home He Was ...

Milwaukee
Milwaukee, The Largest City Of Wisconsin, U.s.a., And The 12th In Size In The United States (1930), On Lake Michigan, 85m. N. Of Chicago; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Mil Waukee County. It Is On Federal Highways 16, 18, 41 And 141 ; Has , Municipal ...

Mimetite
Mimetite, A Mineral Consisting Of Lead Chloro-arsenate, Crystallizing In The Hexagonal System And Closely Resembling Pyromorphite (q.v.) In Appearance And General Characters. The Arsenic Is Usually Partly Replaced By Equivalent Amounts Of Phosphorus, And There May Thus Be A Gradual Passage From Mimetite To Pyromorphite. The Two Species Can, As ...

Mimicry
Mimicry. The Word Mimicry Is Applied By Naturalists To Certain Advantageous Resemblances Between Animals, And In Some Instances Between Plants. The Resemblance Of The Common Dead Nettle To The Stinging Nettle, With Which It Is Commonly Associated, Is A Good Example Of Plant Mimicry. These Resemblances Are In Dependent Of ...

Mimosa
Mimosa, So Named From The Movements Of The Leaves In Many Species Which "mimic" Animal Sensibility, A Genus Of 400 Species Of The Family Leguminosae, Which Gives Its Name To The Large Sub-order Mimoseae (characterized By Usually Small Regu Lar Flowers With Valvate Corolla), To Which Belongs Also The Nearly ...

Minaret
Minaret, The Tower Usually Attached To A Mohammedan Mosque, From Which The Muezzin Gives The Call To Prayer At The Appointed Hour. The Origin Of The Form Has Been Traced To The Pharos Or Lighthouse At Alexandria. The Arabic Word Manor Or Minar Signifies Lighthouse. Early Examples Are Those Built ...

Minas Geraes
Minas Geraes (i.e., "general Mines"), Popularly Minas, An Inland State Of Brazil, Covers An Area Of 221,861 Sq. M. Upon The Great Brazilian Plateau. Among The Brazilian States It Is Fifth In Size And First In Population—estimated At 7,442,243 In 193o. The Surface Of Minas Geraes Is Broken By Mountain ...

Minbu
Minbu, A District In The Magwe Division Of Burma. The Dis Trict Has An Area Of 3,594 Sq.m., And A Population (1931) Of 277,876, Showing An Increase Of 11,922 In The Decade And A Density Of 83 Inhabitants To The Square Mile. The District May Be Said To Consist Of ...

Minden
Minden, A Town Of Germany, In The Prussian Province Of Westphalia, 44 M. By Rail To The W.s.w. Of Hanover, On The Left Bank Of The Weser. Pop. (1933) 28,646• Minden (mindun, Mindo), Apparently A Trading Place Of Some Importance In The Time Of Charlemagne, Was Made The Seat Of ...

Minehead
Minehead, A Market Town And Seaside Resort Of Somerset Shire, England, 188 M. W. By S. Of London By The G.w. Railway. Pop. Of Urban District 6,315. Minehead Owed Its Origin And Growth To Its Good Harbour. Certain Documents Suggest That It Had A Corporate Existence During The 15th Century, ...

Minel Axing
Minel Axing Mines Are Laid By Vessels Specially Fitted To Carry Them. In Surface Vessels The Mines Rest On Their Sinkers Which Have Wheels At The Bottom Running On Rails Laid On The Decks In A Fore And Aft Direction. Means Are Provided For Hauling The Mines Along These Rails ...

Minelaying And Minesweeping Mines
Mines, Minelaying And Minesweeping. A Submarine Mine Is A Weapon Used For The Attack And Defence Of Harbours And Anchorages Or To Deny The Use Of Certain Areas Of Water To Ships. Briefly, It Consists Of A Charge Of Explosive, Con Tained In A Water-tight Case, Intended By Its Explosion ...

