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Monghyr
Monghyr, A Town And District Of British India, In The Bhagalpur Division Of Behar And Orissa. The Town Is On The Right Bank Of The Ganges, And Has A Railway Station. Pop. (1931) 52,863. Monghyr, Which Appears Under The Form Of Mudgagiri In An Inscription Of The 9th Century A.d., ...

Mongol Campaigns
Mongol Campaigns. This Article Deals With The Military Methods Of The Mongols During Their Great Period Of Conquest, And Illustrates It By An Outline Of The Chief Campaigns In That Brief But Unparalleled Span Of 3o Years Wherein They Overran The Asiatic And European Continents From The Yellow Sea To ...

Mongolia
Mongolia, The Name Given To A Vast Tableland In Central Asia, The Traditional Home-country Of The Mongol Peoples And Formerly A Definite "dependency" Of The Chinese Empire, But Now Divided Into Two Very Distinct Cultural And Political Entities, Inner Mongolia, Which Is Becoming Absorbed Into China, And Outer Mongolia, A ...

Mongolian Language And Literature
Mongolian Language And Literature. The Mongolian Language, With Turki-tatar And Tungus-manchu, Belongs To The Altaic Family Of Languages. It Has, Roughly, Three Dialects : East Mongolian (khalkha), West Mongolian (kalmuk), And Buriatic, Which Differ But Slightly. The Literary Language Is Written Vertically Downwards, The Lines Following From Left To Right. ...

Mongols
Mongols, The Name Of One Of The Chief Ethnographical Divisions Of The Asiatic Peoples (see Also Turks). The Early History Of The Mongols, Like That Of All Central-asian Tribes, Is Extremely Obscure. Even The Meaning Of The Name "mongol" Is A Disputed Point, Though A General Consent Is Now Given ...

Monism
Monism, In Philosophy, Generally Denotes Any Ontological Theory According To Which All That Exists Is In Some Sense One (gr. Yovos, One). The Term Monism Was First Introduced By The Ger Man Philosopher C. Wolff (1679-1754), But Came Into Vogue Chiefly Through The Influence Of Haeckel And Ostwald, The Leaders ...

Monitor Naval
Monitor: Naval, A Shallow Draught Warship Mount Ing One Or Two Very Large Guns And Specially Designed For Bombarding. Credit For The Idea Of A Vessel Of This Type May Perhaps Be Given To Captain Cowper Coles Who, In 1855, During The Crimean War, Mounted A 32 Pounder On A ...

Monitoring Receiver
Monitoring Receiver Is A Receiver So Arranged As To Enable An Operator To Check The Operation Of A Radio Trans Mitting Set. Caution, However, Induced Him To Wait Until The Next Post From England, And The Next Post Brought News Of Booth's Defeat. When Fleetwood And Lambert Declared Against The ...

Monmouth
Monmouth (welsh Mynwy), Municipal Borough, And County Town Of Monmouthshire, England, 18 M. S. Of Hereford, On The G.w. Railway. Pop. It Is Situated At The Confluence Of The Wye And The Monnow And Is Almost Surrounded By Hills. Monmouth (monemuta) Was Possibly A " Fort From Roman Times. Situated ...

Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire, A Western Border County Of England, Bounded East By Gloucestershire, North-east By Herefordshire North-west By Brecknock, West And South-west By Glamorgan Shire (wales), And South By The Estuary Of The River Severn. The County Falls Into Two Natural Regions :—the Basin Of The Usk (after That River Emerges From ...

Monogenists
Monogenists, The Term Applied To Those Anthropologists Who Claim That All Mankind Is Descended From One Original Stock (ploos, Single, And 7b,os, Race), And Even From A Single Pair; While Polygenists (iroxbs, Many) Contend For A Multiple Ancestry. Aristotle And Vitruvius Saw In Climate And Environment The Natural Cause Of ...

Monogram
Monogram, Originally A Cipher Consisting Of A Single Letter, Now A Design Or Mark Consisting Of Two Or More Letters Intertwined Together. The Letters Thus Interlaced May Be Either All The Letters Of A Name Or The Initial Letters Of The Christian And Surnames Of A Person For Use Upon ...

