MOULDING in architecture and the decorative arts, a varia tion and modelling of a surface in a band, approximately continu ous, whose profile or section is either always the same, or whose changes are rhythmically repeated. Mouldings are usually classi fied and named according to their profiles, in three general classes —flat or angular, single curved and compound.
Single Curved The cavetto: A hollow moulding whose section approximates a quarter circle, quarter ellipse, or similar curve, with its top and bottom tangent or nearly tangent to horizontal and vertical lines, respectively. (2) Scotia: A somewhat similar hollow moulding, whose section is more than a quarter circle or quarter ellipse, so that portions of it recede beyond the general face decorated, forming, thus, a sort of groove. (3) Flute: A small groove of either semi-circular, semi-elliptical, or segmental section. (4) Ovolo: A convex moulding, whose pro file approximates a quarter circle or quarter ellipse. (5) Torus: A convex moulding whose profile approximates a semi-circle, or semi-ellipse. (6) Roll moulding, or bowtell: A convex moulding, whose profile approximates three quarters of a circle, generally used to decorate a projecting edge. (7) Astragal: A small torus, sometimes with fillet attached below. (8) Apophyge: A small cavetto, occurring at the top or bottom of a column, baluster, vase or similar form.
recta, can be used either as a cap or base moulding. (3) The bird's beak or thumb moulding: A moulding with the lower part concave, ana tne upper, more projecting part, convex. inc two curves, however, do not merge into each other as in the cyma reversa, but intersect in a sharp edge. (4) Keel-moulding: A pro jecting moulding, consisting of a roll moulding or bowtell, with a small fillet attached at its most projecting point.
Decorations.—Mouldings may also be classified according to whether the surface is entirely continuous or undecorated, or whether it is carved. In classic art, decorations almost standard have been developed for various types of mouldings ; these decora tions, in all cases, are such as to emphasize the general shape or profile of the moulding, and so to emphasize its contour. In gen eral, they are based on carving upon the surface of the moulding ornaments whose basic elements are, in elevation, or front view, curves similar to those of the profile of the moulding. These standard decorations are as follows : (r) For the ovolo, the egg and dart; in which egg-shaped solids, with semi-elliptical, projecting frames alternate with long, narrow dart or arrow shapes. The points of greatest projection of the egg, the dart or arrow, and of the frame are all on the surface of the ovolo. (2) For the torus, wreath forms; in which many parallel leaves circle the moulding, or bands of guilloche (q.v.), in which small bands are represented as interlacing and winding around circular buttons. (3) For the astragal, the bead and reel (see BEAD-MOULDING) ; in which long, narrow, oval beads alternate with short reel or wheel-shaped forms. (4) For the cyma recta, either successions of anthemion (q.v.), lotus and honeysuckle forms, or else successions of acan thus leaves, either close together or connected by, S-serolls. (5) For the cyma reversa, the water leaf or Lesbian leaf, which exists in two forms, simple and complex. In the simpler forms this consists of a generally heart-shaped leaf, with a deeply marked mid-rib, and usually a raised frame, alternating either with a dart shape, or a smaller and simpler leaf. In the more complex forms, used by the Romans for large mouldings, the decoration consists of a frame similar in shape to the frame of the simpler leaf.