Mineral Phosphates
Mineral Phosphates. In Mineralogy, Those Varieties Of Native Calcium Phosphate Which Are Not Distinctly Crystallized, Like Apatite (q.v.), But Occur In Fibrous, Compact Or Earthy Masses, Often Nodular, And More Or Less Impure, Are Included Under The General Term Phosphorite. The Name Seems To Have Been Given Originally To The ...

Mineralogy
Mineralogy, The Science Which Describes And Classifies The Different Kinds Of Mineral Matter Constituting The Material Of The Earth's Crust And Of Those Extra-terrestrial Bodies Called Meteorites. The Study Of Minerals Is Thus A Branch Of Natural History, But One In Which Certain Of The Exact Sciences Find An Application. ...

Miners Phthisis
Miners' Phthisis. Almost Any Dust Inhaled In Sufficient Quantity May Cause Chest Trouble, But Certain Dusts Are Related To The Occupational Disease Variously Known As Miners' Phthisis, Pneumonoconiosis, Grinders' Rot, Potters' Rot, Stonecutters' Rot, Etc. Good Currents Of Dust-free Air Is The Great Safeguard Because, By Treating The Air-borne Dust ...

Minesweeping
Minesweeping Methods Of Sweeping.—at The Outbreak Of War, The British System Of Minesweeping Was For Two Vessels To Tow A Stout Wire Between Them, The Wire Being Kept At The Required Depth By Means Of Water Kites, One Being Attached To Each Side And Towed Astern Of Each Vessel. The ...

Miniature Painting In The
Miniature Painting In The East The Beginnings Of Miniature Painting In The Mohammedan East Are Obscure, In Consequence Of The Various Forces Of Destruction That Have Laid In Ruins So Many Of The Centres Of Muslim Culture, As Well As The Hostile Attitude Of The Theologians Towards All Forms Of ...

Minimum Wage
Minimum Wage. A Wage-rate Fixed Either By Collective Agreement, Or (more Commonly) By Legal Enactment, Or By Some Other Means, As The Lowest Wage Payable To Workers Either Gen Erally Or In A Particular Craft Or Grade. The Phrase Is Most Fre Quently Used In Connection With The Various Minimum ...

Ministry
Ministry, The Office Of A Minister (q.v.) In All Its Mean Ings, Political And Religious, Or The Body Of Persons Holding Such An Office And Performing Its Duties ; More Particularly The Body Of Persons Who, In Theory The Servants At The Head Of The State, Act As The Responsible ...

Ministry Of Munitions
Munitions, Ministry Of. The Ministry Of Muni Tions Of The United Kingdom Was Created By Act Of Parliament In May 1915 On The Formation Of The First Coalition Government. The Events Which Preceded Its Formation Belong To The Political History Of That Period, But, In Effect, The Creation Of The ...

Mink
Mink, A Name For Certain Large Species Of The Genus Putorius (polecat), Distinguished By Slight Structural Modifications Con Nected With Their Semi-aquatic Habits. The Two Best-known Species, P. Lutreola, Of Eastern Europe, And P. Visor, The Mink Of North America Are Very Similar. The Former Inhabits Finland, Poland And The ...

Minneapolis
Minneapolis, The Largest City Of Minnesota, U.s.a., A Port Of Entry, And The County Seat Of Hennepin County; At The Falls Of St. Anthony And The Head Of Navigation On The Mississippi River, 2,16o M. From Its Mouth, Immediately Above And West Of St. Paul, And Exactly Midway Between The ...

Minnesingers
Minnesingers, The Name Given To The German Lyric Poets Of The 12th And 13th Centuries. The Term Minnesang, Strictly Applicable To The Poems Expressing The Homage (minnedienst) Rendered By The Knight To His Mistress, Is Applied To The Whole Body Of Lyric Poetry Of The Period, Whether Dealing With Love, ...

Minnesota
Minnesota, A North-central State Of The United States Of America. It Is Bounded North By The Canadian Provinces Of Manitoba And Ontario, East By Lake Superior And Wisconsin, South By Iowa And West By South And North Dakota. It Is The Eleventh State In Size In The Union, With A ...