Monomotapa
Monomotapa. In Old Maps Of South-east Africa, De Rived Originally From Portuguese And From Dutch Sources, An Extensive Region On The Cuama Or Zambezi And To The South Of It Is Styled Regnum Monomotapae. The Precise Character Of The Kingdom Has Been The Subject Of Much Discussion, And Some Mod ...

Monophysites
Monophysites, The Name Given To Those Who Hold The Doctrine That Christ Had But One Composite Nature (4)irts) And Especially To Those Who Maintained This Position In The Great Controversies Of The 5th And 6th Centuries. The Synod Of Chal Cedon (q.v.) In 451, Following The Lines Of Pope Leo ...

Monopoly
Monopoly. The Term Monopoly, In Its Early Usage, Was Applied To Grants From The Crown, To A Favourite Or As A Reward For Good Service, Of The Exclusive Right To Manufacture Or Sell Particular Classes Of Goods. Not Until The Reign Of Henry Viii. Does Much Evidence Appear Of These ...

Monorails And Telphers
Monorails And Telphers. Machines Of The Type Usually Known As Monorails Are Installations Which Handle Rela Tively Light Loads, I.e., From R Cwt. To I Ton Net, Such A Device Is Shown In Fig. 1. The Trolley Can Be Combined With A Lifting Block Which May Be Manually, Mechanically Or ...

Monothelites
Monothelites, In Church History, The Name Given To Those Who, In The 7th Century, While Otherwise Orthodox, Main Tained That Christ Had Only One Will. Their Theory Was An Attempt To Effect Some Kind Of Solution Of The Vital Unity Of Christ's Per Son On The Basis Of The Now ...

Monotremata
Monotremata, The Lowest Existing Order Of Mammals, Including The Duck-billed Platypus Of Australia And The Echidnas Or Spiny Anteaters Of Australia And New Guinea. Unlike All Other Existing Mammals, These Animals Lay Eggs ; Their Right And Left Ovi Ducts Remain Separate, Not Uniting To Form A Median Uterus, And ...

Monreale
Monreale (monte-reale, From A Palace Built By Roger I.), A Town, Sicily, Province Of Palermo, 5m. Inland From The City, On The Slope Of Monte Caputo, Overlooking The Valley "la Conca D'oro" (the Golden Shell), Famed For Its Orange, Olive And Almond Trees. Pop. (1931), 14,119 (town) ; 18,618 (commune). ...

Monroes Message
Monroe's Message This Was The Situation When, In Aug. 1823, George Canning, British Foreign Secretary, Wrote To Richard Rush, American Min Ister In London, Suggesting A Joint Declaration In Substance That The Recovery Of The Colonies By Spain Was Hopeless ; That Neither Great Britain Nor The United States Was ...

Mons
Mons, The Capital Of Hainaut Province, Belgium. Pop. (193o) 27,619. The Town Originated Probably In The Roman Citadel Château-cesar. About 804 Charlemagne Recognized It As The Capital Of Hainaut. At First The Counts Occupied The Castle Of Hornu, Leaving Mons To The Abbey And The Church Of St. Waudru. Regnier ...

Monsoon
Monsoon, Originally The Name Given By The Arabs To Those Seasonal Winds Of The Arabian Sea Which Blow For Approximately Six Months From The North-east And Six Months From The South West. The Name (arabic Mausim Or Mawsim, Season), Has Been Less Correctly Extended To Seasonal Winds In Other Parts ...

Monstrosities In A Single
Monstrosities In A Single Body The Abnormality May Extend To The Body Throughout, As In Well Proportioned Giants And Dwarfs; Or It May Affect A Certain Region Or Member, As When There Is A Finger Or Toe Too Many Or Too Few. It Is Common For One Malformation To Be ...

Mont St Michel Le
Mont St. Michel (le), A Rocky Islet Of France, Off The Coast Of The Department Of La Manche, Some 6 M. N. Of Pontor Son. Pop. (1931) 195. It Forms A Mass Of Granite About 3,00o Ft. In Circumference And 165 Ft. In Height, Rising Near The Mouth Of The ...

Montagu
Montagu (family). Dru Of Montaigu Or Montagud, The Ancestor Of The Montagus, Earls Of Salisbury, Came To England With Robert, Count Of Mortain, Half-brother Of William The Con Queror. He Is Found In Domesday Among The Chief Tenants Of The Count In Somerset, Holding The Manor Of Shepton. This Holding ...

