MONTEREY, a city of Monterey county, California, U.S.A., 90 m. S. by E. of San Francisco, at the south-east extremity of Monterey bay, a deep indentation of the coast, 22 m. across from headland to headland and 1 o m. wide. It is served by the Southern Pacific railway and (for freight) by coastwise steamship lines other communities on the peninsula. The Presidio of Monterey, is the centre of many historic associations, and since 1881, when the Southern Pacific company built the Del Monte hotel (in the midst of beautiful and extensive grounds, a mile or so to the east), the city, and the rest of the peninsula, have been one of the favourite year-round resorts of the coast. Rocky shores crowned with ancient twisted cypresses and pines, ocean and bays on three sides and sloping tree-clad hills, provide great natural beauty, and the climate is mild and equable, rarely reaching a temperature below freezing or above 8o F. Many artists and writers have their homes here, and at Carmel-by-the-Sea, Pacific Grove, and the other communities on the peninsula. The Presidio of Monterey, partly within the city limits, is an important U.S. army post. The waters of Monterey bay have a great variety and abundance of fish. A fleet of over zoo small boats is engaged in the fishing in dustry, and there are sardine canneries in the city. The sardine catch in 1927 was 173,881,177 pounds. The commerce of the harbour (381,374 tons in 1925, valued at $19,747,214) is increas ing. A municipal wharf was built in 1925. Since 1925 the city has had commission-manager government. Pop. 1930, 9,141.
Bay was discovered by Viscaino in 1602 and named after the then viceroy of New Spain, and in May 177o, it was rediscovered by Father Junipero Serra and Capt. Gaspar de
Portola. The Franciscan mission of San Carlos was founded here on June 3, 1770. It was moved almost immediately to Carmel valley, where Father Junipero built the church in which his re mains now rest. A presidio was completed in 1778. Until the coming of the Americans Monterey was the gayest and most am bitious city of California, the principal military, commercial and financial centre. In 1818 it was captured and held briefly by a Buenos Aires privateer. It played an important part in the jeal ousies that divided the northern and the southern settlements.
Except for a short time (1845-47) it was the capital of California until the constitution of the new State was adopted in 1849. It was the county seat until 1872. After the discovery of gold its im portance declined and San Francisco took the leading place. The flag of the United States was raised over Monterey for a day in 1842, and again, permanently, on July 7, 1846. The first American newspaper on the coast was published here, and here (in Colton hall in Sept. 1849) met the convention which framed the first Con stitution of the State. Colton hall is now used as the city-hall. The first theatre in California, the first brick house and the first house of planed lumber, were built here, and are still standing, as is also the old custom house, which has flown the flags of Spain, Mexico and the United States.