Minor Planet
Minor Planet. The Minor Planets Or Asteroids Are A Vast Host Of Very Small Planets That Revolve Round The Sun In Orbits That Nearly All Lie Between Those Of Mars And Jupiter, Though A Few Of Them Transgress These Limits. The Existence Of A Planet Between Mars And Jupiter Was ...

Minorca
Minorca (menorca), The Second In Size Of The Group Of Spanish Islands In The Mediterranean Sea, Known As The Balearic Islands (q.v.), 27 M. E.n.e. Of Majorca. Pop. (193o), 39,209; Area, 26o Sq.m. The Coast Is Deeply Indented, Especially On The North, With Numerous Creeks And Bays—that Of Port Mahon ...

Minorities
Minorities, The Protection Of Racial, Linguistic And Re Ligious Minorities In The Sphere Of International Law. Such Pro Tection Is Not An Innovation Introduced By The Treaties Concluded At The End Of The World War. Diplomatic History Affords Several Examples Of Treaties Containing Special Clauses Which Aim At Pro Viding ...

Minot
Minot, A City Of North Dakota, U.s.a., In The Valley Of The Mouse River, 236 M. W. By N. Of Grand Forks; The County Seat Of Ward County. It Is On Federal Highway 2 And The Main Lines Of The Great Northern And The Soo Line Railways. Pop. (1920) 10,476 ...

Minsk
Minsk, The Capital Of The White Russian S.s.r., On The Svis Loch River, A Non-navigable Tributary Of The Berezina, In 54' N., 27° 33' E., At The Intersection Of The Moscow-warsaw And Libau-kharkov Railways. Pop. (1926) 123,613. It Was The Head Quarters Of The Iv. Army Corps Under The Tsarist ...

Minstrel
Minstrel. The Word "minstrel," Derived From The Latin Minister, A Servant, Was Used After The 13th Century To Signify A Household Entertainer, Its Earlier Equivalent Being "jogelour" (fr. Jongleur). Still Earlier The Same Part Was Played By The Teu Tonic Gleeman Or Stop. In The Anglo-saxon Poem That Bears His ...

Mint
Mint, Botanically Mentha, A Genus Of Plants Of The Family Labiatae, Comprising About 25 Species Of Perennial Herbs, Widely Distributed Throughout The Temperate And Sub-tropical Portions Of The Globe, But Chiefly In The Temperate Regions Of The Old World. The Species Have Square Stems, Opposite, Aromatic Leaves, And A Stoloniferous ...

Mint
Mint. A Place Where Coins Are Manufactured, Usually With The Authority Of The State. According To Herodotus, The First Mint Was Probably That Estab Lished By Gyges In Lydia Towards The End Of The 8th Century B.c. For The Coining Of Gold, Silver And Electrum, An Alloy Of Gold And ...

Mint Price Of Gold
Mint Price Of Gold. In Any Form Of Metallic Cur Rency It Is Essential That The Law Should Lay Down The Weight Of Metal That Each Coin Should Contain, As Otherwise Uniformity Would Be Lost, And The Currency Would Have No Fixed Value And Purchasing Power And Would Cease To ...

Miocene
Miocene, In Geology, The System Of Strata Which Occurs Between The Oligocene And The Pliocene And Thus Forms The Lower Of The Two Divisions Of The Neogene Or Newer Tertiary Period. The Term Is Derived From The Greek Yetop, Less, And Katvos, Recent, And Was Introduced By Sir Charles Lyell. ...

Miracle
Miracle, Anything Wonderful, Beyond Human Power, And Deviating From The Common Action Of Nature, A Supernatural Event. The Term Is Particularly Associated With The Supernatural Factors In Christianity. To The Lat. Miraculum Correspond Gr. 7ipas In The New Testament, And Heb. X C (exod. Xv. I I ; Dan. Xii. ...

Mirage
Mirage, An Optical Illusion Due To Progressive Variations In The Refractive Indices Of Adjacent Layers Of The Atmosphere. It Embraces The Phenomena Of The Visionary Appearance Of Sheets Of Water In Arid Deserts, The Images Of Ships And Icebergs In The Atmosphere Of The Polar Regions, The Fata Morgana, And ...