Montana
Montana, The "treasure State," Is Situated In The North Western Part Of The United States Of America Between Lat. 44° 26' And 49° N. And Long. 204° And 116° W. Of Greenwich. It Is Bounded North By The Canadian Provinces Of British Columbia, Alberta And Saskatchewan; East By North Dakota ...

Montanism
Montanism, A Somewhat Misleading Name For The Move Ment In The 2nd Century Which, Along With Gnosticism, Occupied The Most Critical Period In The History Of The Early Church. It Was The Overthrow Of Gnosticism And Montanism That Made The "catholic" Church. In This Article An Account Will Be Given ...

Montauban
Montauban, A Town Of South-western France, Capital Of Tarn-et-garonne, 31 M. N. Of Toulouse By The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931) 18,549. The Town Stands On The Right Bank Of The Tarn At Its Confluence With The Tescou. With The Exception Of Mont-de-marsan, Montauban Is The Oldest Of The Bastides Of ...

Montbeliard
Montbeliard, A Town Of Eastern France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Doubs, 49 M. N.e. Of Besancon On The P.l.m. Line Between That Town And Belfort. Pop. (1931), 12,089. Montbeliard Stands At The Confluence Of The Luzine And The Allaine. Forts On Outlying Hills Connect It With ...

Montclair
Montclair, A Town Of Essex County, New Jersey, U.s.a., About 15 M. N.w. Of Lower New York City, On The Erie And The Lackawanna Railways. The Population Was 28,810 In 1920 (i8% Foreign-born White) ; In 1930, 42,057. It Is A Delightful Resi Dential Suburb, On The Slopes Of The ...

Montenegro
Montenegro, The Black Mountain, Formerly A Country Of South-eastern Europe, Its Name Being The Venetian Variant Of The Italian Monte Nero. It Extended Between 45° 55' And 43° 2i' N. Lat., And Between 18° 3o' And 2o° E. Long., With A Seaboard Of 28 M. On The Adriatic Sea. It ...

Monterey
Monterey, A City Of Monterey County, California, U.s.a., 90 M. S. By E. Of San Francisco, At The South-east Extremity Of Monterey Bay, A Deep Indentation Of The Coast, 22 M. Across From Headland To Headland And 1 O M. Wide. It Is Served By The Southern Pacific Railway And ...

Monterrey
Monterrey, Capital Of Nuevo Leon, On The Santa Cata Lina River, 45 M. N.e. Of Saltillo, Mexico. At This Strongly Fortified City, On Sept. 19-24, 1846, Occurred One Of The Hardest Fought Battles Of The War Between Mexico And The United States (1846-48). Some 10,000 Mexicans Under Gen. Ampudia Gar ...

Montessori System
Montessori System. The Montessori Method Is A System Of Education Originated By Dr. Maria Montessori, An Italian Doctor Of The University Of Rome. Her First Book, The Montessori Method, Was Published In 1912. It Described Experi Ments Made With Little Children (ages 3 To 6) In The Slum Quarters Of ...

Montevideo
Montevideo, Capital And Chief Port Of Uruguay, And Capital Of The Department Of Montevideo, On The Northern Shore Of The Rio De La Plata Estuary, 120 M. E.s.e. Of Buenos Aires, In Lat. 54' 33" S., Long. 56° 12' 18" W. Pop. (1932) 489,685. The Old Section Of The City ...

Montgomery
Montgomery, The Capital City Of Alabama, U.s.a., And The County Seat Of Montgomery County; At The Head Of Navigation On The Alabama River, S.e. Of The Centre Of The State. It Is On Federal Highways 31, 231 And 8o; And Is Served By The Atlantic Coast Line, The Central Of ...

Montgomeryshire
Montgomeryshire (welsh Sir Drefaldwyn), A County Of Wales, Bounded N. By Denbigh, N.e. And E. By Shropshire, S. By Radnor And Cardigan, W. And N.w. By Merioneth. Its Length From S.e. To N.w. Is About 3o M., And From N.e. To S.w. About 35 M. The County Occupies, In General, ...

Montluc
Montluc (or Monluc), Blaise De Lassaran Massencome, Seigneur De (c. 1502-1577), Marshal Of France, Was Born At Condom (gers). He Served First As A Private Archer And Man-at-arms In Italy, With Bayard For His Captain, Fought All Through The Wars Of Francis I., And Was Knighted On The Field Of ...

Montpelier
Montpelier, The Capital City Of Vermont, U.s.a., And The County Seat Of Washington County; 4o M. E.s.e. Of Burling Ton, On The Winooski River, Federal Highway 2, And The Central Vermont And The Montpelier And Wells River Railways. The Population Was 7,125 In 192o And 7,837 In 1930. It Is ...

Montreal
Montreal, A City Of The Dominion Of Canada, Its Leading Seat Of Commerce And Principal Port Of Entry, As Well As The Centre Of Many Of Its Important Industries. It Is Situated On The South East Side Of The Island Of Montreal, At The Confluence Of The Ottawa And St. ...

Montrose
Montrose, Royal Burgh, Parish And Seaport, Forfarshire, Scotland. It Is 3o1 M. N.e. Of Dundee By The L.n.e. Railway And Is Also Connected With The L.m.s. Railway Company's System By A Branch To Dubton. Pop. (1931) 10,196. The Town Occupies A Sandy Peninsula, And Is Bounded By The North Sea, ...

Montserrat
Montserrat, A Mountain And Monastery In Spain, 3o M. N.w. Of Barcelona. The Mountain Is Of Grey Conglomerate; Its Main Axis Trends From West-north-west To East-south-east, And Its Circumference Is About 18 Miles. The Loftiest Point Is The Turo De San Jeronimo, Also Called Mirador And La Miranda (4,070 Ft.). ...

Monza
Monza (locally Monscia), City, Lombardy, Italy, In The Province Of Milan, By Rail, 8 M. N.n.e. Of Milan, With Which It Is Also Connected By Both Steam And Electric Trams. It Lies On The Lambro, A Tributary Of The Po, 532 Ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1931), 51,811 (town); 60,938 (commune). ...

Monzonite
Monzonite, The Group-name Of A Type Of Rocks Which Have Acquired It From Their Most Celebrated Occurrence, That Of Mon Zoni In Tirol. The Rocks Are Of Granitic Appearance, Usually Rather Dark Grey In Colour And Fine To Moderately Coarse Grained. The Special Characteristic Which Distinguishes Them From Granites And ...

Moon
Moon, In Astronomy, The Name Given To The Satellite Of Any Planet, Specifically To The Satellite Of The Earth (a Common Teu Tonic Word, Cf. Ger. Mond, Dut. Maan, Dan. Maane, Etc., And Cognate With Such Indo-germanic Forms As Gr. Ao, Skt. Mas, Irish Ml, Etc. ; Lat. Uses Luna, ...

Moons Surface
Moon's Surface The Surface Of The Moon Has Been A Subject Of Careful And Continuous Telescopic Study From The Time Of Galileo. The Early Observers Seem To Have Been Under The Impression That The Dark Regions Might Be Oceans; But This Impression Must Have Been Cor Rected As Soon As ...

Moraceae
Moraceae, In Botany, A Family Of Dicotyledons, Belonging To The Series Urticales, To Which Belongs Also The Nettle Family (urticaceae, Q.v.). It Contains About 55 Genera With About Boo Species, Mostly Trees Or Shrubs, Widely Distributed In The Warmer Parts Of The Earth. The Largest Genus, Ficus (the Fig. Q.v.), ...

Moravia
Moravia, Province Of The Former Republic Of Czecho Slovakia, Since 1939 Under A German Protectorate, Is An Area Of 8,616 Sq.m. It Is A Large Basin, Drained By The Morava And Its Tributaries And By The Upper Oder. North And West Of A Line From Znojmo Through Brno To The ...

Moravian Brethren Or Moravian
Moravian Brethren Or Moravian Church, A Christian Communion Founded In The East Of Bohemia. For Some Years After The Death Of John Huss (1415), The Majority Of His Followers Were Split Into Two Contending Factions. Some Were Pacified By Concessions, And Were Recognized By The Pope As The National Church ...

Moray Or Elginshire
Moray Or Elginshire (gaelic "among The Sea-board Men"), Northern County, Scotland, Bounded North By The Moray Firth, East And South-east By Banffshire, South And South-west By Inverness And West By Nairnshire. It Comprises Only The Eastern Portion Of The Ancient Province Of Moray, Which Extended From The Spey To The ...