Mirkhond 1433 1498
Mirkhond (1433-1498) [mohammed Bin Khawandshah Bin Hahmfid] Was Born In 1433. From His Early Youth He Applied Himself To Historical Studies And Literature In General. In Herat, Where He Spent The Greater Part Of His Life, He Gained The Favour Of That Famous Patron Of Letters, Mir `alishir (1440-15o1). At ...

Mirror
Mirror, An Optical Instrument Which Produces Images Of Objects By Reflection. In Ancient Times It Was Merely A Polished Sheet Of Metal, And Was Called A Speculum; In Modern Times A Mirror Is A Sheet Of Polished Glass Silvered At The Back. If An Object Cd (fig. I) Is Placed ...

Misdemeanour
Misdemeanour, The Generic Term Used In English Law To Include All Those Offences Against The Criminal Law Which Are Not By Common Law Or Statute Made Treason Or Felony. In Russell On Crimes It Is Defined As A Crime For Which The Law Has Not Provided A Particular Name. The ...

Missal
Missal, The Book Containing The Liturgy, Or Office Of The Mass (missa), Of The Roman Catholic Church. The Earlier Sacramen Tary, The Book Used By The Celebrant At The Altar, Contained Merely The Fixed Canon Of The Mass Or Consecration Prayer And The Variable Collects, Secretae Or Orationes Super Oblata, ...

Missi Dominici
Missi Dominici, The Name Given To The Officials Commis Sioned By The Frankish Kings And Emperors To Supervise The Ad Ministration Of Their Dominions. Their Institution Dates From Charles Martel And Pippin The Short, Who Sent Out Officials To See Their Orders Executed. When Pippin Became King In 754 He ...

Missions
Missions, Is The Term Used To Denote Organized Efforts For The Spread Of A Religion, Those Who Carry Out The Work Being Known As Missionaries. Both "missions" And "missionaries" Have Hence Come To Be Used Of Similar Propagandist Work In Other Spheres (e.g., "a Missionary Of Peace"). Not Only Christianity, ...

Mississippi
Mississippi (mis-i-sip'i), The "magnolia State," A South Central State Of The U.s.a., Situated Between 30° 13' And 35° N. Lat. And 88° 7' And 91° 41' Longitude W. Of Greenwich. The State Is Bounded N. By Tennessee, E. By Alabama, S. By The Gulf Of Mexico And Louisiana, And W. ...

Mississippi River
Mississippi River (algonquin, Missi Sipi, Or "great River"), The Central Trunk Of The Great River System Draining That Part Of The United States Which Lies Between The Appalachian Mountains On The East And The Rocky Mountains On The West. Together With Over 4o Tributaries Which Are Navigable For At Least ...

Missoula
Missoula, A City Of Western Montana, U.s.a., On The Clark Fork Of The Columbia River, At The Mouth Of The Bitter Root; The County Seat Of Missoula County, The Seat Of The State University, And The Metropolis Of The Western Part Of The State. It Is On Federal Highways Jo ...

Missouri
Missouri, Popularly Known As The "show Me" State, Occu Pies A Central Position In A Group Of 17 States Which Comprise The Great Agricultural Plain Of The Mississippi Valley. It Is Situ Ated About Goo And 1,600 M. Respectively From The Atlantic And Pacific Coasts And Approximately Midway Between Canada ...

Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise, An Agreement (1820) Between The Pro-slavery And Anti-slavery Factions In The United States, Involving Primarily The Regulation Of Slavery In The Public Terri Tories. A Bill To Enable The People Of Missouri To Form A State Government, Preliminary To Admission Into The Union, Came Before The House Of ...

Missouri River
Missouri River, The Principal Western Tributary Of The Mississippi River, U.s.a. It Is Formed At Three Forks, In The Rocky Mountain Region Of South-western Montana, By The Con Fluence Of The Jefferson, Madison And Gallatin, Thence It Flows North Into The Plains, Which It Traverses In A Course At First ...